Owing to their tremendous potential, the inference of nano-scaled materials has revolutionized many fields including the medicine and health, particularly for development of various types of targeted drug delivery devices for early prognosis and successful treatment of various diseases, including the brain disorders. Owing to their unique characteristic features, a variety of nanomaterials (particularly, ultra-fine particles (UFPs) have shown tremendous success in achieving the prognostic and therapeutic goals for early prognosis and treatment of various brain maladies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, brain lymphomas, and other ailments. However, serious attention is needful due to innumerable after-effects of the nanomaterials. Despite their immense contribution in optimizing the prognostic and therapeutic modalities, biological interaction of nanomaterials with various body tissues may produce severe nanotoxicity of different organs including the heart, liver, kidney, lungs, immune system, gastro-intestinal system, skin as well as nervous system. However, in this review, we have primarily focused on nanomaterials-induced neurotoxicity of the brain. Following their translocation into different regions of the brain, nanomaterials may induce neurotoxicity through multiple mechanisms including the oxidative stress, DNA damage, lysosomal dysfunction, inflammatory cascade, apoptosis, genotoxicity, and ultimately necrosis of neuronal cells. Our findings indicated that rigorous toxicological evaluations must be carried out prior to clinical translation of nanomaterials-based formulations to avoid serious neurotoxic complications, which may further lead to develop various neuro-degenerative disorders.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.