Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 827 in total

  1. A Abdullah A, Abdullah R, A Nazariah Z, N Balakrishnan K, Firdaus J Abdullah F, A Bala J, et al.
    Antivir. Chem. Chemother., 2018 11 20;26:2040206618811413.
    PMID: 30449131 DOI: 10.1177/2040206618811413
    BACKGROUND: Viruses are obligate parasites that depend on the cellular machinery of the host to regenerate and manufacture their proteins. Most antiviral drugs on the market today target viral proteins. However, the more recent strategies involve targeting the host cell proteins or pathways that mediate viral replication. This new approach would be effective for most viruses while minimizing drug resistance and toxicity.

    METHODS: Cytomegalovirus replication, latency, and immune response are mediated by the intermediate early protein 2, the main protein that determines the effectiveness of drugs in cytomegalovirus inhibition. This review explains how intermediate early protein 2 can modify the action of cyclosporin A, an immunosuppressive, and antiviral drug. It also links all the pathways mediated by cyclosporin A, cytomegalovirus replication, and its encoded proteins.

    RESULTS: Intermediate early protein 2 can influence the cellular cyclophilin A pathway, affecting cyclosporin A as a mediator of viral replication or anti-cytomegalovirus drug.

    CONCLUSION: Cyclosporin A has a dual function in cytomegalovirus pathogenesis. It has the immunosuppressive effect that establishes virus replication through the inhibition of T-cell function. It also has an anti-cytomegalovirus effect mediated by intermediate early protein 2. Both of these functions involve cyclophilin A pathway.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  2. Aan GJ, Zainudin MS, Karim NA, Ngah WZ
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013 May;68(5):599-604.
    PMID: 23778402 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2013(05)04
    This study was performed to determine the effect of the tocotrienol-rich fraction on the lifespan and oxidative status of C. elegans under oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  3. Abd Rahman AN, Tett SE, Abdul Gafor HA, McWhinney BC, Staatz CE
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2015 Nov;80(5):1064-75.
    PMID: 25959850 DOI: 10.1111/bcp.12678
    AIMS: The aim was to examine relationships between total and unbound mycophenolic acid (MPA) and prednisolone exposure and clinical outcomes in patients with lupus nephritis.
    METHODS: Six blood samples were drawn pre- and at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h post-dose and total and unbound MPA and prednisolone pre-dose (C0 ), maximum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were determined using non-compartmental analysis in 25 patients. The analyses evaluated drug exposures in relation to treatment response since starting MPA and drug-related adverse events.
    RESULTS: Dose-normalized AUC varied 10-, 8-, 7- and 19-fold for total MPA, unbound MPA, total prednisolone and unbound prednisolone, respectively. Median values (95% CI) of total MPA AUC(0,8 h) (21.5 [15.0, 42.0] vs. 11.2 [4.8, 30.0] mg l(-1) h, P= 0.048) and Cmax (11.9 [6.7, 26.3] vs. 6.1 [1.6, 9.2] mg l(-1) , P = 0.016) were significantly higher in responders than non-responders. Anaemia was significantly associated with higher total (37.8 [14.1, 77.5] vs. 18.5 [11.7, 32.7] mg l(-1) h, P = 0.038) and unbound MPA AUC(0,12 h) (751 [214, 830] vs. 227 [151, 389] mg l(-1) h, P = 0.004). Unbound prednisolone AUC(0,24 h) was significantly higher in patients with Cushingoid appearance (unbound: 1372 [1242, 1774] vs. 846 [528, 1049] nmol l(-1) h, P = 0.019) than in those without. Poorer treatment response was observed in patients with lowest tertile exposure to both total MPA and prednisolone as compared with patients with middle and higher tertile exposure (17% vs. 74%, P = 0.023).
    CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a potential role for therapeutic drug monitoring in individualizing immunosuppressant therapy in patients with lupus nephritis.
    KEYWORDS: lupus nephritis; mycophenolic acid; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; prednisolone; treatment outcome
    Study site: Nephrology and SLE Clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  4. Abdelgawad MA, Bakr RB, Ahmad W, Al-Sanea MM, Elshemy HAH
    Bioorg Chem, 2019 11;92:103218.
    PMID: 31536956 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103218
    To enhance the cytotoxicity of benzimidazole and/or benzoxazole core, the benzimidazole/benzoxazole azo-pyrimidine were synthesized through diazo-coupling of 3-aminophenybenzimidazole (6a) or 3-aminophenylbenzoxazole (6b) with diethyl malonate. The new azo-molanates 6a&b mixed with urea in sodium ethoxide to afford the benzimidazolo/benzoxazolopyrimidine 7a&b. The structure elucidation of new synthesized targets was proved using spectroscopic techniques NMR, IR and elemental analysis. The cytoxicity screening had been carried out against five cancer cell lines: prostate cancer (PC-3), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), pancreas cancer (PaCa-2) and colon cancer (HT-29). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity, phospholipase A2-V and cyclooxygenases inhibitory activities of the target compounds 7a&b were evaluated and the new compounds showed potent activity (cytotoxicity IC50 range from 4.3 to 9.2 µm, antioxidant activity from 40% to 80%, COXs or LOX inhibitory activity from 1.92 µM to 8.21 µM). The docking of 7a&b was made to confirm the mechanism of action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  5. Abdul Ahmad SA, Palanisamy UD, Tejo BA, Chew MF, Tham HW, Syed Hassan S
    Virol J, 2017 11 21;14(1):229.
    PMID: 29162124 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-017-0895-1
    BACKGROUND: The rapid rise and spread in dengue cases, together with the unavailability of safe vaccines and effective antiviral drugs, warrant the need to discover and develop novel anti-dengue treatments. In this study the antiviral activity of geraniin, extracted from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum, against dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) was investigated.

    METHODS: Geraniin was prepared from Nephelium lappaceum rind by reverse phase C-18 column chromatography. Cytotoxicity of geraniin towards Vero cells was evaluated using MTT assay while IC50 value was determined by plaque reduction assay. The mode-of-action of geraniin was characterized using the virucidal, attachment, penetration and the time-of-addition assays'. Docking experiments with geraniin molecule and the DENV envelope (E) protein was also performed. Finally, recombinant E Domain III (rE-DIII) protein was produced to physiologically test the binding of geraniin to DENV-2 E-DIII protein, through ELISA competitive binding assay.

    RESULTS: Cytotoxicity assay confirmed that geraniin was not toxic to Vero cells, even at the highest concentration tested. The compound exhibited DENV-2 plaque formation inhibition, with an IC50 of 1.75 μM. We further revealed that geraniin reduced viral infectivity and inhibited DENV-2 from attaching to the cells but had little effect on its penetration. Geraniin was observed to be most effective when added at the early stage of DENV-2 infection. Docking experiments showed that geraniin binds to DENV E protein, specifically at the DIII region, while the ELISA competitive binding assay confirmed geraniin's interaction with rE-DIII with high affinity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Geraniin from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum has antiviral activity against DENV-2. It is postulated that the compound inhibits viral attachment by binding to the E-DIII protein and interferes with the initial cell-virus interaction. Our results demonstrate that geraniin has the potential to be developed into an effective antiviral treatment, particularly for early phase dengue viral infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  6. Abdul Rahim AS, Salhimi SM, Arumugam N, Pin LC, Yee NS, Muttiah NN, et al.
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem, 2013 Dec;28(6):1255-60.
    PMID: 23061895 DOI: 10.3109/14756366.2012.729828
    A new series of N-sec/tert-butyl 2-arylbenzimidazole derivatives was synthesised in 85-96% yields within 2-3.5 min by condensing ethyl 3-amino-4-butylamino benzoate with various substituted metabisulfite adducts of benzaldehyde under focused microwave irradiation. The benzimidazole analogues were characterised using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, high resolution MS and melting points. Evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the benzimidazole analogues against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 revealed several compounds with unexpected selective inhibitions of MDA-MB-231 in micromolar range. All analogues were found inactive towards MCF-7. The most potent inhibition against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line came from the unsubstituted 2-phenylbenzimidazole 10a.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  7. Abdul Sattar M, Abdullah NA, Khan MA, Dewa A, Samshia D
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2007 Mar 01;10(5):763-7.
    PMID: 19069860
    Traditionally Plumbago rosea L. is used as an abortifacient in the Southeast Asian region. Methanolic root extract of a local species of Plumbago rosea L. was studied to evaluate its traditional antifertility claim. Interestingly, it was found to possess dose related inhibitory effect on uterine contractile responses elicited by oxytocic agents on isolated uteri of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant rats. Furthermore, it was found to possess significant (p < 0.05) fetotoxic activity along with mild abortive potential in pregnant mice when given orally at high doses (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)) once daily for ten days starting from day 10 of gestation. The results derived indicated possible presence of utero-active compound (s) in this plant that inhibited oxytocic agents induced uterine motility. Moreover, pronounced fetotoxic and mild abortifacient potentials observed at higher doses in pregnant mice might support its accredited traditional use to avoid unwanted pregnancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  8. Abdul Wahab SM, Sivasothy Y, Liew SY, Litaudon M, Mohamad J, Awang K
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2016 08 01;26(15):3785-92.
    PMID: 27236720 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.05.046
    A new acylphenol, malabaricone E (1) together with the known malabaricones A-C (2-4), maingayones A and B (5 and 6) and maingayic acid B (7) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruits of Myristica cinnamomea King. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Compounds 3 (1.84±0.19 and 1.76±0.21μM, respectively) and 4 (1.94±0.27 and 2.80±0.49μM, respectively) were identified as dual inhibitors, with almost equal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibiting potentials. The Lineweaver-Burk plots of compounds 3 and 4 indicated that they were mixed-mode inhibitors. Based on the molecular docking studies, compounds 3 and 4 interacted with the peripheral anionic site (PAS), the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole of the AChE. As for the BChE, while compound 3 interacted with the PAS, the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole, compound 4 only interacted with the catalytic triad and the oxyanion hole.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  9. Abdul-Majeed S, Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1579-90.
    PMID: 23848479
    Skeletal tissue undergoes continuous remodeling which makes it unique among other body tissues. Osteoporosis is a common bone metabolic disorder affecting both men and women. Osteoporosis and its complications mainly osteoporotic fractures, have a high impact on health and economy. Current approved medications are associated with numerous side effects, which limit their use. Identification of a new and safe therapy is mandatory. Statins, also known as HMGCoA reductase inhibitors, are frequently used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and for the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. Statins improved bone health status in intact and ovariectomised rodents following high clinically intolerable oral doses. However, this beneficial effect of statins could not be significantly demonstrated in humans. The reason behind this discrepancy might be due to the safety and bioavailability of the currently used oral statins. Vitamin E, especially the tocotrienols at the dose 60 mg/kg/day provided significant antiosteoporotic effects in different animal models of osteoporosis. The use of the aforementioned dose of tocotrienols was shown to be safe in both humans and animals. Enhancement of bone formation and reduction of bone resorption were achieved more effectively by a combination of tocotrienols and statins than by either treatment when supplemented separately at clinically tolerable doses. Therefore, the adverse effects associated with high statin doses might be avoided with the coadministration of tocotrienols. Moreover, the combination therapy strategy might be useful for patients who are at high risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular events and hypercholesterolaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  10. Abdulla MH, Sattar MA, Abdullah NA, Hye Khan MA, Anand Swarup KR, Johns EJ
    Eur J Nutr, 2011 Jun;50(4):251-60.
    PMID: 20882287 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-010-0133-8
    PURPOSE: Fructose feeding induces a moderate increase in blood pressure, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia. This study investigated the role of α(1B)-adrenoceptor subtype in the control of renal hemodynamic responses to exogenously administered angiotensin II (Ang II) and a set of adrenergic agonists in a model of high fructose-fed rats.
    METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 8 weeks with 20% fructose in drinking water (FFR). The renal cortical vasoconstriction to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine (ME) and Ang II in the presence and absence of chloroethylclonidine (CEC) (α(1B)-adrenoceptor antagonist) was determined. Data, mean ± SEM or SD were subjected to ANOVA with significance at p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  11. Abdulla MH, Sattar MA, Abdullah NA, Khan MA, Anand Swarup KR, Johns EJ
    Auton Autacoid Pharmacol, 2011 Jan-Apr;31(1-2):13-20.
    PMID: 21166975 DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-8673.2010.00461.x
    1 Interaction between renin-angiotensin (RAS) and sympathetic nervous systems (SNS) was investigated by examining the effect of cumulative blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic receptors in normal Sprague Dawley rats. 2 Rats were treated with losartan (10 mg/kg), carvedilol (5 mg/kg), or losartan plus carvedilol (10+5 mg/kg) orally for 7 days. On day 8, the animals were anaesthetized with pentobarbitone and prepared for systemic haemodynamic study. Dose-response relationships for the elevation of mean arterial pressure or change in heart rate (HR) in response to intravenous injections of noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine (ME) and Ang II were determined. 3 Losartan or the combination of losartan with carvedilol blunted vasopressor responses to ME and Ang II. Dose-response relationships for agonist action on HR were significantly inhibited by all treatments except for the combination of losartan and carvedilol on the decrease in HR induced by PE. Carvedilol decreased vasopressor responses to NA, PE and Ang II, and HR responses to NA, ME and Ang II. Combination treatment produced similar effects to losartan on the vasopressor and HR responses but had a greater effect on vasopressor responses to ME and Ang II, and on HR responses to NA and Ang II than carvedilol alone. 4 It is concluded that peripheral vasoconstriction induced by Ang II is partly mediated by adrenergic action and that the vasopressor responses to adrenergic agonists depend on an intact RAS. These observations suggest an interactive relationship between RAS and SNS in determining systemic haemodynamic responses in 'normal' rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  12. Abdulla MH, Sattar MA, Abdullah NA, Khan MA, Abdallah HH, Johns EJ
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2009 Jun 10;612(1-3):69-74.
    PMID: 19356722 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.03.064
    This study set out to investigate the impact of chronic cumulative blockade of angiotensin II and adrenoceptors in WKY and SHR and to explore how the renovascular responses to adrenergic and angiotensin II receptor agonists may be interdependent. Rats were treated with either losartan, carvedilol or losartan+carvedilol for 7 days and on day eight, animals were pentobarbitone anaesthetized and prepared for renal haemodynamic study. Dose-response relationships were determined in terms of reduction/elevation in the magnitude of renal blood flow in response to intrarenal arterial injection of dopamine, phenylephrine and isoprenaline. Renal vascular responses were blunted in WKY and SHR treated with either losartan or carvedilol as compared to their untreated counterparts (P<0.05). In the combined treated rats, the vascular responses to isoprenaline and phenylephrine were restored to levels observed in the untreated rats, but the renal vasoconstrictor responses to dopamine decreased (P<0.05) in both WKY and SHR. There was a reduction of (P<0.05) in the magnitude of the isoprenaline induced renal vasodilation in all SHR as compared to WKY groups. The data obtained showed that the renal vascular action of dopamine, phenylephrine and isoprenaline depended on an intact renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in WKY and SHR. Treatment with losartan or carvedilol blunted the renal vasoconstrictor/vasodilator responses to sympathomimetics which was attenuated with the combined treatment. These observations using chronic blockade of adrenergic and angiotensin receptors demonstrated that there was a long standing interdependency between the RAS and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in determining the responsiveness of the renal vasculature of normal and hypertensive rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  13. Abdullah AS, Mohammed AS, Rasedee A, Mirghani ME
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015;16(2):3528-36.
    PMID: 25664859 DOI: 10.3390/ijms16023528
    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 μg/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  14. Abdullah M, Rahman FA, Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Abu Kasim NH, Musa S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:235941.
    PMID: 24616615 DOI: 10.1155/2014/235941
    Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be a significant public health problem. Therefore, it is vital to have a continuous epidemiological dataset for a better understanding of Pb(2+) toxicity. In the present study, we have exposed stem cells isolated from deciduous and permanent teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone marrow to five different types of Pb(2+) concentrations (160, 80, 40, 20, and 10 µM) for 24 hours to identify the adverse effects of Pb(2+) on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression on these cell lines. We found that Pb(2+) treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes. Cells exposed to Pb(2+) continued to differentiate into chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, and a severe downregulation was observed in osteogenesis. Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1) and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail. Our study revealed for the first time that Pb(2+) exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in the differentiation and gene expression in the cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  15. Abdullah MA, Lee YR, Mastuki SN, Leong SW, Wan Ibrahim WN, Mohammad Latif MA, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2020 11;104:104277.
    PMID: 32971414 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104277
    A series of aminated- (1-9) and sulfonamide-containing diarylpentadienones (10-18) were synthesized, structurally characterized, and evaluated for their in vitro anti-diabetic potential on α-glucosidase and DPP-4 enzymes. It was found that all the new molecules were non-associated PAINS compounds. The sulfonamide-containing series (compounds 10-18) selectively inhibited α-glucosidase over DPP-4, in which compound 18 demonstrated the highest activity with an IC50 value of 5.69 ± 0.5 µM through a competitive inhibition mechanism. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies concluded that the introduction of the trifluoromethylbenzene sulfonamide moiety was essential for the suppression of α-glucosidase. The most active compound 18, was then further tested for in vivo toxicities using the zebrafish animal model, with no toxic effects detected in the normal embryonic development, blood vessel formation, and apoptosis of zebrafish. Docking simulation studies were also carried out to better understand the binding interactions of compound 18 towards the homology modeled α -glucosidase and the human lysosomal α -glucosidase enzymes. The overall results suggest that the new sulfonamide-containing diarylpentadienones, compound 18, could be a promising candidate in the search for a new α-glucosidase inhibitor, and can serve as a basis for further studies involving hit-to-lead optimization, in vivo efficacy and safety assessment in an animal model and mechanism of action for the treatment of T2DM patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  16. Abdullah NA, Inman M, Moody CJ, Storr SJ, Martin SG
    Invest New Drugs, 2021 10;39(5):1232-1241.
    PMID: 33768386 DOI: 10.1007/s10637-021-01106-5
    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment modality for breast cancer but, unfortunately, not all patients respond fully with a significant number experiencing local recurrences. Overexpression of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase has been reported to cause multidrug and radiation resistance - their inhibition may therefore improve therapeutic efficacy. Novel indolequinone compounds have been shown, in pancreatic cancer models, to inhibit thioredoxin reductase activity and exhibit potent anticancer activity. The present study evaluates, using in vitro breast cancer models, the efficacy of a novel indolequinone compound (IQ9) as a single agent and in combination with ionising radiation using a variety of endpoint assays including cell proliferation, clonogenic survival, enzyme activity, and western blotting. Three triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-436) and two luminal (MCF-7 and T47D) breast cancer cell lines were used. Results show that treatment with IQ9 significantly inhibited thioredoxin reductase activity, and inhibited cell growth and colony formation of breast cancer cells with IC50 values in the low micromolar ranges. Enhanced radiosensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer cells was observed, with sensitiser enhancement ratios of 1.20-1.43, but with no evident radiosensitisation of luminal breast cancer cell lines. IQ9 upregulated protein expression of thioredoxin reductase in luminal but not in triple-negative breast cancer cells which may explain the observed differential radiosensitisation. This study provides important evidence of the roles of the thioredoxin system as an exploitable radiobiological target in breast cancer cells and highlights the potential therapeutic value of indolequinones as radiosensitisers.***This study was not part of a clinical trial. Clinical trial registration number: N/A.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  17. Abdullah R, Wesseling S, Spenkelink B, Louisse J, Punt A, Rietjens IMCM
    J Appl Toxicol, 2020 12;40(12):1647-1660.
    PMID: 33034907 DOI: 10.1002/jat.4024
    Aristolochic acid I (AAI) is a well-known genotoxic kidney carcinogen. Metabolic conversion of AAI into the DNA-reactive aristolactam-nitrenium ion is involved in the mode of action of tumor formation. This study aims to predict in vivo AAI-DNA adduct formation in the kidney of rat, mouse and human by translating the in vitro concentration-response curves for AAI-DNA adduct formation to the in vivo situation using physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling-based reverse dosimetry. DNA adduct formation in kidney proximal tubular LLC-PK1 cells exposed to AAI was quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Subsequently, the in vitro concentration-response curves were converted to predicted in vivo dose-response curves in rat, mouse and human kidney using PBK models. Results obtained revealed a dose-dependent increase in AAI-DNA adduct formation in the rat, mouse and human kidney and the predicted DNA adduct levels were generally within an order of magnitude compared with values reported in the literature. It is concluded that the combined in vitro PBK modeling approach provides a novel way to define in vivo dose-response curves for kidney DNA adduct formation in rat, mouse and human and contributes to the reduction, refinement and replacement of animal testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  18. Abeywardena M, Runnie I, Nizar M, Suhaila M, Head R, Suhaila Momamed
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2002;11 Suppl 7:S467-72.
    PMID: 12492636
    Plant-based polyphenolic compounds have been reported to possess cardiovascular health benefits. Several dietary sources, including herbs and spices, fruits and vegetables, and tea and wine, contain an array of biologically active compounds that have been shown to be effective in retarding oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and promoting vascular relaxation. In the present study four different plant sources, both edible and non-edible, were evaluated for potential activity. Organic extracts enriched in polyphenols were prepared from palm fronds (Elaesis guineensis); lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates); papaya shoots (Carica papaya) and green chilli (Capsicum frutescenes) and tested for their ability to prevent in vitro oxidation of LDL, and for potential vascular relaxation actions. Rings of rat thoracic aorta and isolated perfused mesenteric vascular beds were mounted in organ baths, contracted using a half-maximal dose of noradrenaline and exposed to cumulative additions of test extracts. Palm frond extract resulted in considerable relaxation (>75%) in both preparations and was found to be endothelium-dependent as removal of endothelium or inhibition of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) led to a total loss in relaxant activity. Lemongrass extract caused a greater relaxation action in the mesenteric preparation compared to aortic rings, and appears to be mediated via NO-independent and non-prostanoid mechanisms. Of the extracts tested, palm fronds also demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity, as determined by the ferric reducing activity/potential assay, and resulted in a significant delay (P < 0.05) in the oxidation of LDL. Collectively, these preliminary findings lend further support to the potential cardiovascular actions of plant polyphenols and also identify oil palm fronds as containing constituents that promote vascular relaxation via endothelium-dependent mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  19. Abu Bakar K, Mohamad NA, Hodi Z, McCulloch T, Williams A, Christian M, et al.
    Pediatr Nephrol, 2019 12;34(12):2557-2562.
    PMID: 31520127 DOI: 10.1007/s00467-019-04346-z
    BACKGROUND: Late acute cellular rejection (LACR) is associated with poorer graft outcomes and non-adherence. Non-adherence to tacrolimus can be indirectly assessed by the intra-patient variability (IPV) of tacrolimus trough levels. The threshold of IPV associated with rejection is not known.

    METHODS: We conducted a case-control study comparing 25 patients with biopsy-proven LACR against 25 stable controls matched for age group, primary diagnosis and time post-transplant. IPV was calculated using coefficient of variance (CV) and mean absolute deviation (MAD) using tacrolimus levels in the preceding 12 months. We also assessed the percentage time for tacrolimus levels dose (C/D) ratio as a proxy marker of tacrolimus metaboliser status.

    RESULTS: LACR patients had higher CV (median, IQR 44%, 36-61% v. 24%, 19-35%, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  20. Abu Bakar N, Mohd Sata NS, Ramlan NF, Wan Ibrahim WN, Zulkifli SZ, Che Abdullah CA, et al.
    Neurotoxicol Teratol, 2017 Jan-Feb;59:53-61.
    PMID: 27919701 DOI: 10.1016/j.ntt.2016.11.008
    Chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) can lead to cumulative impairments in motor and cognitive functions including alteration in anxiety responses. Although several risk factors have been identified in recent year, little is known about the environmental factors that either due exposure toward low level of inorganic mercury that may led to the developmental disorders. The present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure of mercury chloride on motor function and anxiety-like behavior. The embryo exposed to 6 different concentrations of HgCl2 (7.5, 15, 30, 100, 125, 250nM) at 5hpf until hatching (72hpf) in a semi-static condition. The mortality rate increased in a dose dependent manner where the chronic embryonic exposure to 100nM decreased the number of tail coiling, heartbeat, and swimming activity. Aversive stimulus was used to examine the effects of 100nM interferes with the development of anxiety-related behavior. No elevation in both thigmotaxis and avoidance response of 6dpf larvae exposed with 100nM were found. Biochemical analysis showed HgCl2 exposure affects proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids of the zebrafish larvae. These results showed that implication of HgCl2 on locomotor and biochemical defects affects motor performance and anxiety-like responses. Yet, the potential underlying mechanisms these responses need to be further investigated which is crucial to prevent potential hazards on the developing organism due to neurotoxicant exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
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