METHODS: Cytomegalovirus replication, latency, and immune response are mediated by the intermediate early protein 2, the main protein that determines the effectiveness of drugs in cytomegalovirus inhibition. This review explains how intermediate early protein 2 can modify the action of cyclosporin A, an immunosuppressive, and antiviral drug. It also links all the pathways mediated by cyclosporin A, cytomegalovirus replication, and its encoded proteins.
RESULTS: Intermediate early protein 2 can influence the cellular cyclophilin A pathway, affecting cyclosporin A as a mediator of viral replication or anti-cytomegalovirus drug.
CONCLUSION: Cyclosporin A has a dual function in cytomegalovirus pathogenesis. It has the immunosuppressive effect that establishes virus replication through the inhibition of T-cell function. It also has an anti-cytomegalovirus effect mediated by intermediate early protein 2. Both of these functions involve cyclophilin A pathway.
METHODS: Geraniin was prepared from Nephelium lappaceum rind by reverse phase C-18 column chromatography. Cytotoxicity of geraniin towards Vero cells was evaluated using MTT assay while IC50 value was determined by plaque reduction assay. The mode-of-action of geraniin was characterized using the virucidal, attachment, penetration and the time-of-addition assays'. Docking experiments with geraniin molecule and the DENV envelope (E) protein was also performed. Finally, recombinant E Domain III (rE-DIII) protein was produced to physiologically test the binding of geraniin to DENV-2 E-DIII protein, through ELISA competitive binding assay.
RESULTS: Cytotoxicity assay confirmed that geraniin was not toxic to Vero cells, even at the highest concentration tested. The compound exhibited DENV-2 plaque formation inhibition, with an IC50 of 1.75 μM. We further revealed that geraniin reduced viral infectivity and inhibited DENV-2 from attaching to the cells but had little effect on its penetration. Geraniin was observed to be most effective when added at the early stage of DENV-2 infection. Docking experiments showed that geraniin binds to DENV E protein, specifically at the DIII region, while the ELISA competitive binding assay confirmed geraniin's interaction with rE-DIII with high affinity.
CONCLUSIONS: Geraniin from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum has antiviral activity against DENV-2. It is postulated that the compound inhibits viral attachment by binding to the E-DIII protein and interferes with the initial cell-virus interaction. Our results demonstrate that geraniin has the potential to be developed into an effective antiviral treatment, particularly for early phase dengue viral infection.
METHODS: We conducted a case-control study comparing 25 patients with biopsy-proven LACR against 25 stable controls matched for age group, primary diagnosis and time post-transplant. IPV was calculated using coefficient of variance (CV) and mean absolute deviation (MAD) using tacrolimus levels in the preceding 12 months. We also assessed the percentage time for tacrolimus levels dose (C/D) ratio as a proxy marker of tacrolimus metaboliser status.
RESULTS: LACR patients had higher CV (median, IQR 44%, 36-61% v. 24%, 19-35%, p
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