This article analyses long-term changes in the mean age at menarche (MAM) as a biological indicator of changes in the standard of living in Indonesia. It finds that MAM was about 15.5 for birth cohorts in the late-19th century, decreasing to 14.5 by the 1930s, at which level it stagnated until the gradual decrease resumed since the early 1960s to around 12.5 in the mid-2000s. The article considers that long-term improvements in nutrition, educational attainment and health care explain these trends. An international comparison of long-term changes finds that MAM in Indonesia was much lower than in Korea and China until respectively 1970 and 1990, but comparable to Japan until 1950 and to Malaysia until 1930. The article presents reasons why these differences are unlikely to be related to dissimilarities in climate and ethnicity, and concludes that they are indicative of relative standards of living.
Orangutans (Pongo spp.) are reported to have extremely slow life histories, including the longest average interbirth intervals of all mammals. Such slow life history can be viable only when unavoidable mortality is kept low. Thus, orangutans' survivorship under natural conditions is expected to be extremely high. Previous estimates of orangutan life history were based on captive individuals living under very different circumstances or on small samples from wild populations. Here, we combine birth data from seven field sites, each with demographic data collection for at least 10 years (range 12-43 years) on wild orangutans to better document their life history. Using strict criteria for data inclusion, we calculated infant survival, interbirth intervals and female age at first reproduction, across species, subspecies and islands. We found an average closed interbirth interval of 7.6 years, as well as consistently very high pre-weaning survival for males and females. Female survival of 94% until age at first birth (at around age 15 years) was higher than reported for any other mammal species under natural conditions. Similarly, annual survival among parous females is very high, but longevity remains to be estimated. Current data suggest no major life history differences between Sumatran and Bornean orangutans. The high offspring survival is remarkable, noting that modern human populations seem to have reached the same level of survival only in the 20th century. The orangutans' slow life history illustrates what can be achieved if a hominoid bauplan is exposed to low unavoidable mortality. Their high survival is likely due to their arboreal and non-gregarious lifestyle, and has allowed them to maintain viable populations, despite living in low-productivity habitats. However, their slow life history also implies that orangutans are highly vulnerable to a catastrophic population crash in the face of drastic habitat change.
We describe the results of serology for parasitic infection of 250 foreign workers who were seen at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, UMMC during 7-months period. The 250 foreign workers participated included 114 from Indonesia, 142 from Bangladesh, two from Myanmar and two from Pakistan. Blood samples were taken from these workers and eight tests (amoebiasis, echinococcosis, filariasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, and trypanosomiasis) were performed on serum. Among the 250 sera tested, 92 (36.8%) were found to be positive for at least one parasitic infection. There was one case where the serum was found positive for 5 tests. The most common antibody detected in those positive sera was antibody for toxoplasma (80.%), followed by filaria (32.8%) and amoeba (30%). Other tests showed low percentage of infection with schistosomiasias, 10%; echinococcosis, 6% and malaria, 3.6%. None of the foreign workers were found positive for leishmaniasis or trypanosomiasias.
The serology result of parasitic infections of 260 foreign workers who were seen at the University of Malaya Medical Center, during 7 months period is reported here. The 260 foreign workers comprised 114 Indonesians, 142 Bangladeshis, 2 Myanmarese and 2 Pakistanis.
The decoction of Carica papaya Linn. leaves is used in folklore medicine in certain parts of Malaysia and Indonesia for the treatment of different types of thrombocytopenia associated with diseases and drugs. There are several scientific studies carried out on humans and animal models to confirm the efficacy of decoction of papaya leave for the treatment of disease induced and drug induced thrombocytopenia, however very little is known about the bio-active compounds responsible for the observed activity. The aim of present study was to identify the active phytochemical component of Carica papaya Linn. leaves decoction responsible for anti-thrombocytopenic activity in busulfan-induced thrombocytopenic rats.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram negative bacterium and causes gastrointestinal illness in humans. In this study, twenty five out of fifty cockle samples from Padang, Indonesia produced purple colonies when they were grown on selective medium, CHROMagarTM Vibrio. Specific–PCR for toxR gene detection gave positive results in which a band with 368 base pairs size appeared on the gel for all the isolates that confirmed the presence of V. parahaemolyticus. In the virulence properties test, all the isolates showed negative results for tdh and trh genes detection. The results indicate that the isolates under this study do not contain virulence properties that correlate to the ability of infection and diseases, which means that they are nonpathogenic.
In this study, RAPD-PCR and ERIC-PCR were used to study the epidemiology of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from cockles in Padang, Indonesia. The Gold Oligo OPAR3 primer produced bands ranged from 1-8 with sizes from 0.2 – 5.0 kb and the Gold Oligo OPAR8 primer produced 1-7 bands with sizes 0.7 – 1.5 kb. Both primers produced twenty five RAPD patterns with a few isolates failed to produce any products. Based on phylogenetic dendrogram, all the isolates can be divided into 6 major clusters with similarity between 0 to 52%. For the ERIC primer, it produced bands ranged from 3-15 with sizes from 0.1 – 5.0 kb and twenty seven different ERIC patterns. Construction of the phylogenetic dendogram showed the isolates can be divided into 4 major clusters with similarity between 56 to 86%. The high diversity of both processes may be due to the multiple contamination sources of V. parahaemolyticus.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most widely recognized pathogenic Vibrio species due to numerous outbreaks and its’ wide occurrence in marine environment. In this study, 32 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from cockles were tested for sensitivity to 16 antibiotics and the presence of plasmids. All the isolates were multi-resistance, defined as resistant to atleast three different antibiotics with multiple antibiotic resistance indexes ranging from 0.31 to 0.69, indicating the isolates originate from high risk sources of contamination where antibiotics are often used. In the plasmid profiling test, only 15 isolates (47%) harbored plasmid DNA, which ranged in size from 2.7 to 56.2 kb, separating the isolates into 14 plasmid profiles. Hence, food contaminated with antibiotic resistant V. parahaemolyticus could be a major threat to public health due to the distinct possibility that they can be a significant reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance determinants that can be transferred intra or interspecies. As in many developing countries, raw food hygiene and antimicrobial resistance epidemiology is still in the infancy stage in the locality of the study and thus our data provide a current baseline profile of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid of V. parahaemolyticusfrom cockles in Padang, Indonesia.
The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined.Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production.
Sebaceous gland diseases are a group of common dermatological diseases with multiple causes. To date, a systematic report of the risk factors for sebaceous gland diseases in adolescents has not been published. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for certain sebaceous gland diseases (seborrhea, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, androgenetic alopecia and rosacea) and their relationship to gastrointestinal dysfunction in adolescents. From August-October, 2002-2005, a questionnaire survey was carried out to obtain epidemiological data about sebaceous gland diseases. Using random cluster sampling, 13 215 Han adolescents aged 12-20 years were recruited from four countries or districts (Macau; Guangzhou, China; Malaysia; and Indonesia). The statistical software SPSS ver. 13.0 was used to analyze the data. The prevalence of seborrhea, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, androgenetic alopecia and rosacea was 28.27%, 10.17%, 51.03%, 1.65% and 0.97%, respectively. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk factors for sebaceous gland diseases included: age; duration of local residency; halitosis; gastric reflux; abdominal bloating; constipation; sweet food; spicy food; family history of acne; late night sleeping on a daily basis; excessive axillary, body and facial hair; excessive periareolar hair; and anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (halitosis; gastric reflux; abdominal bloating; constipation) between patients with and without sebaceous gland diseases (chi(2) = 150.743; P = 0.000). Gastrointestinal dysfunction is an important risk factor for diseases of the sebaceous glands and is correlated with their occurrence and development.
Lobonychiumpalpiplus Roewer, 1938, originally reported from Indonesian Borneo, is redescribed based on the specimens from Malaysia. The genitalia of this species are described for the first time and a new genital terminology is proposed. The rediscovery expands the known distribution of the species to Malaysian Borneo.
The previously identified female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella, was re-evaluated for its attractive activity in different field conditions. It was found that lures containing 100-mug of synthetic sex pheromone blend, (E,Z,Z)- and (E,E,Z)-4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetates, and the corresponding alcohols in a ratio of 40:60:4:6 in a polyethylene vial attracted male C. cramerella moths in Sabah and peninsular Malaysia and in Sumatra and Sulawesi, Indonesia, suggesting that the same pheromone strain existed in a wide stretch of the Indo-Malayan archipelago. Of the three kinds of trap designs tested, the Delta traps were more effective than Pherocon V scale traps. Male captures were not significantly different among traps baited with 100-, 300-, or 1,000-mug doses of sex pheromone. A release rate study of pheromone formulation conducted in the laboratory showed that volatile active ingredients were desorbed from polyethylene vials following first-order kinetics, which indicates a satisfactory "half-life time" of a 100-mug loading is approximately 6 wk under laboratory conditions. A satisfactory attractiveness of the lure with a 100-mug loading was approximately 1-2 mo in the fields.
Malaysian construction sector is regarded as critical in the field of health because of the high rates of accidents and fatalities. This research aimed to determine the prevalence, sources and severity of injuries and its association with commitment to safety among foreign construction workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 323 foreign construction workers from six construction projects of a large organization in Malaysia, using a simple random sampling method. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire to assess work-related injuries and safety commitment. The collected data was analysed by SPSS 22.0 using descriptive statistics and χ2 test. The prevalence of work-related injuries in a one year period was 22.6%, where most of the injuries were of moderate severity (39.7%) and falls from heights represented the main source (31.5%). The majority of the foreign construction workers had perceived between moderate and high safety commitment, which was significantly associated with work-related injuries. The results also showed a significant association of work-related injuries with the company's interest in Safety and Health, Safety and Health training, and safety equipment. Thus, the implementation of new procedures and providing relevant trainings and safety equipment; will lead to a decrease in injury rates in construction sites.
Plasmodium knowlesi is now regarded as the fifth malaria parasite causing human malaria as it is widely distributed in South-East Asian countries especially east Malaysia where two Malaysian states namely Sabah and Sarawak are situated. In 2004, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was applied for diagnosing knowlesi malaria in the Kapit Division of Sarawak, Malaysia, so that human P. knowlesi infections could be detected correctly while blood film microscopy diagnosed incorrectly as Plasmodium malariae. This parasite is transmitted from simian hosts to humans via Anopheles vectors. Indonesia is the another country in South East Asia where knowlesi malaria is moderately prevalent. In the last decade, Sarawak and Sabah, the two states of east Malaysia became the target of P. knowlesi research due to prevalence of cases with occasional fatal infections. The host species of P. knowlesi are three macaque species namely Macaca fascicularis, Macaca nemestrina and Macaca leonina while the vector species are the Leucosphyrus Complex and the Dirus Complex of the Leucophyrus Group of Anopheles mosquitoes. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are non-existent for knowlesi malaria although timely treatment is necessary for preventing complications, fatality and drug resistance. Development of RDT is essential in dealing with P. knowlesi infections in poor rural healthcare services. Genetic studies of the parasite on possibility of human-to-human transmission of P. knowlesi were recommended for further studies.
Sarawak has experienced several earthquakes of local origin and was also affected by long-distance earthquake that originated from Southern Philippine and the Straits of Macassar, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea. The objectives for this study were to conduct site specific ground response analysis and develop design response spectra for Bakun area by using 1-D equivalent linear ground response analysis. The site characterisation was carried out utilising the soil profile and soil property data of the selected site. Local surface fault ruptures were investigated for possible hazards due to intraplate earthquakes. Earthquake ground motion records were selected based on characteristics of the controlling earthquakes for an area and the maximum magnitude faults were considered for risk assessment. The site-specific response spectra represent the predicted surface ground motions that reflect the levels of strong motion amplitude and frequency content at a particular site. The site-specific ground response analysis for Bakun site found that the peak ground acceleration at bedrock was amplified from 0.16 g to 0.33 g at the ground surface.
Kertas kerja ini membincangkan pendekatan dalam mengintegrasikan Java dan persekitaran VRML yang telah diaplikasikan dalam mensimulasi masa nyata bagi proses kisar hujung maya. Pendekatan yang menggunakan Routing ini adalah sangat penting untuk komunikasi dan penghantaran mesej antara VRML dan Java. Dalam pendekatan ini, nod Script digunakan bagi memanggil dan menghubungkan kelas Java dengan entiti-entiti yang sepatutnya di dalam persekitaran VRML. Simulasi bahan termesin bagi proses kisar hujung dalam sistem ini dilaksanakan melalui satu kaedah baru iaitu dengan penggunaan nod penaikan bagi penjanaan objek 3D dan nod PositionInterpolator serta CoordinateInterpolator bagi animasi bahan termesin. Melalui kaedah ini simulasi bagi proses kisar hujung dapat dipaparkan secara maya dan pada masa yang sama graf haus rusuk bagi perkakas pemotong melawan masa pemotongan dapat dijana serentak.
An unidentified animal species named the Jenglot and claimed to be a rare living animal species was recently found in the deep jungle of Irian Jaya, Indonesia; brought to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia by a businessman; and exhibited in a local museum. The owner of the Jenglot carcasses had made a request to perform DNA analysis on the Jenglot to ascertain its species.
Rhabdamia spilota Allen Kuiter 1994 (Apogonidae), a poorly known cardinalfish previously known only from the Philippines, Indonesia and the Red Sea, is redescribed on the basis of 70 specimens (20.9-61.2 mm standard length) (including types), from the Indo-West Pacific (Red Sea, Andaman Sea, Japan, South China Sea, the Philippines, Indonesia, New Caledonia, and Australia). Because most reports of the similar species R. gracilis (Bleeker 1856), following its original description, were based on misidentifications, R. gracilis is also redescribed (based on 98 Indo-West Pacific specimens from Seychelles, Maldives, Andaman Sea, Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Caledonia, and Australia, 27.9-59.3 mm standard length); a lectotype is designated for it. Rhabdamia spilota differs from R. gracilis in having 27-33 (mode 30-31) developed gill rakers [vs. 22-27 (mode 24) in the latter], 27-33 (30) gill rakers including rudiments [vs. 23-27 (24-25)], a black stripe from the jaw tips to the anterior margin of the orbit (vs. black pigments only at snout and tip of lower jaw), 3-6 reddish brown to blackish blotches on the opercle and anterior of body (vs. blotches absent), and indistinct black pigment restricted to caudal fin outer margins (vs. pigment scattered over entire fin). Rhabdamia gracilis exhibits sexual dichromatism, female specimens larger than 41.3 mm SL having one or two black stripes on the lateral surface of the body; the stripes are absent in males and smaller females. No evidence of sexual dichromatism was found in R. spilota.