MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the purpose of this study, bacterial communities during 0, 30 and 70 days of culture (DOC) of L. vannamei grow-out ponds were isolated and identified through phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Phylogenetic relationships between isolated bacteria were then evaluated through phylogenetic tree analysis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences of microbial communities at each DOC.
RESULTS: Out of 125 bacterial isolates, nine species of bacteria from biofloc were identified successfully. Those bacteria species were identified as Halomonas venusta, H. aquamarina, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus infantis, B. cereus, B. safensis, Providencia vermicola, Nitratireductor aquimarinus and Pseudoalteromonas sp., respectively. Through phylogenetic analysis, these isolates belong to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes families under the genera of Halomonas sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus sp., Providencia sp., Nitratireductor sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp.
CONCLUSION: In this study, bioflocculant-producing bacteria were successfully identified which are perfect candidates in forming biofloc to reduce water pollution towards a sustainable aquaculture industry. Presence of Halomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. in all stages of biofloc formation reinforces the need for new development regarding the ability of these species to be used as inoculum in forming biofloc rapidly.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 116 items associated with sociodemographic characteristics (7 items), professional development (3 items), organisational culture's support for the NCP (2 items), knowledge (27 items), attitudes (39 items), practices (20 items), and perceived barriers to implementing the NCP (14 items) were generated for potential inclusion in the KAPB-NCP questionnaire. The questionnaire was reviewed online by an expert panel for its content validity. An in-depth review was conducted by the research team for evaluating the overall comprehensiveness of the questionnaire.
RESULTS: In total, 87 of 100 items of the KAPB sections showed an excellent content validity index (CVI; k* >0.74), whereas 10 showed a satisfactory CVI (k*=0.60-0.74). Only 3 items had a low CVI (k* <0.40). According to the expert panel revisions and the in-depth review, 72 items were incorporated into the questionnaire.
CONCLUSIONS: The KAPB-NCP questionnaire is a content-valid instrument that can assess NCP KAPB.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 112 healthy men and women from 3 main ethnic group (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) who were aged 18-60 years. The participants were categorized into normal body mass index (BMI), overweight and obese groups according to WHO criteria for BMI in Asian populations (18.5 kg/m2