A new anthraquinone, 2-hydroxymethyl-10-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone (1), was isolated from Hedyotis herbacea along with three other known derivatives: 1,4-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (2); 2, 3-dimethoxy-9-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; and 1,4-dihydroxy-2, 3-dimethoxyanthraquinone. The structure of 1 was determined based on analysis of its spectroscopic data.
The hydroxide ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of securinine involves the ring opening of the lactone moiety. The rate of hydrolysis is insensitive to the ionic strength. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants reveal a decrease of approximately 4-fold due to the increase in the MeCN content from 4 to 50% (v/v) in mixed aqueous solvent. The temperature dependence of the rate of hydrolysis follows the Eyring equation, which yields delta H* and delta S* as 11.0 kcal mol-1 and -34.5 cal deg-1 mol-1, respectively. The hydroxyl carboxylate product of the alkaline hydrolysis of securinine is shown to undergo cyclization in acidic medium to yield securinine. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants for cyclization increase linearly with an increase in [H+]. The change in the content of MeCN from 3.8 to 47.2% (v/v) in mixed aqueous solvents does not show an effect on the rate of the cyclization reaction. The most plausible mechanisms for alkaline hydrolysis and acid cyclization reactions are also discussed.
Optimization process is an important aspect in the natural product extractions. Herein, an alternative approach is proposed for the optimization in extraction, namely, the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE). The approach combines the Latin hypercube sampling, the feasible range of independent variables, the Monte Carlo simulation, and the threshold criteria of response variables. The GLUE method is tested in three different techniques including the ultrasound, the microwave, and the supercritical CO2 assisted extractions utilizing the data from previously published reports. The study found that this method can: provide more information on the combined effects of the independent variables on the response variables in the dotty plots; deal with unlimited number of independent and response variables; consider combined multiple threshold criteria, which is subjective depending on the target of the investigation for response variables; and provide a range of values with their distribution for the optimization.
Curcumin has poor in vivo absorption and bioavailability, highlighting a need for new curcumin analogues with better characteristics in these aspects. The aim of this study is to determine the anti-cancer properties of four selected curcumin analogues, on the cytotoxicity, proliferative and apoptotic effects on androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU 145). Initial cytotoxicity screening showed MS17 has the highest cell inhibitory effect, with EC50 values of 4.4 ± 0.3 and 4.1 ± 0.8 µM, followed by MS13 (7.5 ± 0.1 and 7.4 ± 2.6 µM), MS49 (14.5 ± 1.2 and 12.3 ± 2.3 µM) and MS40E (28.0 ± 7.8 and 30.3 ± 1.9 µM) for PC-3 and DU 145 cells, respectively. Time-dependent analysis also revealed that MS13 and MS17 displayed a greater anti-proliferative effect than the other compounds. MS17 was chosen based on the high selectivity index value for further analysis on the morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis. Fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed apoptotic changes in both treated prostate cancer cells. Relative caspase-3 activity increased significantly at 48 h in PC-3 and 12 h in DU 145 cells. Highest enrichment of free nucleosomes was noted at 48 h after treatment with MS17. In conclusion, MS17 demonstrated anti-proliferative effect and induces apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner suggesting its potential for development as an anti-cancer agent for androgen-independent prostate cancer.
'Pegaga' is a traditional Malay remedy for a wide range of complaints. Among the 'pegaga', Centella asiatica has been used as a remedy for diabetes mellitus. Thus, we decided to validate this claim by evaluating the in vivo antidiabetic property of C. asiatica (CA) on T2DM rat model using the holistic (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach.
Phytochemical investigations on the methanolic extract of Melicope ptelefolia Champ ex Benth. resulted in the isolation of three new compounds, identified as 3beta-stigmast-5-en-3-ol butyl tridecanedioate (melicoester) (1), (2Z, 6Z, 10Z, 14Z, 18Z, 22Z, 26E)-3', 7', 11', 15', 19', 23', 27', 31'-octamethyldotriaconta-2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30-octadecanoate (melicopeprenoate) (2) and p-O-geranyl-7"-acetoxy coumaric acid (3). The compounds were isolated along with twenty-one other known compounds, lupeol (4), oleanolic acid (5), kokusaginine (6) genistein (7), p-O-geranyl coumaric acid (8), 4-stigmasten-3-one (9), 3beta-hydroxystigma-5-en-7-one (10) cis-phytyl palmitate (11), dodecane, dodecan-1-ol, ceryl alcohol, hentriacontanoic acid, eicosane, n-amyl alcohol, caprylic alcohol, octatriacontane, nonatriacontane, hexatriencontan-1-ol, methyl octacosanoate, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside. Structures of all the compounds were established on the basis of MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, as well as comparison with reported data.
Bioassay-guided fractionation of a MeOH extract of tubers of Coleus tuberosus afforded the active anti-tumor-promoting compounds identified as the triterpenoid 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (maslinic acid; CT2) and a phytosterol mixture (CT1). CT1 consists of stigmasterol (32%), beta-sitosterol (40.3%), and campesterol (27.7%) as determined by capillary gas chromatography. CT1 and CT2 showed very strong anti-tumor-promoting activities at IC(50) 0.7 microg/ml and 0.1 microg/ml, respectively, in a convenient, short-term in vitro assay, i.e., the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and sodium butyrate. We report for the first time the anti-tumor-promoting activity of 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid and show that a mixture of stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, and campesterol is more potent than the individual components in inhibiting tumor-promoting activity.
Phytochemical investigation on Globba pendula resulted in the isolation of a new naturally occurring 16-oxo-(8)17-12-labdadien-15,11-olide 1 and benzofuran-2-carboxaldehyde 2. Other known compounds including isoandrographolide, indirubin, vanillin, vanillic acid, 2(3H)-benzoxazolone, as well as beta-sitosteryl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, beta-sitosterol, and 7alpha-hydroxysitosterol were also isolated. The structures were established based on spectroscopic data and comparison with the literature. Furthermore, the compound isoandrographolide has demonstrated strong cytotoxic properties towards a panel of cancer cell lines (MCF-7, PC-3, and H-460) with the IC50 values of 7.9, 8.7, and 9.0 microM, respectively.
Cardamonin, a chalcone isolated from the fruits of a local plant Alpinia rafflesiana, has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in cellular models of inflammation. In this report, we evaluated the ability of cardamonin to suppress both NO and PGE2 synthesis, iNOS and COX-2 expression and enzymatic activity, and key molecules in the NF-kappaB pathway in order to determine its molecular target. Cardamonin suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. This inhibition was demonstrated to be caused by a dose-dependent down-regulation of both inducible enzymes, iNOS and COX-2, without direct effect upon iNOS or COX-2 enzyme activity. Subsequently we determined that the inhibition of inducible enzyme expression was due to a dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of I-kappaBalpha, which resulted in a reduction of p65NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. We conclude that cardamonin is a potential anti-inflammatory drug lead that targets the NF-kappaB pathway.
Phytochemical studies on rhizome of Etlingera elatior have resulted in the isolation of 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4,6-heptatrienone (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (3), 16-hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-16,15-olide (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5), stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (6), stigmast-4-en-6b-ol-3-one (7), 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (8). 1 and 4 were new compounds. Compounds 5 and 7 displayed high antitumour-promoting activity. Ethyl acetate extract showed a very significant cytotoxic activity against CEM-SS and MCF-7 cell lines (4 μg/ml and 6.25 μg/ml respectively). The antitumour-promoting activity was determined by EBV-EA assay and cytotoxic activity was determined by MTT assay.
An experiment was conducted with the objective to enhance mucosal immunity against ovalbumin (OVA) by co-administration of OVA with an aqueous extract from the fruit of Solanum torvum (STE). Five groups of female ICR mice aged approximately 8 weeks at the commencement of the experiment were caged in groups of eight and received various treatments. The treatments included OVA alone, OVA with cholera toxin (CT), and OVA with various doses of STE. Mice were primed intraperitoneally with 500 microg of OVA alone or co-administered with 0.1 microg CT, or with 1 microg STE. All mice were boosted orally via gastric intubation 14 days after priming with 10 mg OVA alone, or co-administered with 10 microg CT or with 10 mg, 1 mg or 0.1 mg STE. One week later all mice were killed and organs obtained for analysis of the immune response. Intestinal, faecal and pulmonary OVA-specific sIgA concentration was significantly increased (p<0.05) in mice that received booster combinations of OVA/CT and OVA with all extract doses (p<0.05). Specific serum IgG titres did not differ significantly between groups. It is concluded that STE can significantly enhance secretory immunity in the intestine to OVA with mucosal homing to the lungs. The adjuvant effect of STE is comparable to that of CT.
The effects of medium strategy, number of impellers, aeration mode, and mode of operation on Morinda elliptica cell suspension cultures in a stirred-tank bioreactor are described. A lower number of impellers and continuous aeration contributed toward high cell growth rate, whereas a higher number of impellers reduced cell growth rate, although not anthraquinone yield. The semicontinuous mode could indirectly imitate the larger scale version of production medium strategy and improved anthraquinone production even with 0. 012% (v/v) antifoam addition. Production medium promoted both growth (maximum dry cell weight of 24.6 g/L) and anthraquinone formation (maximum content of 19.5 mg/g of dry cell weight), without any necessity for antifoam addition. Cultures in production medium or with higher growth rate and anthraquinone production were less acidic than cultures in growth medium or with lower growth rate and anthraquinone production. Using the best operating variables, growth of M. elliptica cells (24.6 g/L) and anthraquinone yield (0.25 g/L) were 45% and 140%, respectively, lower than those using a shake flask culture after 12 days of cultivation.
The impact of tropical seasons (dry and wet) and growth stages (8, 10 and 12 weeks) of Cosmos caudatus on the antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the level of bioactive compounds were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plant morphology (plant height) also showed variation between the two seasons. Samples planted from June to August (during the dry season) exhibited a remarkably higher bioactivity and height than those planted from October to December (during the wet season). The samples that were harvested at eight weeks of age during the dry season showed the highest bioactivity with values of 26.04 g GAE/100 g and 22.1 μg/ml for TPC and IC₅₀, respectively. Identification of phytochemical constituents in the C. caudatus extract was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray tandem mass (LC-DAD-ESIMS/MS) technique and the confirmation of constituents was achieved by comparison with literature data and/or co-chromatography with authentic standards. Six compounds were indentified including quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid. Their concentrations showed significant variance among the 8, 10 and 12-week-old herbs during both seasons.
The stem bark extracts of Knema laurina inhibited the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- and aggregated amyloid β-peptide 1-42 length (Aβ(1-42))-induced cell death in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure of 250 μM H2O2 or 20 μM Aβ(1-42) to the cells for 24 h reduced 50% of cell viability. Pretreatment of cells with ethyl acetate extract (EAE) or n-butanol extract (BE) at 300 μg/mL and then exposure to H2O2 protected the cells against the neurotoxic effects of H2O2. Besides, methanolic extract (ME) at 1 and 10 μg/mL exerted neuroprotective effect on Aβ(1-42)-induced toxicity to the cells. These results showed that EAE, BE and ME exhibited neuroprotective activities against H2O2- and Aβ(1-42)-induced cell death. Flavonoids (3-6) and β-sitosterol glucoside (8) were isolated from the EAE. Compound 1 was isolated from hexane extract, and compounds 2 and 7 were isolated from dichloromethane extract. All these observations provide the possible evidence for contribution in the neuroprotective effects.
3,19-(3-Chloro-4-fluorobenzylidene)andrographolide (SRJ23), a new semisynthetic derivative of andrographolide (AGP), exhibited selectivity against prostate cancer cells in the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) in vitro anti-cancer screen. Herein, we report the in vitro growth inhibition and mechanisms of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by SRJ23.
Andrographolide (AGP) is the main bioactive constituent isolated from the traditional medicinal, Andrographis paniculata which contributes towards its various biological activities, including anticancer property. In this study, a series of new AGP derivatives were semi-synthesised and screened against the NCI in vitro 60 cell lines. From the screening results, we had identified SRS07 as the most potent AGP derivative, against breast and colon cancer cell lines. Subsequently, SRS07 was tested for its capability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 and HCT116 cancer cells. SRS07 effectively induced G1 cell cycle arrest in both cell lines and ultimately apoptosis by inducing DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by SRS07 was confirmed via FITC Annexin-V double staining. Western blot analysis of SRS07-treated HCT116 cells revealed that the compound induced apoptosis be activating caspase 8 which in turn cleaved Bid to t-Bid to initiate cell death cascade. Prediction of the possible mode of action of SRS07 by utilising NCI COMPARE analysis failed to reveal a distinct mechanism category. Hence, it is speculated that SRS07 possesses novel mechanism of action. In conclusion, SRS07 demonstrated superior in vitro anticancer profiles and emerged as a potential lead anticancer candidate.