Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Jaswir, I., Ahmad, H., Susanti, D., Bakhtiar, M.T., Octavianti, F.
    In recent years, the search for natural, safe and effective therapies for the management of obesity has become important. The present study investigated the potential of brown seaweeds Sargassum oligocystum and Padina australis from Malaysian waters as natural alternatives for the management of obesity. Both seaweeds were macerated using acetone at room temperature for ten hours. The S. oligocystum extracts (SE) and P. australis extracts (PE) were then applied to 3T3-L1 cells during the differentiation stage and during the mature stage of the adipocyte life cycle to assess the effects of extracts on adipogenesis and adipolysis. Application of SE at 12.5 and 50 µg/ml to the cells decreased adipogenesis by 71.7%, and 84.8%, respectively, while cells treated with 12.5 and 50 µg/ml PE showed 85.7%, and 89.0% adipogenesis respectively, compared to control. Application of SE and PE to mature lipid cells stimulated adipolysis and the release of glycerol into the culture media. Application of SE at 12.5 and 50 µg µg/ ml in the cell media induced glycerol release by up to 88.6 and 93.0%, respectively, while PE increased glycerol release up to 92.9 and 95.6% respectively, compared to isoproterenol. This study demonstrates the potential of whole brown seaweed extracts from S. oligocystum and P. australis collected from Malaysian waters as natural anti- obesity agents. Incorporation of the brown seaweed into the diet as a functional food will be useful for prevention and treatment of obesity.
  2. Che Hassan NKN, Taher M, Susanti D
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Oct;106:1378-1389.
    PMID: 30119210 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.07.087
    The purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Garcinia xanthochymus which is commonly known as gamboge, yellow mangosteen and false mangosteen. The phytochemicals constituents, pharmacological benefits and their mechanisms were previously presented in a number of studies including in vitro and in vivo studies from published books, journals and articles. The literature used in this review were published between 1970 and 2017 and were available from databases such as Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest and others. The chemical structures in this paper are drawn using ChemBio Ultra 14.0. G. xanthocymus contains many phytochemicals that can be extracted from its constituent parts; the bark, fruits, leaves, roots, twigs and seeds. The predominant extracted phytochemicals are xanthones, benzophenones, flavonoids, depsidones and isocoumarins. These phytochemicals contribute to the pharmacological activities of this plant as an antioxidant, antidiabetic, and for having Nerve Growth Factor-potentiating, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. This species contains a broad range of phytochemicals with curative properties that can be greatly beneficial to man. Notably, this review focused on those studies of the pharmacological effects of this plant that were concentrated on by previous researchers. Thus, further study needs to be done on G. xanthocymus in order to unlock additional potential activities and to pinpoint the exact mechanisms of how these activities can be induced, leading to new drug discoveries which have fewer side effects.
  3. Taher M, Tik N, Susanti D
    Drug Metab Pers Ther, 2021 Apr 05.
    PMID: 33818031 DOI: 10.1515/dmdi-2020-0173
    By 9 February 2021, the Coronavirus has killed 2,336,650 people worldwide and it has been predicted that this number continues to increase in year 2021. The study aimed to identify therapeutic approaches and drugs that can potentially be used as interventions in Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) management. A systematic scoping review was conducted. Articles reporting clinical evidence of therapeutic management of COVID-19 were selected from three different research databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct). From the database search, 31 articles were selected based on the study inclusion and exclusion criteria. This review paper showed that remdesivir and ivermectin significantly reduced viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) activity. On the other hand, convalescent plasma (CP) significantly improved COVID-19 clinical symptoms. Additionally, the use of corticosteroid increased survival rates in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Findings also indicated that both hydroxychloroquine and favipiravir were effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, lopinavir-ritonavir combination was not effective against COVID-19. Finally, ribavirin, galidesivir, and sofosbuvir showed potential therapeutic benefit in treating COVID-19, but there is a lack of clinical evidence on their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir, ivermectin, favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, and CP are the therapeutic agents that can potentially be used in COVID-19 management.
  4. Susanti D, Amiroudine MZ, Rezali MF, Taher M
    Nat Prod Res, 2013 Mar;27(4-5):417-24.
    PMID: 22988818 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.725399
    Friedelin and lanosterol have been isolated from twigs of Garcinia prainiana. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were examined for their effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the MTT assay, it was found that the compounds had no cytotoxic effects up to 25 µM. Adipocyte differentiation analysis was carried out by Oil Red O staining method. In the presence of adipogenic cocktail (MDI), it was found that friedelin and lanosterol enhanced intracellular fat accumulation by 2.02 and 2.18-fold, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated cells. Deoxyglucose uptake assay was used to examine the insulin sensitivity of adipocytes in the presence of the compounds. It was found that friedelin was able to stimulate glucose uptake up to 1.8-fold compared with insulin-treated cells. It was suggested that friedelin and lanosterol may be beneficial to mimic insulin action that would be useful in the treatment of diabetes type 2 patients.
  5. Sirat HM, Susanti D, Ahmad F, Takayama H, Kitajima M
    J Nat Med, 2010 Oct;64(4):492-5.
    PMID: 20582481 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-010-0431-8
    Successive extraction of the dried leaves of Melastoma malabathricum, followed by purification using repeated chromatographic techniques, yielded six compounds, including two amides, auranamide and patriscabratine, a triterpene, alpha-amyrin, and three flavonoids, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol-3-O-(2'',6''-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)-beta-glucoside. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means and also by direct comparison of their spectroscopic data with respective published data. These three phenolic constituents were found to be active as free radical scavengers, with quercetin being the strongest radical scavenger, having an IC(50) value of 0.69 microM in the UV method. Quercitrin and kaempferol-3-O-(2'',6''-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)-beta-glucoside showed moderate radical scavenging, with IC(50) values of 74.1 and 108.8 microM, respectively.
  6. Taher M, Tg Zakaria TM, Susanti D, Zakaria ZA
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016;16(1):135.
    PMID: 27208974 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1118-9
    Various parts of Garcinia mangostana Linn., including its pericarp, have been traditionally used to treat a variety of ailments. In an attempt to establish its medicinal value, the present study was carried out to determine the hypoglycaemic potential of G. mangostana pericarp ethanolic extract (GME) using the streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats.
  7. Taher M, Shaari SS, Susanti D, Arbain D, Zakaria ZA
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 04;25(11).
    PMID: 32512727 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112611
    Almost 50 species of Ophiorrhiza plants were reviewed in this work and the main objective is to critically analyse their distribution, phytochemical content, biological activity, and propagation. Moreover, the information would be useful in promoting the relevant uses of the plant, especially in the medicinal fields based on in vitro and in vivo studies. To this end, scientific sources, including theses, PubMed, Google Scholar, International Islamic University Malaysia IIUM EBSCO, PubChem, and Elsevier, were accessed for publications regarding the Ophiorrhiza genus in this review. Scientific literature regarding the Ophiorrhiza plants revealed their wide distribution across Asia and the neighbouring countries, whereby they were utilised as traditional medicine to treat various diseases. In particular, various active compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, were reported in the plant. Furthermore, the Ophiorrhiza species showed highly diverse biological activities, such as anti-cancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, and more. The genus propagation reported could produce a high quality and quantity of potent anticancer compound, namely camptothecin (CPT). Hence, it is believed that the relevant uses of natural compounds present in the plants can replace the existing crop of synthetic anticancer drugs associated with a multitude of unbearable side effects. Additionally, more future studies on the Ophiorrhiza species should be undertaken to establish the links between its traditional uses, active compounds, and pharmacological activities reported.
  8. Kamarudin KR, Ngah N, Hamid TH, Susanti D
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2013 Aug;24(1):85-100.
    PMID: 24575244
    Staphylococcus kloosii, an orange pigment-producing bacterium, was isolated from the respiratory tree of Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt 1835) from Teluk Nipah, Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. This report is the first documentation of this Gram-positive strain, referred to as Strain 68 in Malaysia. A partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of the mesophilic strain has been registered with GenBank (National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine) with accession number JX102547. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbour-joining method further supported the identification of Strain 68 as S. kloosii. The circular strain produced orange pigments on tryptone glucose yeast extract agar (TGYEA) and in nutrient broth (NB) at approximately pH 7. The visible spectra of ethanolic and methanolic pigment extracts of the bacterial strain were considered identical with λmax at 426, 447 and 475 nm and λmax at 426, 445 and 473 nm, respectively. Both visible spectra resemble the visible spectra of lutein, which is a commercial carotenoid; however, further analyses are required to confirm the identity of this pigment. The methanolic extracts of the intracellular pigments comprised at least three pigment compounds: an orange pigment compound (major compound), a yellow pigment compound (the least polar) and a pink pigment compound (the most polar). These findings are the first documentation of the pigment composition of S. kloosii as no such record could be found to date.
  9. Aminudin NI, Ridzuan M, Susanti D, Zainal Abidin ZA
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2022 Feb;24(2):103-145.
    PMID: 33783284 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2021.1906657
    Sesquiterpenoids have been identified as natural compounds showing remarkable biological activities found in medicinal plants. There is great interest in developing methods to obtain sesquiterpenoids derivatives and biotransformation is one of the alternative methods for structural modification of complex sesquiterpenes structures. Biotransformation is a great drug design tool offering high selectivity and green method. The present review describes a comprehensive summary of biotransformation products of sesquiterpenoids and its structural modification utilizing a variety of biocatalysts including microorganisms, plant tissue culture and enzymes. This review covers recent literatures from 2007 until 2020 and highlights the experimental conditions for each biotransformation process.
  10. Sani MH, Taher M, Susanti D, Kek TL, Salleh MZ, Zakaria ZA
    Biol Res Nurs, 2015 Jan;17(1):68-77.
    PMID: 25504952 DOI: 10.1177/1099800414529648
    Elucidate the antinociceptive mechanisms of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia malaccensis Linn.
  11. Taher M, Susanti D, Abd Hamid S, Edueng K, Jaffri JM, Adina AB, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Jan;27(1):179-81.
    PMID: 24374446
    An alkaloid from Maclurodendron porteri has been isolated and characterized. Extraction process was conducted by acid-base extraction method followed by column chromatography. The structure was established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The compound was identified as haplophytin B which occurs commonly in the Rutaceae family. However, this is the first time this alkaloid was isolated and reported from the species. The compound showed no inhibition against Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli and no cytotoxic activity against H199 and A549 cell lines.
  12. Saad S, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H, Awang AF
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Jun;2(6):427-9.
    PMID: 23569943 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60069-0
    To investigate the antimicrobial property of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba (S. alba).
  13. Kamazeri TS, Samah OA, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Mar;5(3):202-9.
    PMID: 22305785 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60025-X
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the chemical composition of the essential oils of Curcuma aeruginosa (C. aeruginosa), Curcuma mangga (C. mangga), and Zingiber cassumunar (Z. cassumunar), and study their antimicrobial activity.

    METHODS: Essential oils obtained by steam distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated against four bacteria: Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa); and two fungi: Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Cyptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans), using disc-diffusion and broth microdilution methods.

    RESULTS: Cycloisolongifolene, 8,9-dehydro formyl (35.29%) and dihydrocostunolide (22.51%) were the major compounds in C. aeruginosa oil; whereas caryophyllene oxide (18.71%) and caryophyllene (12.69%) were the major compounds in C. mangga oil; and 2,6,9,9-tetramethyl-2,6,10-cycloundecatrien-1-one (60.77%) and α-caryophyllene (23.92%) were abundant in Z. cassumunar oil. The essential oils displayed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. C. mangga oil had the highest and most broad-spectrum activity by inhibiting all microorganisms tested, with C. neoformans being the most sensitive microorganism by having the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 0.1 μL/mL. C. aeruginosa oil showed mild antimicrobial activity, whereas Z. cassumunar had very low or weak activity against the tested microorganisms.

    CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results suggest promising antimicrobial properties of C. mangga and C. aeruginosa, which may be useful for food preservation, pharmaceutical treatment and natural therapies.

  14. Alkhamaiseh SI, Taher M, Ahmad F, Qaralleh H, Althunibat OY, Susanti D, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):555-63.
    PMID: 22713941
    Recently there was huge increase in using of 'herbal products'. These can be defined as plants, parts of plants or extracts from plants that are used for curing disease. However, Calophyllum species is a tropical plant and it has been used in traditional medicine, the limitation in safety and effectiveness information could lead to serious health problems. Providing information for communities by evaluating the phytochemical contents, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities will improve the therapeutic values. Three main Calophyllum canum fractions (none - high polar) were tested to find out the phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol content, DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating iron ions. Also were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Psedomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition, cytotoxic activity was assayed against lung cancer A549 cell line. The methanol fraction showed no bioactivity but achieved the highest amount of phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid contents, also it showed a significant result as antioxidant, reducing power and chelating agent. The n-hexane fraction achieved the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 12.5 μg. mL(-1) against B. cereus while the MIC value for DCM fraction was 25 μg. mL(-1). The DCM fraction was more active against S. aureus where the result was 50 μg. mL(-1) while the n-hexane fraction was 100 μg. mL(-1). The three main fractions have shown no activity against gram negative bacterial and fungal. The n-hexane and DCM fractions have shown cytotoxicity against lung cancer cell line; the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 22 ± 2.64 and 32 ± 3.78 μg. mL(-1) respectively. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the results, C. canum fractions proved to be effective against gram positive bacterial and anti-proliferation activity. Also it showed antioxidant activity as well. The results provided beneficial information for communities as well as can help to search for alternative drugs, and will contribute to establish safe and effective use of phytomedicines in the treatment of diseases.
  15. Saad S, Taher M, Susanti D, Qaralleh H, Rahim NA
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Jul;4(7):523-5.
    PMID: 21803301 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60138-7
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antimicrobial activities of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves of Lumnitzera littorea (L. littorea) against six human pathogenic microbes.

    METHODS: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods.

    RESULTS: The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts were increased with increasing the concentration. It is clear that n-hexane extract was the most effective extract. Additionally, Gram positive Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) appear to be the most sensitive strain while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the yeast strains (Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans)) appear to be resistance to the tested concentrations since no inhibition zone was observed. The inhibition of microbial growth at concentration as low as 0.04 mg/mL indicated the potent antimicrobial activity of L. littorea extracts.

    CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results are considered sufficient for further study to isolate the compounds responsible for the activity and suggesting the possibility of finding potent antibacterial agents from L. littorea extracts.

  16. Taher M, Susanti D, Rezali MF, Zohri FS, Ichwan SJ, Alkhamaiseh SI, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Feb;5(2):136-41.
    PMID: 22221758 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60012-1
    OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of stembark of Garcinia malaccensis (G. malaccensis) together with apoptotic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    METHODS: Purification and structure elucidation were carried out by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, respectively. MTT and trypan blue exclusion methods were performed to study the cytotoxic activity. Antibacterial activity was conducted by disc diffusion and microdilution methods, whereas antioxidant activities were done by ferric thiocyanate method and DPPH radical scavenging.

    RESULTS: The phytochemical study led to the isolation of α,β-mangostin and cycloart-24-en-3β-ol. α-Mangostin exhibited cytotoxic activity against HSC-3 cells with an IC(50) of 0.33 μM. β- and α-mangostin showed activity against K562 cells with IC(50) of 0.40 μM and 0.48 μM, respectively. α-Mangostin was active against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) with inhibition zone and MIC value of (19 mm; 0.025 mg/mL) and (20 mm; 0.013 mg/mL), respectively. In antioxidant assay, α-mangostin exhibited activity as an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation.

    CONCLUSIONS: G. malaccensis presence α- and β-mangostin and cycloart-24-en-3β-ol. β-Mangostin was found very active against HSC-3 cells and K562. The results suggest that mangostins derivatives have the potential to inhibit the growth of cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. In addition, α-and β-mangostin was found inhibit the growth of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria and also showed the activity as an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation.

  17. Ahmed AS, Mandal UK, Taher M, Susanti D, Jaffri JM
    Pharm Dev Technol, 2018 Oct;23(8):751-760.
    PMID: 28378604 DOI: 10.1080/10837450.2017.1295067
    The development of hydrogel films as wound healing dressings is of a great interest owing to their biological tissue-like nature. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene glycol (PVA/PEG) hydrogels loaded with asiaticoside, a standardized rich fraction of Centella asiatica, were successfully developed using the freeze-thaw method. Response surface methodology with Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the hydrogels. The hydrogels were characterized and optimized by gel fraction, swelling behavior, water vapor transmission rate and mechanical strength. The formulation with 8% PVA, 5% PEG 400 and five consecutive freeze-thaw cycles was selected as the optimized formulation and was further characterized by its drug release, rheological study, morphology, cytotoxicity and microbial studies. The optimized formulation showed more than 90% drug release at 12 hours. The rheological properties exhibited that the formulation has viscoelastic behavior and remains stable upon storage. Cell culture studies confirmed the biocompatible nature of the optimized hydrogel formulation. In the microbial limit tests, the optimized hydrogel showed no microbial growth. The developed optimized PVA/PEG hydrogel using freeze-thaw method was swellable, elastic, safe, and it can be considered as a promising new wound dressing formulation.
  18. Abdul Khodir WKW, Abdul Razak AH, Ng MH, Guarino V, Susanti D
    J Funct Biomater, 2018 May 18;9(2).
    PMID: 29783681 DOI: 10.3390/jfb9020036
    In the current practice, the clinical use of conventional skin substitutes such as autogenous skin grafts have shown several problems, mainly with respect to limited sources and donor site morbidity. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of smart synthetic biomaterials is tremendously diffusing as skin substitutes. Indeed, engineered skin grafts or analogues frequently play an important role in the treatment of chronic skin wounds, by supporting the regeneration of newly formed tissue, and at the same time preventing infections during the long-term treatment. In this context, natural proteins such as collagen-natively present in the skin tissue-embedded in synthetic polymers (i.e., PCL) allow the development of micro-structured matrices able to mimic the functions and to structure of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Moreover, the encapsulation of drugs, such as gentamicin sulfate, also improves the bioactivity of nanofibers, due to the efficient loading and a controlled drug release towards the site of interest. Herein, we have done a preliminary investigation on the capability of gentamicin sulfate, loaded into collagen-added nanofibers, for the controlled release in local infection treatments. Experimental studies have demonstrated that collagen added fibers can be efficaciously used to administrate gentamicin for 72 h without any toxic in vitro response, thus emerging as a valid candidate for the therapeutic treatment of infected wounds.
  19. Ali Y, Muhamad Bunnori N, Susanti D, Muhammad Alhassan A, Abd Hamid S
    Front Chem, 2018;6:210.
    PMID: 29946538 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00210
    Calixarene derivatives are reported as potential therapeutic agents. Azo derivatives of calixarenes have not been given much consideration to explore their biomedical applications. In the present study, some azo-based derivatives of calix[4]arene were synthesized and characterized and their antibacterial and antiviral potentials were studied. The mono azo products of sulphanilamide, sulfaguanidine and 2-methyl-4-aminobenzoic acid showed good activity against bacterial strains with minimum inhibition concentration values ranging from 0.97 to 62.5 μg/mL. For mono azo products, the diazotized salt was applied as a limiting reagent. The use of calix[4]arene and sodium acetate trihydrate in 1:3 (molar ratio) helped in partial substitution. Molecular docking was performed to see the interaction of the designed compounds with two bacterial and one viral (neuraminidase) receptor. Some of the derivatives showed good interaction with the active site of bacterial and neuraminidase enzymes through hydrogen, hydrophobic and pi-pi interactions, and could inhibit the activity of the selected enzymes.
  20. Sh Ahmed A, Taher M, Mandal UK, Jaffri JM, Susanti D, Mahmood S, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Aug 14;19(1):213.
    PMID: 31412845 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2625-2
    BACKGROUND: Various extracts of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) and its active constituent, asiaticoside, have been reported to possess wound healing property when assessed using various in vivo and in vitro models. In an attempt to develop a formulation with accelerated wound healing effect, the present study was performed to examine in vivo efficacy of asiaticoside-rich hydrogel formulation in rabbits.

    METHODS: Asiaticoside-rich fraction was prepared from C. asiatica aerial part and then incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene glycol (PVA/PEG) hydrogel. The hydrogel was subjected to wound healing investigation using the in vivo incision model.

    RESULTS: The results obtained demonstrated that: i) the hydrogel formulation did not cause any signs of irritation on the rabbits' skin and; ii) enhanced wound healing 15% faster than the commercial cream and > 40% faster than the untreated wounds. The skin healing process was seen in all wounds marked by formation of a thick epithelial layer, keratin, and moderate formation of granulation tissues, fibroblasts and collagen with no fibrinoid necrosis detected.

    CONCLUSION: The asiaticoside-rich hydrogel developed using the freeze-thaw method was effective in accelerating wound healing in rabbits.

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