Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

  1. Zhang T, Wu Q, Zhang Z
    Curr Biol, 2020 04 06;30(7):1346-1351.e2.
    PMID: 32197085 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022
    An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) began in the city of Wuhan in China and has widely spread worldwide. Currently, it is vital to explore potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 to control COVID-19 spread. Therefore, we reinvestigated published data from pangolin lung samples from which SARS-CoV-like CoVs were detected by Liu et al. [1]. We found genomic and evolutionary evidence of the occurrence of a SARS-CoV-2-like CoV (named Pangolin-CoV) in dead Malayan pangolins. Pangolin-CoV is 91.02% and 90.55% identical to SARS-CoV-2 and BatCoV RaTG13, respectively, at the whole-genome level. Aside from RaTG13, Pangolin-CoV is the most closely related CoV to SARS-CoV-2. The S1 protein of Pangolin-CoV is much more closely related to SARS-CoV-2 than to RaTG13. Five key amino acid residues involved in the interaction with human ACE2 are completely consistent between Pangolin-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but four amino acid mutations are present in RaTG13. Both Pangolin-CoV and RaTG13 lost the putative furin recognition sequence motif at S1/S2 cleavage site that can be observed in the SARS-CoV-2. Conclusively, this study suggests that pangolin species are a natural reservoir of SARS-CoV-2-like CoVs.
  2. Jaćević V, Wu Q, Nepovimova E, Kuča K
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 2019 Oct;71:103221.
    PMID: 31365892 DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2019.103221
    Our aim was to compare the protective efficacy of two different formulations of methylprednisolone in T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyopathy. Methylprednisolone (soluble form, Lemod-solu® and/or depot form, Lemod-depo®, a total single dose of 40 mg/kg im) was given immediately after T-2 toxin (1 LD50 0.23 mg/kg sc). The myocardial tissue samples were examinated by using histopathology, semiquantitative and imaging analyses on day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 60 of the study. Therapeutic application of Lemod-solu® significantly decreased the intensity of myocardial degeneration and haemorrhages, distribution of glycogen granules in the endo- and perimysium, a total number of mast cells and the degree of their degranulation was in correlation with the reversible heart structural lesions (p 
  3. Jaćević V, Wu Q, Nepovimova E, Kuča K
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2020 Jan 22.
    PMID: 31981685 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2020.111138
    T-2 toxin, A trichothecenes mycotoxin, is immunotoxic to animals and humans. Although it is highly cardiotoxic, the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy caused by T-2 toxin is not entirely clear. Hence, in our research, cardiomyopathy was induced by a single injection of T-2 mycotoxin (0.23 mg/kg s.c., 1 LD50.) to Wistar rats. The cardiac tissue was carefully examinated by using basic histopathology, semiquantitative (tissue grading score scales) and imaging (a total number of mast cells - MCs) analyses on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 60 of the study. The most intensive myocardial alterations (cardiac damage score, CDS = 4.20-4.40), irregular glycogen distribution (glycogen distribution score, GDS = 4.07-4.17), haemorrhagic foci (vascular damage score, VDS = 4.57-4.90), diffuse accumulation and degranulation of MCs were observed on day 28 and 60 after treatment (p 
  4. Wu Q, Patocka J, Nepovimova E, Kuca K
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2019 Apr 24;234:197-203.
    PMID: 30695706 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.01.022
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is popularly known as bellyache bush or black physic nut and is widely used in local / traditional medicine due to the various biological activities attributed to its different parts, including its leaves, roots, and latex.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: In this review, we aim to update and discuss the chemistry, specific pharmacology, and toxicological activities of Jatropha gossypiifolia and its bioactive metabolites.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Science Direct databases were searched with the name "Jatropha gossypiifolia" and the term "bioactive metabolites". All studies on the chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of the plant up to December 2018 were included in this review.

    RESULTS: Jatropha gossypiifolia leaves are considered to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. The root and stem have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The seeds and fruits can be used against influenza and as a sedative, analgesic or anti-diarrheal agents. The latex is bactericidal and molluscicidal. Topical application of latex is used to treat wounds and bites of venomous animals. The diluted form is usually used for the treatment of diarrhoea by indigenous peoples.

    CONCLUSIONS: The main pharmacological activities of Jatropha gossypiifolia include anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase, and antihypertensive activities. Species of Jatropha are notably known for their toxic potential, and their toxicity is primarily related to the latex and seed contents. However, the potential mechanisms of these pharmacological activities have not been fully explored. We hope this review will help to further inform the potential utilization of Jatropha gossypiifolia in complementary and alternative medicine.

  5. Yao S, Wu Q, Kang Q, Chen YW, Lu Y
    Risk Anal, 2024 Feb;44(2):459-476.
    PMID: 37330273 DOI: 10.1111/risa.14175
    The Northern Sea Route (NSR) makes travel between Europe and Asia shorter and quicker than a southern transit via the Strait of Malacca and Suez Canal. It provides greater access to Arctic resources such as oil and gas. As global warming accelerates, melting Arctic ice caps are likely to increase traffic in the NSR and enhance its commercial viability. Due to the harsh Arctic environment imposing threats to the safety of ship navigation, it is necessary to assess Arctic navigation risk to maintain shipping safety. Currently, most studies are focused on the conventional assessment of the risk, which lacks the validation based on actual data. In this study, actual data about Arctic navigation environment and related expert judgments were used to generate a structured data set. Based on the structured data set, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) and alternative methods were used to establish models for the assessment of Arctic navigation risk, which were validated using cross-validation. The results show that compared with alternative models, XGBoost models have the best performance in terms of mean absolute errors and root mean squared errors. The XGBoost models can learn and reproduce expert judgments and knowledge for the assessment of Arctic navigation risk. Feature importance (FI) and shapley additive explanations (SHAP) are used to further interpret the relationship between input data and predictions. The application of XGBoost, FI, and SHAP is aimed to improve the safety of Arctic shipping using advanced artificial intelligence techniques. The validated assessment enhances the quality and robustness of assessment.
  6. Cui X, Wang R, Bian P, Wu Q, Seshadri VDD, Liu L
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2019 Dec;47(1):3391-3398.
    PMID: 31394949 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2019.1649269
    Nimbolide, a triterpenoid isolated from flower of neem tree possess various therapeutic properties. The objective of the study was to assess the anti-arthritic activity of nimbolide in arthritis induced rats. Nimbolide (20 mg/kg per day) was given orally to arthritic rats induced with Complete Freund's Adjuvant and changes in paw volume, body weight, organ indices (thymus and spleen), arthritic score, biochemical parameters and proinflammatory cytokines levels were determined. Histopathological analysis was also performed. Western blot analysis was also performed. Rats treated with nimbolide displayed marked reduction in arthritic score, organ indices, volume of paw, edema formation, along with substantial enhancement in body weight. Histopathological findings showed significant reduction in destruction of joints and inflammation following nimbolide treatment. The protective action of arthritic rats treated with nimbolide was also substantiated by molecular and biochemical studies. The results of the study show that nimbolide treatment has markedly enhanced health and reduced inflammation via lessening the proinflammatory cytokines expression in arthritic rats. Hence, nimbolide may be used as a potent therapeutic drug in treating rheumatoid arthritis.
  7. Zhang Y, Wu Q, Fang S, Li S, Zheng H, Zhang Y, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2020 Aug 14;21(1):559.
    PMID: 32795331 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-020-06965-5
    BACKGROUND: Mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, a euryhaline crustacean species, mainly inhabits the Indo-Western Pacific region. Wild mud crab spawn in high-salt condition and the salinity reduced with the growth of the hatching larvae. When the larvae grow up to megalopa, they migrate back to estuaries and coasts in virtue of the flood tide, settle and recruit adult habitats and metamorphose into the crablet stage. Adult crab can even survive in a wide salinity of 0-35 ppt. To investigate the mRNA profile after salinity stress, S. paramamosain megalopa were exposed to different salinity seawater (low, 14 ppt; control, 25 ppt; high, 39 ppt).

    RESULTS: Firstly, from the expression profiles of Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter, chloride channel protein 2, and ABC transporter, it turned out that the 24 h might be the most influenced duration in the short-term stress. We collected megalopa under different salinity for 24 h and then submitted to mRNA profiling. Totally, 57.87 Gb Clean Data were obtained. The comparative genomic analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The most significantly DEGs include gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase-like, facilitated trehalose transporter Tret1, sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha, rhodanese 1-like protein, etc. And the significantly enriched pathways were lysine degradation, choline metabolism in cancer, phospholipase D signaling pathway, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, and sphingolipid signaling pathway. The results indicate that in the short-term salinity stress, the megalopa might regulate some mechanism such as metabolism, immunity responses, osmoregulation to adapt to the alteration of the environment.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first genome-wide transcriptome analysis of S. paramamosain megalopa for studying its stress adaption mechanisms under different salinity. The results reveal numbers of genes modified by salinity stress and some important pathways, which will provide valuable resources for discovering the molecular basis of salinity stress adaptation of S. paramamosain larvae and further boost the understanding of the potential molecular mechanisms of salinity stress adaptation for crustacean species.

  8. Yue Z, Ma C, Lim KS, Xiao B, Wu Q, Shu Y, et al.
    Epilepsy Behav, 2017 07;72:150-155.
    PMID: 28582727 DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2017.04.028
    PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a significant yet seriously underappreciated public health issue in Mainland China. The stigma and discrimination toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their families are especially severe in China based on cultural misconceptions which cause tremendous psychological, economic and social burdens. It is imperative to formulate a targeted public intervention to eliminate knowledge gaps and correct these misconceptions of epilepsy. However, to date, the essential tools that may drive such an intervention by measuring the public perspective on PWEs is lacking in China. The goal of this study is to test the reliability and validity of a Simplified Chinese version of the "Public Attitude Toward Epilepsy" scale (PATE) in Mainland China which can be used to understand the content and identify the possible sources of stigma to better inform the design and focus of future stigma reduction interventions.

    METHODS: The standard procedure of cross-cultural adaptation was used in the translation process. Subjects from different economic and social backgrounds were enrolled by convenience sampling in central China. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to check the underlying factor structure of the items. Furthermore, Cronbach's alpha was utilized to assess internal consistency.

    RESULTS: 199 respondents were included in the final analysis. Content validity of this Chinese PATE was assessed to be adequate for assessing public attitudes toward epilepsy among the mainland Chinese. Two factors were extracted from the data by exploratory factor analysis; confirmatory factor analysis further confirmed good consistency of theoretical constructs between the original Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy scale and our Chinese PATE. Our Chinese PATE presented excellent internal consistency (α=0.853-0.909).

    CONCLUSION: This version of the Chinese PATE showed acceptable psychometric properties, indicating that it can be implemented in surveying public attitudes toward epilepsy in Mainland China.
  9. Cui YC, Wu Q, Teh SW, Peli A, Bu G, Qiu YS, et al.
    Microb Pathog, 2018 Sep;122:130-136.
    PMID: 29909241 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.06.021
    The recent global resurgence of arthritogenic alphaviruses, including Ross River, chikungunya, and dengue, highlights an urgency for the development of therapeutic strategies. Currently, dengue represents the most rapidly transmitting mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. By contracting bone breaking diseases, patients experience devastating clinical manifestations involving muscle pain and bone loss. The bone self-repair and regeneration mechanisms can be damaged by the presence of viruses and bacteria. The rapid establishment of dengue epidemic and the severity of bacterial and viral infections affecting the bone stress the urgent need of developing effective interventions. Herein, we review current knowledge on bone breaking infections, covering both bacterial and mosquito-borne viral ones. The mechanisms exploited by these diseases to significantly affect the bone, including interferences with self-repair and regeneration routes, were discussed. In the final section, challenges for future research aimed to treat and prevent bacterial and mosquito-borne bone-breaking infections have been outlined.
  10. Wu Q, Miao G, Li X, Liu W, Ikhwanuddin M, Ma H
    Mol Biol Rep, 2018 Dec;45(6):1913-1918.
    PMID: 30203240 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-018-4339-9
    The blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) is a valuable marine fishery resource in Indo-West Pacific Ocean. So far, rare genetic resource of this species is available. In this report, the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) approach was employed to mine the genomic information and identify molecular markers in P. pelagicus. A total of 0.82 Gbp clean data were generated from the genome of individual "X2A". De novo assembly produced 85,796 contigs with an average length of 339 bp. A total of 45,464 putative SNPs and 17,983 microsatellite loci were identified from the genomes of ten individuals. Furthermore, 31 pairs of primers were successfully designed, with 16 of them exhibiting polymorphism in a wild population. For these polymorphic loci, the expected and observed alleles per locus ranged from 1.064 to 7.314 and from 2 to 11, respectively. The expected and observed heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.0615 to 0.819 and from 0.0626 to 1.000, respectively. Nine loci showed high informative with polymorphism information content (PIC) > 0.5. Five loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the samples analyzed. No linkage disequilibrium was found among the 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci. This study provided massive genetic resource and polymorphic molecular markers that should be helpful for studies on conservation genetics, population dynamics and genetic diversity of P. pelagicus and related crab species.
  11. Wu Q, Wu W, Fu B, Shi L, Wang X, Kuca K
    Med Res Rev, 2019 11;39(6):2082-2104.
    PMID: 30912203 DOI: 10.1002/med.21574
    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved in cancer cell apoptosis; however, emerging evidence indicates that this Janus signaling promotes cancer cell survival. JNK acts synergistically with NF-κB, JAK/STAT, and other signaling molecules to exert a survival function. JNK positively regulates autophagy to counteract apoptosis, and its effect on autophagy is related to the development of chemotherapeutic resistance. The prosurvival effect of JNK may involve an immune evasion mechanism mediated by transforming growth factor-β, toll-like receptors, interferon-γ, and autophagy, as well as compensatory JNK-dependent cell proliferation. The present review focuses on recent advances in understanding the prosurvival function of JNK and its role in tumor development and chemoresistance, including a comprehensive analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying JNK-mediated cancer cell survival. There is a focus on the specific "Yin and Yang" functions of JNK1 and JNK2 in the regulation of cancer cell survival. We highlight recent advances in our knowledge of the roles of JNK in cancer cell survival, which may provide insight into the distinct functions of JNK in cancer and its potential for cancer therapy.
  12. Ullah A, Leong SW, Wang J, Wu Q, Ghauri MA, Sarwar A, et al.
    Cell Death Dis, 2021 05 14;12(5):490.
    PMID: 33990544 DOI: 10.1038/s41419-021-03771-z
    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. As one of the key features of tumor microenvironment, hypoxia conditions are associated with poor prognosis in LC patients. Upregulation of hypoxic-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) leads to the activation of various factors that contribute to the increased drug resistance, proliferation, and migration of tumor cells. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1 (APEX1) is a multi-functional protein that regulates several transcription factors, including HIF-1α, that contribute to tumor growth, oxidative stress responses, and DNA damage. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying cell responses to hypoxia and modulation of APEX1, which regulate HIF-1α and downstream pathways. We found that hypoxia-induced APEX1/HIF-1α pathways regulate several key cellular functions, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9)-mediated intracellular pH, migration, and angiogenesis. Cephalomannine (CPM), a natural compound, exerted inhibitory effects in hypoxic LC cells via the inhibition of APEX1/HIF-1α interaction in vitro and in vivo. CPM can significantly inhibit cell viability, ROS production, intracellular pH, and migration in hypoxic LC cells as well as angiogenesis of HUVECs under hypoxia through the inhibition of APEX1/HIF-1α interaction. Taken together, CPM could be considered as a promising compound for LC treatment.
  13. Cao Y, Lu Z, Wang D, Tan KS, Liu W, Wu Q, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2021 Nov 15;911:174539.
    PMID: 34599913 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174539
    Ischemia heart disease, one of the lethal cardiovascular diseases, irreversibly impairs cardiac function and is recognized as the primary risk factor for mortality in industrialized countries. The myocardial ischemia treatment still faces a considerable degree of increasing unmet needs. Isosteviol sodium (STVNa) and its derivatives have been proven to effectively alleviate metabolic diseases, hypertension, and heart hypertrophy. Little is known about how STVNa confers the cardioprotective effect during acute myocardial ischemia (AMI). In the present study, a rat model of acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial ischemia by left anterior descending (LAD) ligation was established. Compared to the AMI model group, STVNa administration (4 mg/kg, twice a day) well preserved left ventricle function by ejection fraction (45.10 ± 10.39 vs. 73.64 ± 13.15, p = 0.0013) and fractional shortening (22.94 ± 6.28 vs. 44.00 ± 11.05, p = 0.0017). Further analysis shows that high-dose STVNa (4 mg/kg) significantly improved the hemodynamics in AMI rats, with LVSP (88.25 ± 12.78 vs 99.75 ± 5.10, p = 0.018), max dP/dt (2978.45 ± 832.46 vs 4048.56 ± 827.23, p = 0.096), LVEDP (19.88 ± 2.00 vs 22.26 ± 3.21, p = 0.04) and left ventricular relaxation time constant (Tau) (0.030 ± 0.006 vs 0.021 ± 0.004, p = 0.021). Mechanically, STVNa administration retained the myocardial levels of phosphorylated AMPK, and CPT1b. Moreover, STVNa significantly increased the total energy expenditure, and reduced fatty acid accumulation through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which was supported by the indirect calorimetry and cellular energy analysis. Taken together, these findings suggest that STVNa is a potential cardioprotection agent for ischemic cardiomyopathy, likely through improving energy homeostasis, left ventricular hemodynamics, and heart function.
  14. Peng Y, Fornara DA, Wu Q, Heděnec P, Yuan J, Yuan C, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2023 Jan 20;857(Pt 3):159686.
    PMID: 36302428 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.159686
    Plant litter decomposition is not only the major source of soil carbon and macronutrients, but also an important process for the biogeochemical cycling of trace elements such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu). The concentrations of plant litter trace elements can influence litter decomposition and element cycling across the plant and soil systems. Yet, a global perspective of the patterns and driving factors of trace elements in plant litter is missing. To bridge this knowledge gap, we quantitatively assessed the concentrations of four common trace elements, namely Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu, of freshly fallen plant litter with 1411 observations extracted from 175 publications across the globe. Results showed that (1) the median of the average concentrations of litter Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu were 0.200, 0.555, 0.032, and 0.006 g/kg, respectively, across litter types; (2) litter concentrations of Fe, Zn, and Cu were generally stable regardless of variations in multiple biotic and abiotic factors (e.g., plant taxonomy, climate, and soil properties); and (3) litter Mn concentration was more sensitive to environmental conditions and influenced by multiple factors, but mycorrhizal association and soil pH and nitrogen concentration were the most important ones. Overall, our study provides a clear global picture of plant litter Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu concentrations and their driving factors, which is important for improving our understanding on their biogeochemical cycling along with litter decomposition processes.
  15. Jin X, Wu F, Wu Q, Heděnec P, Peng Y, Wang Z, et al.
    Heliyon, 2023 Jan;9(1):e12984.
    PMID: 36704269 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e12984
    Irregular precipitation caused by climate changes has resulted in frequent events of soil drying-rewetting cycles (DWC), which can strongly affect soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, including the fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The response of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes to DWC events may differ among different ecosystem types and vary with experimental settings and soil properties, but these processes were not quantitatively assessed. Here, we evaluated the responses of soil GHG fluxes to DWC, compared with consistent moisture, as well as the associated driving factors with 424 paired observations collected from 47 publications of lab incubation experiments. Results showed that: (1) DWC significantly decreased soil CO2 emissions by an average of 9.7%, but did not affect the emissions and uptakes of soil CH4 and N2O; (2) DWC effects on soil GHG emissions varied significantly among different ecosystem types, with CO2 emissions significantly decreased by 6.8 and 16.3% in croplands and grasslands soils, respectively, and CH4 and N2O emissions significantly decreased and increased in wetlands and forests soils, respectively; (3) the effects of DWC on CO2 emissions were also positively regulated by organic C and N concentrations, pH, clay concentration, and soil depth, but negatively by C:N ratio and silt concentration, while DWC effects on N2O emissions were negatively controlled by C:N ratio, silt concentration, and soil depth. Overall, our results showed that CO2 emissions were significantly decreased by DWC, while the fluxes of CH4 and N2O were not affected, indicating an overall decrease of GHGs in response to DWC. Our results will be useful for a better understanding of global GHG emissions under future climate change scenario.
  16. Mahmud BU, Hong GY, Mamun AA, Ping EP, Wu Q
    Sensors (Basel), 2023 Feb 27;23(5).
    PMID: 36904845 DOI: 10.3390/s23052640
    As a fundamental but difficult topic in computer vision, 3D object segmentation has various applications in medical image analysis, autonomous vehicles, robotics, virtual reality, lithium battery image analysis, etc. In the past, 3D segmentation was performed using hand-made features and design techniques, but these techniques could not generalize to vast amounts of data or reach acceptable accuracy. Deep learning techniques have lately emerged as the preferred method for 3D segmentation jobs as a result of their extraordinary performance in 2D computer vision. Our proposed method used a CNN-based architecture called 3D UNET, which is inspired by the famous 2D UNET that has been used to segment volumetric image data. To see the internal changes of composite materials, for instance, in a lithium battery image, it is necessary to see the flow of different materials and follow the directions analyzing the inside properties. In this paper, a combination of 3D UNET and VGG19 has been used to conduct a multiclass segmentation of publicly available sandstone datasets to analyze their microstructures using image data based on four different objects in the samples of volumetric data. In our image sample, there are a total of 448 2D images, which are then aggregated as one 3D volume to examine the 3D volumetric data. The solution involves the segmentation of each object in the volume data and further analysis of each object to find its average size, area percentage, total area, etc. The open-source image processing package IMAGEJ is used for further analysis of individual particles. In this study, it was demonstrated that convolutional neural networks can be trained to recognize sandstone microstructure traits with an accuracy of 96.78% and an IOU of 91.12%. According to our knowledge, many prior works have applied 3D UNET for segmentation, but very few papers extend it further to show the details of particles in the sample. The proposed solution offers a computational insight for real-time implementation and is discovered to be superior to the current state-of-the-art methods. The result has importance for the creation of an approximately similar model for the microstructural analysis of volumetric data.
  17. Dalu T, Wasserman RJ, Wu Q, Froneman WP, Weyl OLF
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Jan;25(3):2842-2852.
    PMID: 29143261 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-0728-1
    The effect of metals on environmental health is well documented and monitoring these and other pollutants is considered an important part of environmental management. Developing countries are yet to fully appreciate the direct impacts of pollution on aquatic ecosystems and as such, information on pollution dynamics is scant. Here, we assessed the temporal and spatial dynamics of stream sediment metal and nutrient concentrations using contaminant indices (e.g. enrichment factors, pollution load and toxic risk indices) in an arid temperate environment over the wet and dry seasons. The mean sediment nutrient, organic matter and metal concentration were highest during the dry season, with high values being observed for the urban environment. Sediment contaminant assessment scores indicated that during the wet season, the sediment quality was acceptable, but not so during the dry season. The dry season had low to moderate levels of enrichment for metals B, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, K and Zn. Overall, applying the sediment pollution load index highlighted poor quality river sediment along the length of the river. Toxic risk index indicated that most sites posed no toxic risk. The results of this study highlighted that river discharge plays a major role in structuring temporal differences in sediment quality. It was also evident that infrastructure degradation was likely contributing to the observed state of the river quality. The study contributes to our understanding of pollution dynamics in arid temperate landscapes where vast temporal differences in base flow characterise the riverscape. Such information is further useful for contrasting sediment pollution dynamics in aquatic environments with other climatic regions.
  18. Yuan C, Wu F, Wu Q, Fornara DA, Heděnec P, Peng Y, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2023 Jun 25;879:163059.
    PMID: 36963687 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.163059
    Vegetation restoration is a widely used, effective, and sustainable method to improve soil quality in post-mining lands. Here we aimed to assess global patterns and driving factors of potential vegetation restoration effects on soil carbon, nutrients, and enzymatic activities. We synthesized 4838 paired observations extracted from 175 publications to evaluate the effects that vegetation restoration might have on the concentrations of soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, as well as enzymatic activities. We found that (1) vegetation restoration had consistent positive effects on the concentrations of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate, total phosphorus, and available phosphorus on average by 85.4, 70.3, 75.7, 54.6, 58.6, 34.7, and 60.4 %, respectively. Restoration also increased the activities of catalase, alkaline phosphatase, sucrase, and urease by 63.3, 104.8, 125.5, and 124.6 %, respectively; (2) restoration effects did not vary among different vegetation types (i.e., grass, tree, shrub and their combinations) or leaf type (broadleaved, coniferous, and mixed), but were affected by mine type; and (3) latitude, climate, vegetation species richness, restoration year, and initial soil properties are important moderator variables, but their effects varied among different soil variables. Our global scale study shows how vegetation restoration can improve soil quality in post-mining lands by increasing soil carbon, nutrients, and enzymatic activities. This information is crucial to better understand the role of vegetation cover in promoting the ecological restoration of degraded mining lands.
  19. Yu K, Feng L, Chen Y, Wu M, Zhang Y, Zhu P, et al.
    Comput Biol Med, 2024 Feb;169:107835.
    PMID: 38096762 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2023.107835
    Current wavelet thresholding methods for cardiogram signals captured by flexible wearable sensors face a challenge in achieving both accurate thresholding and real-time signal denoising. This paper proposes a real-time accurate thresholding method based on signal estimation, specifically the normalized ACF, as an alternative to traditional noise estimation without the need for parameter fine-tuning and extensive data training. This method is experimentally validated using a variety of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from different databases, each containing specific types of noise such as additive white Gaussian (AWG) noise, baseline wander noise, electrode motion noise, and muscle artifact noise. Although this method only slightly outperforms other methods in removing AWG noise in ECG signals, it far outperforms conventional methods in removing other real noise. This is attributed to the method's ability to accurately distinguish not only AWG noise that is significantly different spectrum of the ECG signal, but also real noise with similar spectra. In contrast, the conventional methods are effective only for AWG noise. In additional, this method improves the denoising visualization of the measured ECG signals and can be used to optimize other parameters of other wavelet methods to enhancing the denoised periodic signals, thereby improving diagnostic accuracy.
  20. Ohba K, Ichiyama K, Yajima M, Gemma N, Nikaido M, Wu Q, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(5):e97787.
    PMID: 24858917 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097787
    High prevalence of infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) ranging from 25 to 100% (average 31%) was observed in breast cancer (BC) patients in Singapore using novel DNA chip technology. Early stage of BC demonstrated higher HPV positivity, and BC positive for estrogen receptor (ER) showed significantly higher HPV infection rate. This unique association of HPV with BC in vivo prompted us to investigate a possible involvement of HPV in early stages of breast carcinogenesis. Using normal breast epithelial cells stably transfected with HPV-18, we showed apparent upregulation of mRNA for the cytidine deaminase, APOBEC3B (A3B) which is reported to be a source of mutations in BC. HPV-induced A3B overexpression caused significant γH2AX focus formation, and DNA breaks which were cancelled by shRNA to HPV18 E6, E7 and A3B. These results strongly suggest an active involvement of HPV in the early stage of BC carcinogenesis via A3B induction.
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