Oleh sebab kejadian jenayah bersenjata api semakin berleluasa, pengecaman senjata api yang digunakan oleh penjenayah amat diperlukan sebagai bahan bukti dalam mahkamah. Beberapa sistem pengecaman senjata api telah diutarakan sebagai pengganti kepada cara penyiasatan tradisional yang amat bergantung kepada kepakaran ahli balistik. Pemetakan rantau tumpuan (ROI) berdasarkan kedudukan titik sauh (PAP) sempadan bulatan kesan pin peletup pada tapak kelongsong peluru merupakan langkah yang amat penting dalam sistem pengecaman senjata api automatik. Walau bagaimanapun, kaedah yang digunakan dalam kajian lepas bagi mengesan PAP sempadan bulatan tersebut adalah sangat kompleks dan memerlukan masa pemprosesan yang panjang. Kajian ini menerokai algoritma yang efisien dan berkemampuan untuk mengesan PAP sempadan bulatan secara automatik. Algoritma yang diutarakan merupakan gabungan daripada penapis penajaman reruang, penormalan histogram, pengambangan dan penganggar kuasa dua terkecil tak berpemberat. Dua kaedah pengambangan yang terkenal telah diuji dan dibandingkan, iaitu kaedah pengambangan berasaskan pengelompokan dan kaedah berasaskan entropi. Di samping itu, penerokaan kesan saiz dan bentuk ROI terhadap kadar pengelasan senjata api turut dipersembahkan. Sebanyak 747 imej kesan pin peletup jenis sempadan bulatan peletup yang dihasilkan oleh lima pucuk pistol yang berlainan daripada jenis yang sama digunakan untuk menguji algoritma yang diutarakan. Kadar pengelasan imej kesan pin peletup yang memberangsangkan (> 95%) telah dicapai dengan algoritma yang dicadangkan. Kajian juga mendapati bahawa saiz dan bentuk pemetakan ROI mempunyai kesan langsung terhadap kadar pengelasan senjata api.
The highly social (eusocial) corbiculate bees, comprising the honey bees, bumble bees, and stingless bees, are ubiquitous insect pollinators that fulfill critical roles in ecosystem services and human agriculture. Here, we conduct wide sampling across the phylogeny of these corbiculate bees and reveal a dynamic evolutionary history behind their microbiota, marked by multiple gains and losses of gut associates, the presence of generalist as well as host-specific strains, and patterns of diversification driven, in part, by host ecology (for example, colony size). Across four continents, we found that different host species have distinct gut communities, largely independent of geography or sympatry. Nonetheless, their microbiota has a shared heritage: The emergence of the eusocial corbiculate bees from solitary ancestors appears to coincide with the acquisition of five core gut bacterial lineages, supporting the hypothesis that host sociality facilitates the development and maintenance of specialized microbiomes.
Knowledge on the population of genetic structure and ecological behaviour of Apis dorsata from Peninsular Malaysia is needed for effective management and conservation of this species since unsustainable whole solitary low nest cutting for product harvesting is the current common practice here. The analysis of 15 single locus DNA microsatellite markers on samples from 20 solitary nests of A. dorsata showed that while these markers were polymorphic, high intracolonial relatedness existed. Furthermore, in general, slightly negative values of intercolony relatedness (R) among the nests of A. dorsata were found. However, positive values of mean intercolony relatedness were observed between 54 pairs of nests out of 190 possible combinations. The R values among nest pairs 3-4 and 3-5 was higher than 0.50 showing that their queens were half siblings, whereas nest pair 19-20 showed relatedness of 0.95 indicating that the same queen was sampled. The results that we obtained could not conclusively support the hypothesis of this study that the honey hunters in Marang district of Malaysia repeatedly harvest the same nest located at a different site and at a different time during the same honey harvesting season. However, our finding of an appreciable level of intercolonial relatedness between several pairs of nests in this pioneer study indicated that a comprehensive study with a larger sample size of solitary nests found throughout the region would be necessary to provide concrete proof for this novel idea.
Railway and metro transport systems (RS) are becoming one of the popular choices of transportation among people, especially those who live in urban cities. Urbanization and increasing population due to rapid development of economy in many cities are leading to a bigger demand for urban rail transit. Despite being a popular variant of Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), it appears that the universal formula or techniques to solve the problem are yet to be found. This paper aims to develop an optimization algorithm for optimum route selection to multiple destinations in RS before returning to the starting point. Bee foraging behaviour is examined to generate a reliable algorithm in railway TSP. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results with the exact solutions in 10 test cases, and a numerical case study is designed to demonstrate the application with large size sample. It is tested to be efficient and effective in railway route planning as the tour can be completed within a certain period of time by using minimal resources. The findings further support the reliability of the algorithm and capability to solve the problems with different complexity. This algorithm can be used as a method to assist business practitioners making better decision in route planning.
This study determined the antiaging effect of stingless bee honey on the expression of extracellular matrix genes. MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) assay was performed for determination of optimum concentration and incubation time of stingless bee honey. Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and collagen type Ⅰ (COL1A1) were analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique. Incubation with stingless bee honey at concentration of 0.02% for 72 hr showed significant increase in the viability of human fibroblast cells. Stingless bee honey significantly downregulates metalloproteinase-1 gene expression in both pre-senescence and senescence fibroblast cells and upregulates collagen type Ⅰ gene expression in senescence fibroblast cells. In conclusion, stingless bee honey potentially delayed skin aging through modulation of extracellular matrix genes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Changes of the extracellular matrix regulation promote skin aging. Stingless bee honey is a good source of natural antioxidant which potentially delays skin aging. This study demonstrated that stingless bee honey beneficially increases collagen type Ⅰ expression and decreases MMP-1 expression during cellular aging of human dermal fibroblast cells.
Rockmelon (Cucumis melo Linnaeus (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae)) is a novel commercialized fruit in Malaysia and has great potential to become an important horticultural crop for the international market. In this study, we investigated the effects of pollination by the Indo-Malaya stingless bee Heterotrigona itama Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on measures of yield and quality of rockmelon cultivated in the greenhouse, compared with hand cross-pollination and self-pollination. Results showed that rockmelon produced from plants pollinated by stingless bees and hand cross-pollination had higher fruit set, were heavier and larger, and contained higher numbers of seed per fruit compared with those produced by self-pollination. Pollination by stingless bees produced fruit with greater sweetness than either hand cross-pollination or self-pollination. This study demonstrated that stingless bee pollination produced rockmelon fruit of similar quality, but better yields compared to the other pollination treatments. We showed that stingless bees should be considered as an alternative, effective pollinator for the improved production of high quality rockmelon in commercial greenhouse cultivation.
Deploying large numbers of mobile robots which can interact with each other produces swarm intelligent behavior. However, mobile robots are normally running with finite energy resource, supplied from finite battery. The limitation of energy resource required human intervention for recharging the batteries. The sharing information among the mobile robots would be one of the potentials to overcome the limitation on previously recharging system. A new approach is proposed based on integrated intelligent system inspired by foraging of honeybees applied to multimobile robot scenario. This integrated approach caters for both working and foraging stages for known/unknown power station locations. Swarm mobile robot inspired by honeybee is simulated to explore and identify the power station for battery recharging. The mobile robots will share the location information of the power station with each other. The result showed that mobile robots consume less energy and less time when they are cooperating with each other for foraging process. The optimizing of foraging behavior would result in the mobile robots spending more time to do real work.
Madu adalah bahan semulajadi yang dihasilkan oleh lebah madu, Apis mellifera, berpunca daripada madu yang diambil dari bunga yang berkembang atau cecair dari pokok dan tumbuhan yang dikenali sebagai madu nektar dan madu serangga masing-masing. Ia adalah larutan tepu gula, yang kaya dengan protein, mineral, vitamin, asid organik dan polifenol. Madu mempunyai pelbagai khasiat, sifat penyembuhan dan profilaktik disebabkan oleh komponen-komponen yang terkandung di dalamnya. Madu mempunyai beberapa khasiat kesihatan seperti penyembuhan luka, antimikrob, antioksidan dan potensi anti-radang. Ulasan ini adalah berkaitan komposisi nutrien, antioksidan dan kesan terapeutik madu dengan penekanan kepada madu di Malaysia.
Pollen distribution from the pollen loads of stingless bee foragers in KampungTempinis, Besut, Terengganu was observed and recorded using optical microscope. Heterotrigona itama, one of the most common IndoMalayan stingless bee species domesticated and widely distributed throughout Malaysia was selected for this observation.The objective of this study was to have an annual bee calendar for H. itama in Besut. Pollen collection was carried out twice a month from January to June 2015. Results showed, during the six months period of observation H. itama foraged 31 different flowering plants. Different months of the year showed different floral preference by the stingless bee. The most dominant flower visited by the stingless bee in January and February is Stevia rebaudiana while March to June is Antigonon leptopus (Honolulu creeper). This observation could be useful for conservation purposes and also in planning a good beescape in Malaysia meliponiculture industry.
Meliponiculture, the keeping of domesticated stingless bees such as Geniotrigona thoracica (Smith, 1857) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), is an increasingly popular agricultural industry in Malaysia. This study reports the soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) species of the genus Hermetia colonizing stingless bee colonies in Malaysia. The larvae were reared in the laboratory to the adult stage and identified through molecular and morphological approaches. Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) and Hermetia fenestrata de Meijere, 1904 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were identified from the sample provided. Earlier records of stratiomyids in stingless bee nests were misidentified as H. illucens. This paper represents the first identified record of H. fenestrata colonizing a "spoiled" stingless bee colony. In addition, adult and larval morphological differences between both species and the roles of both species in bee nest decomposition are discussed.
Penyelidikan ini dijalankan untuk menilai kesan penggunaan tiga spesies rumpai laut iaitu Ulva sp., Gracilaria sp. dan
Kappaphycus sp. sebagai agen penapis semula jadi untuk menstabilkan pengkulturan rotifer dengan menggunakan
petunjuk kaedah kuantitatif iaitu membandingkan nilai pertumbuhan seketika per hari rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Kadar
pertumbuhan seketika per hari rotifer dengan penggunaan Ulva sp. (p<0.01), Gracilaria sp. (p<0.05) dan Kappaphycus
sp. (p<0.05) pada berat basah 7 g dalam 10 L air laut menunjukkan kesan yang ketara berbanding kawalan. Bagi
kesemua rumpai laut yang diuji, keputusan menunjukkan setelah tercapainya nilai min kadar pertumbuhan seketika per
hari rotifer yang tertinggi, penambahan jumlah berat penggunaan rumpai laut memberikan kesan penurunan kepada
kadar pertumbuhan seketika rotifer. Keputusan menunjukkan Ulva sp. sesuai digunakan sebagai penapis biologi.
In this study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the cavity-nesting honeybee, A. koschevnikovi. The mitochondrial genome of A. koschevnikovi was observed to be a circular molecule of 15,278 bp and was similar to that of the other cavity-nesting honeybee species. The average AT content in the A. koschevnikovi mitochondrial genome was 84%. It was predicted to contain 13 protein-coding, 24 tRNA and two rRNA genes, along with one A + T-rich control region, besides three tRNA-Met repeats.
Royal jelly is a nutritious substance produced by the young nurse bees and contains significant amounts of proteins which are important for cell growth and proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of royal jelly as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell culture using cell proliferation assays and live cell imaging.
All honey bee species (Apis spp) share the same sex determination mechanism using the complementary sex determination (csd) gene. Only individuals heterogeneous at the csd allele develop into females, and the homozygous develop into diploid males, which do not survive. The honeybees are therefore under selection pressure to generate new csd alleles. Previous studies have shown that the csd gene is under balancing selection. We hypothesize that due to the long separation from the mainland of Hainan Island, China, that the giant honey bees (Apis dorsata) should show a founder effect for the csd gene, with many different alleles clustered together, and these would be absent on the mainland.
This report deals with a father and his son who developed acute renal failure following multiple bee stings. The renal lesion in these patients appears to be due to rhabdomyolysis caused by the bee venom. The other mechanisms are also discussed. The need for clinicians to be aware of acute renal failure as a complication of bee stings is stressed.
As consumption of stingless bee honey has been gaining popularity in many countries including Malaysia, ability to identify accurately its geographical origin proves pertinent for investigating fraudulent activities for consumer protection. Because a chemical signature can be location-specific, multi-element distribution patterns may prove useful for provenancing such product. Using the inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectrometer as well as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the distributions of multi-elements in stingless bee honey collected at four different geographical locations (North, West, East, and South) in Johor, Malaysia, were investigated. While cross-validation using PCA demonstrated 87.0% correct classification rate, the same was improved (96.2%) with the use of LDA, indicating that discrimination was possible for the different geographical regions. Therefore, utilization of multi-element analysis coupled with chemometrics techniques for assigning the provenance of stingless bee honeys for forensic applications is supported.
The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and does not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using the NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. d-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-d-Glucose, d-Xylose, α-d-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and l-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, l-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) ident d-Fructofuranose identified via ¹H-NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using the classification technique by bee species origins via the ¹H-NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.
Royal jelly is widely consumed in the community and has perceived benefits ranging from promoting growth in children and improvement of general health status to enhancement of longevity for the elderly. However, royal jelly consumption has been linked to contact dermatitis, acute asthma, anaphylaxis and death. High prevalence of positive skin tests to royal jelly have been reported among atopic populations in countries with a high rate of royal jelly consumption. The present study is aimed to identify the major allergens of royal jelly. Royal jelly extract was separated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D). Immunoblotting of the SDS-PAGE and 2-D profiles were performed to identify the allergenic spots. Spots were then excised from the 2-D gel, digested with trypsin and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The SDS-PAGE of royal jelly extract revealed 18 bands between 10 to 167 kD. Western blot of the fractionated proteins detected 15 IgE-binding bands between 14 to 127 kD with seven major allergens of 32, 40, 42, 49, 55, 60 and 67 kD using serum from 53 subjects with royal jelly allergy. The 2-D gel fractionated the royal jelly proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Out of these, 30 spots demonstrated specific IgE affinity to the sera tested. Eight spots of the major royal jelly allergens were selected for mass-spectrometry analysis. Digested tryptic peptides of the spots were compared to the amino acid sequence search in protein databases which identified the fragments of royal jelly homologus to major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJ1) and major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJ2). In conclusion, the major allergens of royal jelly are MRJ1 and MRJ2 in our patients' population.
Melissopalynology (pollen analysis) allows the identification of floral sources, botanical and geographical origin of selected Kelulut honey samples. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the origin of selected Kelulut honey by Geniotrigona thoracica and Heterotrigona itama farmed and harvested at Lenggong (Perak). Briefly, the honey was diluted in ddH2O and filtered to obtain the pollens. Subsequently, the morphology of the pollens was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the frequency classes of species were determined. Based on qualitative and quantitative analysis, G. thoracica honey was demonstrated to be a uni-floral honey and H. Itama honey as a multi-floral honey. A total of 7 types of pollens were observed in G. thoracica honey while 9 types in H. Itama honey. Some of the pollen were identified with the aid of pollen atlas while some were unidentified. Furthermore, the results obtained in this study suggested that the pollens present in Kelulut honey are crucial in identifying botanical resource of stingless bee honey, which assist in preserving the ecosystem.
Beekeeping with stingless bee provides new opportunities to improve the incomes of many households in Malaysia through the sale of honey and other bee products. While Heterotrigona itama is one of the most commonly cultured species of stingless bees, its behavior is not very well understood. Hence, we conducted this study to investigate the behavior of H. itama in exploiting food sources by ascertaining the nectar sugar concentration preferred by the bee. We also aimed to determine the preferred distance of food source from the beehive. Our results suggest that H. itama prefers high sugar concentrations of 35% and above, and most of the bees preferred to forage close to their hive to collect food. We discuss how nectar concentration, food distance, and abiotic factors influence the number of bees exploiting food sources and the overall foraging pattern of H. itama.