A deficiency in the photoelectrical dynamics at the interface due to the surface traps of the TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL) has been the critical factor for the inferiority of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the perovskite solar cells. Despite its excellent energy level alignment with most perovskite materials, its large density of surface defect as a result of sub lattice vacancies has been the critical hurdle for an efficient photovoltaic process in the device. Here, we report that atoms thick 2D TiS2 layer grown on the surface of a (001) faceted and single-crystalline TiO2 nanograss (NG) ETL have effectively passivated the defects, boosting the charge extractability, carrier mobility, external quantum efficiency, and the device stability. These properties allow the perovskite solar cells (PSCs) to produce a PCE as high as 18.73% with short-circuit current density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and fill-factor (FF) values as high as 22.04 mA/cm2, 1.13 V, and 0.752, respectively, a 3.3% improvement from the pristine TiO2-NG-based PSCs. The present approach should find an extensive application for controlling the photoelectrical dynamic deficiency in perovskite solar cells.
Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramic composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150°C. Quantitative microstructural analysis suggests that GNP play a role in grain size and is responsible for the improved densification. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that GNP survived the harsh processing conditions of the selected HIP processing parameters. The uniform distribution of 1 wt.% GNP in the CS matrix, high densification and fine CS grain size help to improve the fracture toughness by ∼130%, hardness by ∼30% and brittleness index by ∼40% as compared to the CS matrix without GNP. The toughening mechanisms, such as crack bridging, pull-out, branching and deflection induced by GNP are observed and discussed. The GNP/CS composites exhibit good apatite-forming ability in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Our results indicate that the addition of GNP decreased pH value in SBF. Effect of addition of GNP on early adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cells (hFOB) was measured in vitro. The GNP/CS composites showed good biocompatibility and promoted cell viability and cell proliferation. The results indicated that the cell viability and proliferation are affected by time and concentration of GNP in the CS matrix.
Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of catalytic pyrolysis of rice hull (RH) pyrolysis using two different types of renewable catalysts namely natural limestone (LS) and eggshells (ES) using thermogravimetric analysis (TG) approach at different heating rates of 10-100 K min-1 in temperature range of 323-1173 K are investigated. Catalytic pyrolysis mechanism of both catalysts had shown significant effect on the degradation of RH. Model free kinetic of iso-conversional method (Flynn-Wall-Ozawa) and multi-step reaction model (Distributed Activation Energy Model) were employed into present study. The average activation energy was found in the range of 175.4-177.7 kJ mol-1 (RH), 123.3-132.5 kJ mol-1 (RH-LS), and 96.1-100.4 kJ mol-1 (RH-ES) respectively. The syngas composition had increased from 60.05 wt% to 63.1 wt% (RH-LS) and 63.4 wt% (RH-ES). However, the CO2 content had decreased from 24.1 wt% (RH) to 20.8 wt% (RH-LS) and 19.9 wt% (RH-ES).
2D perovskites is one of the proposed strategies to enhance the moisture resistance, since the larger organic cations can act as a natural barrier. Nevertheless, 2D perovskites hinder the charge transport in certain directions, reducing the solar cell power conversion efficiency. A nanostructured mixed-dimensionality approach is presented to overcome the charge transport limitation, obtaining power conversion efficiencies over 9%.
Although only 6.3% of the 221 respondents in this crass-sectional study stated outright that the hospital food served to them was not good, a high proportion of respondents ( 62.0%) supplemented ltaspimlfoad with outside food. When the reasons for supplementation were considered, it is likely that 53.8% ( $5.5%; 95% CI ) of the patients in this study were dissatisfied with hospimlfoudfar some reasons or when particularly with regards t0 variety, attractiveness and sewing lime. The pl‘0]701’l‘i011 of respondents wha were dissatisfied with hospital faud was significantly higher (p
Bandgap tuning of a mixed organic cation perovskite is demonstrated via chemical vapor deposition process. The optical and electrical properties of the mixed organic cation perovskite can be manipulated by varying the growth time. A slight shift of the absorption band to shorter wavelengths is demonstrated with increasing growth time, which results in the increment of the current density. Hence, based on the optimized growth time, our device exhibits an efficiency of 15.86% with negligible current hysteresis.
Remarkable attention has been committed to the recently discovered cost effective and solution processable lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells. Recent studies have reported that, within five years, the reported efficiency has reached 9.0%, which makes them an extremely promising and fast developing candidate to compete with conventional lead-based perovskite solar cells. The major challenge associated with the conventional perovskite solar cells is the toxic nature of lead (Pb) used in the active layer of perovskite material. If lead continues to be used in fabricating solar cells, negative health impacts will result in the environment due to the toxicity of lead. Alternatively, lead free perovskite solar cells could give a safe way by substituting low-cost, abundant and non toxic material. This review focuses on formability of lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite, alternative metal cations candidates to replace lead (Pb), and possible substitutions of organic cations, as well as halide anions in the lead-free organic-inorganic halide perovskite architecture. Furthermore, the review gives highlights on the impact of organic cations, metal cations and inorganic anions on stability and the overall performance of lead free perovskite solar cells.
Metal nanoparticles prepared by exsolution at the surface of perovskite oxides have been recently shown to enable new dimensions in catalysis and energy conversion and storage technologies owing to their socketed, well-anchored structure. Here we show that contrary to general belief, exsolved particles do not necessarily re-dissolve back into the underlying perovskite upon oxidation. Instead, they may remain pinned to their initial locations, allowing one to subject them to further chemical transformations to alter their composition, structure and functionality dramatically, while preserving their initial spatial arrangement. We refer to this concept as chemistry at a point and illustrate it by tracking individual nanoparticles throughout various chemical transformations. We demonstrate its remarkable practical utility by preparing a nanostructured earth abundant metal catalyst which rivals platinum on a weight basis over hundreds of hours of operation. Our concept enables the design of compositionally diverse confined oxide particles with superior stability and catalytic reactivity.
Despite the many attractive potential uses of ceramic materials as humidity sensors, some unavoidable drawbacks, including toxicity, poor biocompatibility, long response and recovery times, low sensitivity and high hysteresis have stymied the use of these materials in advanced applications. Therefore, in present investigation, we developed a capacitive humidity sensor using lead-free Ca,Mg,Fe,Ti-Oxide (CMFTO)-based electro-ceramics with perovskite structures synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. This technique helps maintain the submicron size porous morphology of the developed lead-free CMFTO electro-ceramics while providing enhanced water physisorption behaviour. In comparison with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the presented CMFTO-based humidity sensor shows a high sensitivity of up to 3000% compared to other materials, even at lower signal frequency. The best also shows a rapid response (14.5 s) and recovery (34.27 s), and very low hysteresis (3.2%) in a 33%-95% relative humidity range which are much lower values than those of existing conventional sensors. Therefore, CMFTO nano-electro-ceramics appear to be very promising materials for fabricating high-performance capacitive humidity sensors.
Perovskite solar cells based on series of inorganic cesium lead bromide and iodide mixture, CsPbBr3-xI x , where x varies between 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 molar ratio were synthesized by two step-sequential deposition at ambient condition to design the variations of wide band gap light absorbers. A device with high overall photoconversion efficiency of 3.98 % was obtained when small amount of iodide (CsPbBr2.9I0.1) was used as the perovskite and spiro-OMeTAD as the hole transport material (HTM). We investigated the origin of variation in open circuit voltage, Voc which was shown to be mainly dependent on two factors, which are the band gap of the perovskite and the work function of the HTM. An increment in Voc was observed for the device with larger perovskite band gap, while keeping the electron and hole extraction contacts the same. Besides, the usage of bilayer P3HT/MoO3 with deeper HOMO level as HTM instead of spiro-OMeTAD, thus increased the Voc from 1.16 V to 1.3 V for CsPbBr3 solar cell, although the photocurrent is lowered due to charge extraction issues. The stability studies confirmed that the addition of small amount of iodide into the CsPbBr3 is necessarily to stabilize the cell performance over time.
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a serious and expensive environmental problem in Malaysia. In this paper, CaFe2O4 is introduced as a novel photocatalyst for the degradation of POME under visible light irradiation. Two synthesis routes, auto-combustion and co-precipitation, and two calcination temperatures 550 °C and 700 °C were used to produce four CaFe2O4 catalysts AC550, AC700, CP550 and CP700. CP550 exhibited the greatest photocatalytic degradation at 56% chemical-oxygen-demand (COD) removal after 8 h of irradiation which dropped to 49% after three consecutive cycles indicating reasonable conversion and high recyclability. BET analysis indicated CP550 had the highest SBET (27.28 m2/g) and pore volume (0.077 cm3/g) which dropped precipitously for CP700 upon increasing the calcination temperature to an SBET of 9.73 m2/g and pore volume of 0.025 cm3/g due to annealing which created a smoother surface area as evidenced by the SEM images. UV-Vis DRS indicated CP550 had the highest band-gap (1.52 eV) which is likely due to the presence of a highly crystalline pure CaFe2O4 phase compared to the other products which existed as a mixture of Fe oxidation states evidenced by the XRD data. The PL spectra for all catalysts indicated significantly lower recombination rate for both CP550 and CP700. Introduction of IPA into the reaction mixture to eliminate hydroxyl radicals resulted in a diminishing of COD removal from 56% to 7% proving hydroxyl radicals to be the primary reactive species responsible for photodegradation of POME.
Introduction: Broken glass exhibits unique fracture patterns depend upon the nature of the impact. The fracture patterns provide information like point and angle of impact, direction of force and sequence of firing. Recent studies have shown that the use of shotgun in Malaysia is increasing, yet, the relationship existing among the fracture pattern and the projectile impact factors are not well documented. The objective was to analyse the fracture characteristics on different glass types of variable thickness and distance made by shotgun ammunition. Methods: Soda lime and tempered glass panel with dimension of 12’x 12’ with 3 or 4 mm thickness were shot from various distances of 4, 6 and 8 m from the muzzle end of the shotgun. Samples were analysed under fixed parameters and observations were recorded. Results: It is found that the bullet hole diameter of 4 mm tempered glass were larger compared to 4 mm soda lime glass ranged from 14.33 to 24.17 cm as distance increased. Tempered glass surface also exhibited dicing fragments unlike soda lime glass where only radial fracture patterns are evident. This can be attributed to high inherent strength and ductility that makes the tempered glass remarkably resistant to external force. Conclusion: The findings from this study can lead to distinguish the type of glass through examination of fracture patterns, whether it is soda lime silica or tempered glass. The type of glass and the source of impact can be determined using the fragments, no reconstruction necessary.
The current work presents structural change and band gap tunability using hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite with the incorporation of long chain ammonium halide. Thin films of MAPbI3 with different ratio of n-butylammonium iodide (BAI) have been successfully deposited on the substrate using a single step coating technique. X-ray diffraction scans revealed the transition of the 3D structure of MAPbI3 to quasi-2D perovskite structure when BAI loading increase with a crystallite size range approximately 16 nm. This structural changeis reflected in the band gap as it increased from 1.59 eV for bulk crystal MAPbI3 to 2.13 eV for BAI and MAPbI3 ratio of 1:1. Correspondingly, photoluminescence measurement showed a blue shift in perovskite emission due to the transition of 3D to 2D layered structure perovskite. Raman spectra confirm that all fabricated films are of pristine quality and no corresponding degradation peaks of PbI2 is observed. These characteristics are important to address the single step deposition method of hybrid perovskite for perovskite solar cells application.
Addition of chemical binders such as lime and cement improves the strength and stiffness
of fine grained soils. However, the treated soils exhibit brittle stress-strain behaviour.
Inclusion of randomly oriented discrete fibers in the soil-binder mixture changes its brittle
behaviour into ductile behaviour. Most synthetic fibers, however, tend to get entangled
and cannot be easily separated from one another. Therefore, it is difficult to realize soilbinder-
fiber mixtures in which the fibers are distributed uniformly throughout the mass.
This issue has been an impediment in the utilization of the positive modification in the
behaviours of soils and soil-binder mixtures by the fibers. The present study aims to address
the limitations in using fibers as soil reinforcement. Further, it also aims to investigate
the use of synthetic mesh or net elements as an alternative type of soil reinforcement.
The paper presents the experimental study on a fine grained soil. Lime has been chosen
as the binder due to its low cost and the scarcity of fiber reinforced soil studies in which
lime has been used as a binder. The main experimental program is a series of unconfined
compression tests on samples prepared using untreated soil, soil-reinforcement mixture,
soil-lime mixture, and soil-lime-reinforcement mixture. The lime treated samples were
cured up to 120 days at laboratory temperature. The results demonstrate the combinational
effects of lime and discrete reinforcement
elements on the behaviour and mechanical
properties of the soil. The performances of
the fiber and mesh element reinforcements
have also been compared.
The durability of natural and treated clay soil stabilized with lime and alkaline activation (AA) affected by environmental factors (hot and humid) was determined in this study. Investigation and evaluation on the strength of the soil, moisture content, and volume change of the specimen were determined at each curing period (7, 28, and 90 days) based on the weather conditions. An unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the specimen at three different wetting/drying cycles (one, three, and five cycles) was determined. The findings show that the strength of the treated specimens fluctuated with increment and decrement strength (one and three cycles) in the range of 1.41 to 1.88 MPa (lime) and 2.64 to 8.29 MPa (AA), while for five cycles with a curing period of 90 days the decrement was in the range of 1.62 to 1.25 MPa and 6.06 to 5.89 MPa for lime and AA, respectively. The decrement percentage for treated samples that were subjected to five cycles of wetting and drying in 90 days was found to be 20.38% (lime) and 38.64% (AA), respectively. Therefore, it can be summarized that wetting/drying cycles have a significant influence on the durability, strength, and the volume changes of the specimens.
This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS) content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%). The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young's modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements.
This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased.
The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35°C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-CODg/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m(3)d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO-CKD concentration.
In this study, methyl ester (ME) was produced by transesterification of palm oil (CPO) (cooking grade) using activated carbon supported calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst (CaO/AC). Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the effect of reaction time, molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature and catalyst amount on the transesterification process. The optimum condition for CPO transesterification to methyl ester was obtained at 5.5 wt.% catalyst amount, 190°C temperature, 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 1 h 21 min reaction time. At the optimum condition, the ME content was 80.98%, which is well within the predicted value of the model. Catalyst regeneration studies indicate that the catalyst performance is sustained after two cycles.
Aquaculture activity has increased the population of crab, hence increasing the generation of related wastes, particularly the shell. In addition, the number of molting process in crabs compounds further the amount of waste shell generated. As such, in the present work, the application of the waste crab shell as a source of CaO in transesterification of palm olein to biodiesel (methyl ester) was investigated. Preliminary XRD results revealed that thermally activated crab shell contains mainly CaO. Parametric study has been investigated and optimal conditions were found to be methanol/oil mass ratio, 0.5:1; catalyst amount, 4 wt. %; and reaction temperature, 338 K. As compared to laboratory CaO, the catalyst from waste crab shell performs well, thus creating another low-cost catalyst source for producing biodiesel as well as adding value to the waste crab shell. Reusability of crab shell CaO has also been studied and the outcome confirmed that the catalyst is capable to be reutilized up to 11 times, without any major deterioration.