Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

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  1. Cheah SC, Appleton DR, Lee ST, Lam ML, Hadi AH, Mustafa MR
    Molecules, 2011 Mar 21;16(3):2583-98.
    PMID: 21441862 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16032583
    In the present study we investigated the effects of panduratin A, isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda, on proliferation and apoptosis in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis was determined by the real-time cellular analyzer (RTCA), MTT assay and High Content Screening (HCS). The RTCA assay indicated that panduratin A exhibited cytotoxicity, with an IC₅₀ value of 4.4 µg/mL (10.8 µM). Panduratin A arrested cancer cells labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and phospho-Histone H3 in the mitotic phase. The cytotoxic effects of panduratin A were found to be accompanied by a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis, as assessed by DNA condensation, nuclear morphology and intensity, cell permeability, mitochondrial mass/ potential, F-actin and cytochrome c. In addition, treatment with an apoptosis-inducing concentration of panduratin A resulted in significant inhibition of Nuclear Factor-kappa Beta (NF-κB) translocation from cytoplasm to nuclei activated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as illustrated by the HCS assay. Our study provides evidence for cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis by panduratin A in the A549 cell line, suggesting its therapeutic potential as an NF-κB inhibitor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  2. Chua LK, Lim CL, Ling APK, Chye SM, Koh RY
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2019 Mar;74(1):18-27.
    PMID: 30535971 DOI: 10.1007/s11130-018-0704-z
    Cancer is a preventable and treatable disease, however, the incidence rates are on the rise. Classical treatment modalities for cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, these are associated with detrimental side effects such as nausea and emesis. Therefore, researchers currently vest interest in complementary and alternative medicines for cancer treatment and prevention. Plants such as Syzygium sp. are a common basis of complementary medicines due to its abundance of bioactive phytochemicals. Numerous natural compounds derived from Syzygium sp., such as phenolics, oleanolic acids, and betulinic acids, and dimethyl cardamonins, were reported to have anticancer effects. Many possess the ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the vast potential Syzygium sp. harbours as a source of anticancer natural compounds due to its abundance, easy acceptability, affordability and safety for regular consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology
  3. Gény C, Abou Samra A, Retailleau P, Iorga BI, Nedev H, Awang K, et al.
    J. Nat. Prod., 2017 12 22;80(12):3179-3185.
    PMID: 29160716 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00494
    Four new compounds, (+)- and (-)-ecarlottone (1), (±)-fislatifolione (5), (±)-isofislatifolione (6), and (±)-fislatifolic acid (7), and the known desmethoxyyangonin (2), didymocarpin-A (3), and dehydrodidymocarpin-A (4) were isolated from the stem bark of Fissistigma latifolium, by means of bioassay-guided purification using an in vitro affinity displacement assay based on the modulation of Bcl-xL/Bak and Mcl-1/Bid interactions. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of compounds (+)-1 and (-)-1 were assigned by comparison of experimental and computed ECD spectra. (-)-Ecarlottone 1 exhibited a potent antagonistic activity on both protein-protein associations with Ki values of 4.8 μM for Bcl-xL/Bak and 2.4 μM for Mcl-1/Bid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  4. Break MKB, Hossan MS, Khoo Y, Qazzaz ME, Al-Hayali MZK, Chow SC, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2018 Mar;125:161-173.
    PMID: 29355749 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2018.01.006
    Cardamonin is a natural chalcone that has been shown to exhibit high anticancer activity. In an attempt to discover analogues of cardamonin with enhanced anticancer activity, 19 analogues were synthesized and tested against A549 and HK1 cell lines. Results of the MTS cell viability assay showed that several derivatives possessed cytotoxic activities that were several-fold more potent than cardamonin. SAR analysis showed the importance of the ketone and alkene groups for bioactivity, while substituting cardamonin's phenolic groups with more polar moieties resulted in activity enhancement. As part of the SAR study and further exploration of chemical space, the effect of metal coordination on cytotoxicity was also investigated, but it was only possible to successfully obtain the Cu (II) complex of cardamonin (19). Compound 19 was the most active analogue possessing IC50 values of 13.2μM and 0.7μM against A549 and HK1 cells, corresponding to a 5- and 32-fold increase in activity, respectively. It was also able to significantly inhibit the migration of A549 and HK1 cells. Further mode of action studies have shown that the most active analogue, 19, induced DNA damage resulting in G2/M-phase cell- cycle arrest in both cell lines. These events further led to the induction of apoptosis by the compound via caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activation, PARP cleavage and downregulation of Mcl-1 expression. Moreover, 19 inhibited the expression levels of p-mTOR and p-4EBP1, which indicated that it exerted its anticancer activity, at least in part, via inhibition of the mTOR signalling pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  5. Frimayanti N, Chee CF, Zain SM, Rahman NA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(2):1089-100.
    PMID: 21541045 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12021089
    Dengue is a serious disease which has become a global health burden in the last decade. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or antiviral therapies to combat the disease. The increasing spread and severity of the dengue virus infection emphasizes the importance of drug discovery strategies that could efficiently and cost-effectively identify antiviral drug leads for development into potent drugs. To this effect, several computational approaches were applied in this work. Initially molecular docking studies of reference ligands to the DEN2 NS2B/NS3 serine protease were carried out. These reference ligands consist of reported competitive inhibitors extracted from Boesenbergia rotunda (i.e., 4-hydroxypanduratin A and panduratin A) and three other synthesized panduratin A derivative compounds (i.e., 246DA, 2446DA and 20H46DA). The design of new lead inhibitors was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the enzyme complexed to the reference ligands was minimized and their complexation energies (i.e., sum of interaction energy and binding energy) were computed. New compounds as potential dengue inhibitors were then designed by putting various substituents successively on the benzyl ring A of the reference molecule. These substituted benzyl compounds were then computed for their enzyme-ligand complexation energies. New enzyme-ligand complexes, exhibiting the lowest complexation energies and closest to the computed energy for the reference compounds, were then chosen for the next stage manipulation and design, which involved substituting positions 4 and 5 of the benzyl ring A (positions 3 and 4 for 2446DA) with various substituents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology
  6. Jantan I, Mohd Yasin YH, Jamil S, Sirat H, Basar N
    J Nat Med, 2010 Jul;64(3):365-9.
    PMID: 20349149 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-010-0410-0
    Five prenylflavonoids and two prenylchalcones from Artocarpus lowii King, A. scortechinii King and A. teysmanii Miq., and acetylated derivatives of cycloheterophyllin and artonin E were investigated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood by using an electrical impedance method. Among the tested compounds, only cycloheterophyllin inhibited AA-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) value of 100.9 microM. It also showed strong inhibition against ADP-induced aggregation, with an IC(50) value of 57.1 microM. Isobavachalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3'-prenyldihydrochalcone, cycloartobiloxanthone, artonin E and artonin E triacetate showed selective inhibition against ADP-induced aggregation, with IC(50) values ranging from 55.3 to 192.0 microM, but did not show such effect against other inducers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  7. Phan CW, Sabaratnam V, Yong WK, Abd Malek SN
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2018 May;32(10):1229-1233.
    PMID: 28539058 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1331226
    Chalcones are a group of compounds widely distributed in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to assess the neurite outgrowth stimulatory activity of selected chalcones, namely helichrysetin, xanthohumol and flavokawin-C. Using adherent rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 Adh) cells, the chalcones were subjected to neurite outgrowth assay and the extracellular nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were determined. Xanthohumol (10 μg/mL) displayed the highest (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  8. Tajudeen Bale A, Mohammed Khan K, Salar U, Chigurupati S, Fasina T, Ali F, et al.
    Bioorg. Chem., 2018 09;79:179-189.
    PMID: 29763804 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.05.003
    Despite of a diverse range of biological activities associated with chalcones and bis-chalcones, they are still neglected by the medicinal chemist for their possible α-amylase inhibitory activity. So, the current study is based on the evaluation of this class for the identification of new leads as α-amylase inhibitors. For that purpose, a library of substituted chalcones 1-13 and bis-chalcones 14-18 were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques EI-MS and 1H NMR. CHN analysis was carried out and found in agreement with the calculated values. All compounds were evaluated for in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and demonstrated good activities in the range of IC50 = 1.25 ± 1.05-2.40 ± 0.09 µM as compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 1.04 ± 0.3 µM). Limited structure-activity relationship (SAR) was established by considering the effect of different groups attached to aryl rings on varying inhibitory activity. SMe group in chalcones and OMe group in bis-chalcones were found more influential on the activity than other groups. However, in order to predict the involvement of different groups in the binding interactions with the active site of α-amylase enzyme, in silico studies were also conducted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  9. Rees KA, Bermudez C, Edwards DJ, Elliott AG, Ripen JE, Seta C, et al.
    J. Nat. Prod., 2015 Aug 28;78(8):2141-4.
    PMID: 26284978 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00410
    In an ongoing program to identify new anti-infective leads, an extract derived from whole plant material of Desmodium congestum collected in the Sarawak rainforest was found to have anti-MRSA activity. Bioassay-guided isolation led to the isolation of two new prenylated chalcones, 5'-O-methyl-3-hydroxyflemingin A (1) and 5'-O-methylflemingin C (2), which were closely related to the flemingins previously isolated from various Flemingia species. Chalcones 1 and 2, which were determined to be 4:6 enantiomeric mixtures by chiral HPLC, exhibited moderate activity against a panel of Gram-positive bacteria and were also cytotoxic to the HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology
  10. Syam S, Abdelwahab SI, Al-Mamary MA, Mohan S
    Molecules, 2012 May 25;17(6):6179-95.
    PMID: 22634834 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17066179
    Several chalcones were synthesized and their in vitro cytotoxicity against various human cell lines, including human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, human prostate cancer cell line PC3, human adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 (colorectal cancer) and human normal liver cell line WRL-68 was evaluated. Most of the compounds being active cytotoxic agents, four of them with minimal IC₅₀ values were chosen and studied in detail with MCF-7 cells. The compounds 1, 5, 23, and 25 were capable in eliciting apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as shown by multiparameter cytotoxicity assay and caspase-3/7, -8, and -9 activities (p < 0.05). The ROS level showed 1.3-fold increase (p < 0.05) at the low concentrations used and thus it was concluded that the compounds increased the ROS level eventually leading to apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through intrinsic as well as extrinsic pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  11. Lai SL, Wong PF, Lim TK, Lin Q, Mustafa MR
    Proteomics, 2015 May;15(9):1608-21.
    PMID: 25594392 DOI: 10.1002/pmic.201400039
    Melanoma is a lethal form of skin cancer with rising global incidence. However, limited treatment options are available for advanced melanoma and this is further compounded by the development of resistance toward existing drugs. Panduratin A (PA), a cyclohexanyl chalcone found in Boesenbergia rotunda, was investigated for its cytotoxic potentials against human malignant melanoma A375 cells. Our initial findings revealed that mitochondrion is the primary acting site of PA on A375 cancer cells and the cytotoxic mechanisms of PA were further investigated using a temporal quantitative proteomics approach by iTRAQ 2D-LC-MS/MS. Comprehensive proteomics analysis identified 296 proteins that were significantly deregulated in PA-treated A375 cells and revealed the involvement of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, secretory and ER stress pathway, and apoptosis. We further confirmed that the PA-induced apoptosis was mediated by prolonged ER stress at least in part via the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP pathway. Pretreatment with cycloheximide, an ER stress inhibitor rescued PA-induced cell death, which was accompanied by the suppression of ER-stress-related HSPA5 and CHOP proteins. The present study provides comprehensive mechanistic insights into the cytotoxic mechanisms of PA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  12. Jamil S, Sirat HM, Jantan I, Aimi N, Kitajima M
    J Nat Med, 2008 Jul;62(3):321-4.
    PMID: 18404311 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-008-0226-3
    A new prenylated dihydrochalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3'-prenyldihydrochalcone (1), along with two known compounds, 2',4',4-trihydroxy-3'-prenylchalcone (2) and 2',4-dihydroxy-3',4'-(2,2-dimethylchromene)chalcone (3) were isolated from the leaves of Artocarpus lowii. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with data reported in the literature. Compounds 1-3 showed strong free radical scavenging activity towards 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  13. Jantan I, Raweh SM, Sirat HM, Jamil S, Mohd Yasin YH, Jalil J, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2008 Apr;15(4):306-9.
    PMID: 17913483
    Twelve compounds isolated from Alpinia mutica Roxb., Kaempferia rotunda Linn., Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb., Curcuma aromatica Valeton and Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Family: Zingiberaceae) and three synthesized derivatives of xanthorrhizol were evaluated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid- (AA), collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood. Antiplatelet activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by the Chrono Log whole blood aggregometer using an electrical impedance method. Among the compounds tested, curcumin from C. aromatica, cardamonin, pinocembrine and 5,6-dehydrokawain from A. mutica and 3-deacetylcrotepoxide from K. rotunda showed strong inhibition on platelet aggregation induced by AA with IC(50) values of less than 84 microM. Curcumin was the most effective antiplatelet compound as it inhibited AA-, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 37.5, 60.9 and 45.7 microM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology
  14. Sukumaran SD, Chee CF, Viswanathan G, Buckle MJ, Othman R, Abd Rahman N, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Jul 22;21(7).
    PMID: 27455222 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21070955
    A series of 2'-hydroxy- and 2'-hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcones was synthesised and evaluated as inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The majority of the compounds were found to show some activity, with the most active compounds having IC50 values of 40-85 µM. Higher activities were generally observed for compounds with methoxy substituents in the A ring and halogen substituents in the B ring. Kinetic studies on the most active compounds showed that they act as mixed-type inhibitors, in agreement with the results of molecular modelling studies, which suggested that they interact with residues in the peripheral anionic site and the gorge region of AChE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  15. Ping CP, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Akhtar MN, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf Ali DA, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 03;23(9).
    PMID: 30177603 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092237
    Pain is one of the most common cause for hospital visits. It plays an important role in inflammation and serves as a warning sign to avoid further injury. Analgesics are used to manage pain and provide comfort to patients. However, prolonged usage of pain treatments like opioids and NSAIDs are accompanied with undesirable side effects. Therefore, research to identify novel compounds that produce analgesia with lesser side effects are necessary. The present study investigated the antinociceptive potentials of a natural compound, cardamonin, isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L) Mansf. using chemical and thermal models of nociception. Our findings showed that intraperitoneal and oral administration of cardamonin (0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition of pain in abdominal writhing responses induced by acetic acid. The present study also demonstrated that cardamonin produced significant analgesia in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. In the thermal-induced nociception model, cardamonin exhibited significant increase in response latency time of animals subjected to hot-plate thermal stimuli. The rota-rod assessment confirmed that the antinociceptive activities elicited by cardamonin was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative effects of the compound. In conclusion, the present findings showed that cardamonin exerted significant peripheral and central antinociception through chemical- and thermal-induced nociception in mice through the involvement of TRPV₁, glutamate, and opioid receptors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology
  16. Abu Bakar A, Akhtar MN, Mohd Ali N, Yeap SK, Quah CK, Loh WS, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Mar 08;23(3).
    PMID: 29518053 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23030616
    Flavokawain B (1) is a natural chalcone extracted from the roots of Piper methysticum, and has been proven to be a potential cytotoxic compound. Using the partial structure of flavokawain B (FKB), about 23 analogs have been synthesized. Among them, compounds 8, 13 and 23 were found in new FKB derivatives. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, thus establishing the structure-activity relationship. The FKB derivatives 16 (IC50 = 6.50 ± 0.40 and 4.12 ± 0.20 μg/mL), 15 (IC50 = 5.50 ± 0.35 and 6.50 ± 1.40 μg/mL) and 13 (IC50 = 7.12 ± 0.80 and 4.04 ± 0.30 μg/mL) exhibited potential cytotoxic effects on the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. However, the methoxy group substituted in position three and four in compound 2 (IC50 = 8.90 ± 0.60 and 6.80 ± 0.35 μg/mL) and 22 (IC50 = 8.80 ± 0.35 and 14.16 ± 1.10 μg/mL) exhibited good cytotoxicity. The lead compound FKB (1) showed potential cytotoxicity (IC50 = 7.70 ± 0.30 and 5.90 ± 0.30 μg/mL) against two proposed breast cancer cell lines. It is evident that the FKB skeleton is unique for anticancer agents, additionally, the presence of halogens (Cl and F) in position 2 and 3 also improved the cytotoxicity in FKB series. These findings could help to improve the future drug discovery process to treat breast cancer. A molecular dynamics study of active compounds revealed stable interactions within the active site of Janus kinase. The structures of all compounds were determined by ¹H-NMR, EI-MS, IR and UV and X-ray crystallographic spectroscopy techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  17. Lai SL, Mustafa MR, Wong PF
    Phytomedicine, 2018 Mar 15;42:144-151.
    PMID: 29655680 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.03.027
    BACKGROUND: Targeting autophagy is emerging as a promising strategy in cancer therapeutics in recent years. Autophagy can be modulated to drive cancer cell deaths that are notoriously resistant to apoptotic-inducing drugs. In addition, autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism in mediating cancer chemoresistance. Our previous study has demonstrated that Panduratin A (PA), a plant-derived active compound exploits ER-stress-mediated apoptosis as its cytotoxic mechanism on melanoma.

    PURPOSE: Our previous proteomics analysis revealed that treatment with PA resulted in the upregulation of an autophagy marker, LC3B in melanoma cells. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the role of PA-induced autophagy in melanoma cells.

    METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy was performed for examination of autophagic ultra-structures in PA-treated A375 cells. Cytoplasmic LC3B and p62/SQSMT1 punctate structures were detected using immunofluorescene staining. Expression levels of LC3B II, p62/SQSMT1, ATG 12, Beclin 1, phospho S6 (ser235/236), phospho AMPK (Thr172) and cleaved PARP were evaluated by western blotting.

    RESULTS: Autophagosomes, autolysosomes and punctuates of LC3 proteins could be observed in PA-treated A375 cells. PA-induced autophagy in A375 melanoma cells was found to be mediated through the inhibition of mTOR signaling and activation of AMPK pathway. Furthermore, we showed that PA-induced apoptosis was increased in the presence of an autophagy inhibitor, signifying the cytoprotective effect of PA-induced autophagy in melanoma cells.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, results from the present study suggest that the inhibition of autophagy by targeting mTOR and AMPK could potentiate the cytotoxicity effects of PA on melanoma cells.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  18. Rullah K, Mohd Aluwi MF, Yamin BM, Abdul Bahari MN, Wei LS, Ahmad S, et al.
    Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2014 Aug 15;24(16):3826-34.
    PMID: 25027933 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.06.061
    The discovery of potent inhibitors of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in recent years has been proven to be an important game changer in pharmaceutical industry. It is known that excessive production of PGE2 triggers a vast array of biological signals and physiological events that contributes to inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, and pain. In this Letter, we report the synthesis of a series of minor prenylated chalcones and flavonoids which was found to be significantly active in suppressing the PGE2 production secreted by lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). Among the compounds tested, 14b showed a dose-response inhibition of PGE2 production with an IC50 value of 2.1 μM. The suppression upon PGE2 secretion was not due to cell death since 14b did not reduce the cell viability in close proximity to the PGE2 inhibition concentration. The obtained atomic coordinates for the single-crystal XRD of 14b was then applied in the docking simulation to determine the potential important binding interactions with murine COX-2 and mPGES-1 putative binding sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
  19. Kumar CS, Loh WS, Ooi CW, Quah CK, Fun HK
    Molecules, 2013 Oct 15;18(10):12707-24.
    PMID: 24132195 DOI: 10.3390/molecules181012707
    Chalcone derivatives have attracted increasing attention due to their numerous pharmacological activities. Changes in their structures have displayed high degree of diversity that has proven to result in a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study highlights the synthesis of some halogen substituted chalcones 3(a-i) containing the 5-chlorothiophene moiety, their X-ray crystal structures and the evaluation of possible biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal and reducing power abilities. The results indicate the tested compounds show a varied range of inhibition values against all the tested microbial strains. Compound 3c with a p-fluoro substituent on the phenyl ring exhibits elevated antimicrobial activity, whereas the compounds 3e and 3f displayed the least antimicrobial activities. The compounds 3d, 3e, 3f and 3i showed good ferric and cupric reducing abilities, and the compounds 3b and 3c showed the weakest reducing power in the series.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology
  20. Chow YL, Lee KH, Vidyadaran S, Lajis NH, Akhtar MN, Israf DA, et al.
    Int. Immunopharmacol., 2012 Apr;12(4):657-65.
    PMID: 22306767 DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2012.01.009
    The increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases has prompted investigation into innovative therapeutics over the last two decades. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the therapeutic choices to control and suppress the symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases. However, NSAIDs-associated gastropathy has hampered their long term usage despite their clinical advancement. On the natural end of the treatment spectrum, our group has shown that cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone) isolated from Alpinia rafflesiana exerts potential anti-inflammatory activity in activated macrophages. Therefore, we further explored the anti-inflammatory property of cardamonin as well as its underlying mechanism of action in IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated microglial cells. In this investigation, cardamonin shows promising anti-inflammatory activity in microglial cell line BV2 by inhibiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The inhibition of NO and PGE(2) by cardamonin are resulted from the reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. Meanwhile the suppressive effects of cardamonin on TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were demonstrated at both protein and mRNA levels, thus indicating the interference of upstream signal transduction pathway. Our results also validate that cardamonin interrupts nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway via attenuation of NF-κB DNA binding activity. Interestingly, cardamonin also showed a consistent suppressive effect on the cell surface expression of CD14. Taken together, our experimental data provide mechanistic insights for the anti-inflammatory actions of cardamonin in BV2 and thus suggest a possible therapeutic application of cardamonin for targeting neuroinflammatory disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chalcones/pharmacology*
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