Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 67 in total

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  1. Rahim F, Javed MT, Ullah H, Wadood A, Taha M, Ashraf M, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2015 Oct;62:106-16.
    PMID: 26318401 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2015.08.002
    A series of thirty (30) thiazole analogs were prepared, characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and EI-MS and evaluated for Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory potential. All analogs exhibited varied butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 value ranging between 1.59±0.01 and 389.25±1.75μM when compared with the standard eserine (IC50, 0.85±0.0001μM). Analogs 15, 7, 12, 9, 14, 1, 30 with IC50 values 1.59±0.01, 1.77±0.01, 6.21±0.01, 7.56±0.01, 8.46±0.01, 14.81±0.32 and 16.54±0.21μM respectively showed excellent inhibitory potential. Seven analogs 15, 20, 19, 24, 28, 30 and 25 exhibited good acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential with IC50 values 21.3±0.50, 35.3±0.64, 36.6±0.70, 44.81±0.81, 46.36±0.84, 48.2±0.06 and 48.72±0.91μM respectively. All other analogs also exhibited well to moderate enzyme inhibition. The binding mode of these compounds was confirmed through molecular docking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  2. Khaw KY, Choi SB, Tan SC, Wahab HA, Chan KL, Murugaiyah V
    Phytomedicine, 2014 Sep 25;21(11):1303-9.
    PMID: 25172794 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.06.017
    Garcinia mangostana is a well-known tropical plant found mostly in South East Asia. The present study investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of G. mangostana extract and its chemical constituents using Ellman's colorimetric method. Cholinesterase inhibitory-guided approach led to identification of six bioactive prenylated xanthones showing moderate to potent cholinesterases inhibition with IC50 values of lower than 20.5 μM. The most potent inhibitor of AChE was garcinone C while γ-mangostin was the most potent inhibitor of BChE with IC50 values of 1.24 and 1.78 μM, respectively. Among the xanthones, mangostanol, 3-isomangostin, garcinone C and α-mangostin are AChE selective inhibitors, 8-deoxygartanin is a BChE selective inhibitor while γ-mangostin is a dual inhibitor. Preliminary structure-activity relationship suggests the importance of the C-8 prenyl and C-7 hydroxy groups for good AChE and BChE inhibitory activities. The enzyme kinetic studies indicate that both α-mangostin and garcinone C are mixed-mode inhibitors, while γ-mangostin is a non-competitive inhibitor of AChE. In contrast, both γ-mangostin and garcinone C are uncompetitive inhibitors, while α-mangostin is a mixed-mode inhibitor of BChE. Molecular docking studies revealed that α-mangostin, γ-mangostin and garcinone C interacts differently with the five important regions of AChE and BChE. The nature of protein-ligand interactions is mainly hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding. These bioactive prenylated xanthones are worthy for further investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  3. Brahmachari G, Choo C, Ambure P, Roy K
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2015 Aug 01;23(15):4567-4575.
    PMID: 26105711 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2015.06.005
    A series of densely functionalized piperidine (FP) scaffolds was synthesized following a diastereoselective one-pot multicomponent protocol under eco-friendly conditions. The FPs were evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, and in silico studies for all the target compounds were carried out using pharmacophore mapping, molecular docking and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis in order to understand the structural features required for interaction with the AChE enzyme and the key active site residues involved in the intermolecular interactions. Halogenation, nitration or 3,4-methylenedixoxy-substitution at the phenyl ring attached to the 2- and 6-positions of 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine nucleus in compounds 14-17, 19, 20, 24 and 26 greatly enhanced the AChE inhibitory activity. The docking analysis demonstrated that the inhibitors are well-fitted in the active sites. The in silico studies enlighten the future course of studies in modifying the scaffolds for better therapeutic efficacy against the deadly Alzheimer's disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  4. Das S, Laskar MA, Sarker SD, Choudhury MD, Choudhury PR, Mitra A, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2017 Jul;28(4):324-331.
    PMID: 28168765 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2679
    INTRODUCTION: Prenylated and pyrano-flavonoids of the genus Artocarpus J. R. Forster & G. Forster are well known for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, anti-cholinergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Some of these compounds have also been shown to be effective against Alzheimer's disease.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the in silico study was to establish protocols to predict the most effective flavonoid from prenylated and pyrano-flavonoid classes for AChE inhibition linking to the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    METHODOLOGY: Three flavonoids isolated from Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq. were selected for the study. With these compounds, Lipinski filter, ADME/Tox screening, molecular docking and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) were performed in silico. In vitro activity was evaluated by bioactivity staining based on the Ellman's method.

    RESULTS: In the Lipinski filter and ADME/Tox screening, all test compounds produced positive results, but in the target fishing, only one flavonoid could successfully target AChE. Molecular docking was performed on this flavonoid, and this compound gained the score as -13.5762. From the QSAR analysis the IC50 was found to be 1659.59 nM. Again, 100 derivatives were generated from the parent compound and docking was performed. The derivative compound 20 was the best scorer, i.e. -31.6392 and IC50 was predicted as 6.025 nM.

    CONCLUSION: Results indicated that flavonoids could be efficient inhibitors of AChE and thus, could be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  5. Liew SY, Khaw KY, Murugaiyah V, Looi CY, Wong YL, Mustafa MR, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2015 Jan 15;22(1):45-8.
    PMID: 25636869 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2014.11.003
    Nine monoterpenoid indole alkaloids; naucletine (1), angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), naucline (5), angustoline (6), harmane (7), 3,14-dihydroangustoline (8), strictosamide (9) and one quinoline alkaloid glycoside; pumiloside (10) from Nauclea officinalis were tested for cholinesterase inhibitory activity. All the alkaloids except for pumiloside (10) showed strong to weak BChE inhibitory effect with IC50 values ranging between 1.02-168.55 μM. Angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), angustoline (6) and harmane (7) showed higher BChE inhibiting potency compared to galanthamine. Angustidine (2) was the most potent inhibitor towards both AChE and BChE. Molecular docking (MD) studies showed that angustidine (2) docked deep into the bottom gorge of hBChE and formed hydrogen bonding with Ser 198 and His 438. Kinetic study of angustidine (2) on BChE suggested a mixed inhibition mode with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.12 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  6. Khan D, Khan HU, Khan F, Khan S, Badshah S, Khan AS, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(4):e94952.
    PMID: 24733024 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094952
    A phytochemical investigation on the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Lonicera quinquelocularis (whole plant) led to the first time isolation of one new phthalate; bis(7-acetoxy-2-ethyl-5-methylheptyl) phthalate (3) and two new benzoates; neopentyl-4-ethoxy-3, 5-bis (3-methyl-2-butenyl benzoate (4) and neopentyl-4-hydroxy-3, 5-bis (3-methyl-2-butenyl benzoate (5) along with two known compounds bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (1) and dioctyl phthalate (2). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with available data in the literature. All the compounds (1-5) were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities in dose dependent manner. The IC50 (50% inhibitory effect) values of compounds 3 and 5 against AChE were 1.65 and 3.43 µM while the values obtained against BChE were 5.98 and 9.84 µM respectively. Compounds 2 and 4 showed weak inhibition profile.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  7. Ramli RA, Lie W, Pyne SG
    J Nat Prod, 2014 Apr 25;77(4):894-901.
    PMID: 24606395 DOI: 10.1021/np400978x
    Four new stichoneurine-type alkaloids, stichoneurines F and G (1-2) and sessilistemonamines E and F (3-4), have been isolated from the root extracts of Stichoneuron caudatum. The structures and relative configurations of these alkaloids have been determined by spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling experiments. Compounds 1-4 were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities against human AChE. Compound 3 showed significant inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 9.1±0.15 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  8. Jamila N, Khan N, Khan I, Khan AA, Khan SN
    Nat Prod Res, 2016 Jun;30(12):1388-97.
    PMID: 26158779 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1060594
    The dichloromethane bark extract of Garcinia hombroniana yielded one new cycloartane triterpene; (22Z,24E)-3β-hydroxycycloart-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (1) together with five known compounds: garcihombronane G (2), garcihombronane J (3), 3β acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,24-dien-26-oic acid (4), (22Z, 24E)-3β, 9α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (5) and 3β, 23α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-8,14,24-trien-26-oic acid (6). Their structures were established by the spectral techniques of NMR and ESI-MS. These compounds together with some previously isolated compounds; garcihombronane B (7), garcihombronane D (8) 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (9), volkensiflavone (10), 4''-O-methyll-volkensiflavone (11), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (12), volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (13), Morelloflavone (14), 3''-O-methyl-morelloflavone (15) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (16) were evaluated for cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activities using acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. In these activities, compounds 1-9 showed good dual inhibition on both the enzymes while compounds 10-16 did not reasonably contribute to both the cholinesterases inhibitory effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  9. Yoon YK, Ali MA, Wei AC, Choon TS, Khaw KY, Murugaiyah V, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2013 Aug;49:33-9.
    PMID: 23886696 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2013.06.008
    Two series of novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors containing benzimidazole core structure were synthesized by a four-step reaction pathway starting from 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid as the basic compound. The structure of the novel benzimidazoles was characterized and confirmed by the elemental and mass spectral analyses as well as (1)H NMR spectroscopic data. Of the 34 novel synthesized compounds, three benzimidazoles revealed AChE inhibition with IC50<10 μM. The highest inhibitory activity (IC50=5.12 μM for AChE and IC50=8.63 μM for BChE) corresponds to the compound 5IIc (ethyl 1-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylate). The relationship between lipophilicity and the chemical structures as well as their limited structure-activity relationship was discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  10. Basiri A, Murugaiyah V, Osman H, Kumar RS, Kia Y, Awang KB, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2013 Sep;67:221-9.
    PMID: 23871902 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.06.054
    Series of hitherto unreported piperidone grafted pyridopyrimidines synthesized through ionic liquid mediated multi-component reaction. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE enzymes. All the compounds displayed considerable potency against AChE with IC50 values ranging from 0.92 to 9.11 μM, therein compounds 6a, 6h and 6i displayed superior enzyme inhibitory activities compared to standard drug with IC50 values of 0.92, 1.29 and 2.07 μM. Remarkably, all the compounds displayed higher BChE inhibitory activity compared to galantamine with IC50 values of 1.89-8.13 μM. Molecular modeling, performed for the most active compounds using three dimensional crystal structures of TcAChE and hBChE, disclosed binding template of these inhibitors into the active site of their respective enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  11. Fadaeinasab M, Hadi AH, Kia Y, Basiri A, Murugaiyah V
    Molecules, 2013 Mar 25;18(4):3779-88.
    PMID: 23529036 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18043779
    Plants of the Apocynaceae family have been traditionally used in the treatment of age-related brain disorders. Rauvolfia reflexa, a member of the family, has been used as an antidote for poisons and to treat malaria. The dichloromethane, ethanol and methanol extracts from the leaves of Rauvolfia reflexa showed potential acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, with IC50 values in the 8.49 to 52.23 g/mL range. Further cholinesterase inhibitory-guided isolation of these extracts afforded four bioactive compounds, namely: (E)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid (1), (E)-methyl 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl) acrylate (2), 17-methoxycarbonyl-14-heptadecaenyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (3) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-oxo-β-carboline (4). The isolated compounds showed moderate cholinesterase inhibitory activity compared to the reference standard, physostigmine. Compounds 1 and 2 showed the highest inhibitory activity against AChE (IC50 = 60.17 µM) and BChE (IC50 = 61.72 µM), respectively. Despite having similar molecular weight, compounds 1 and 2 were structurally different according to their chemical substitution patterns, leading to their different enzyme inhibition selectivity. Compound 2 was more selective against BChE, whereas compound 1 was a selective inhibitor of AChE. Molecular docking revealed that both compounds 1 and 2 were inserted, but not deeply into the active site of the cholinesterase enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
  12. Al-Mekhlafi NA, Shaaria K, Abas F, Jeyaraj EJ, Stanslas J, Khalivulla SI, et al.
    Nat Prod Commun, 2013 Apr;8(4):447-51.
    PMID: 23738449
    In the present study phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Horsfieldia superba led to the isolation of twenty compounds (1-20), of which three (1-3) were new. However, compounds 2 and 3 were previously reported as synthetic alpha,beta-lactones. The compounds were characterized as (-)-3,4',7-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavan (1), (-)-5,6-dihydro-6-undecyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2), and (-)-5,6-dihydro-6-tridecyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3). Seventeen other known compounds were also isolated and identified as (-)-viridiflorol (4), hexacosanoic acid (5), beta-sitosterol (6), methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate (methylorsellinate) (7), methyl 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoate (8), (-)-4'-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavan (9), (-)-4',7-dihydroxyflavan (10), (-)-4',7-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavan (11), (+)-3,4',7-trihydroxyflavan (12), (-)-catechin (13), (-)-epicatechin (14), (-)-7-hydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan (15), 2',3,4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone (16), 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (17), (+)-4'-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (18), hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) (19) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (20). The structures of the compounds were fully characterized by various physical methods (melting point, optical rotation), spectral (UV, IR, ID and 2D NMR) and mass spectrometric techniques. In vitro assay of compounds 2 and 3 demonstrated moderate cytotoxic activities against human prostate (PC-3), colon (HCT-116) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells, while the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of H. superba were found to exhibit moderate AChE inhibitory activity (IC50 72 and 60 microg/mL).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
  13. Kwong HC, Mah SH, Chia TS, Quah CK, Lim GK, Kumar CSC
    Molecules, 2017 Jun 17;22(6).
    PMID: 28629119 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22061005
    Adamantyl-based compounds are clinically important for the treatments of type 2 diabetes and for their antiviral abilities, while many more are under development for other pharmaceutical uses. This study focused on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of adamantyl-based ester derivatives with various substituents on the phenyl ring using Ellman's colorimetric method. Compound 2e with a 2,4-dichloro electron-withdrawing substituent on the phenyl ring exhibited the strongest inhibition effect against AChE, with an IC50 value of 77.15 µM. Overall, the adamantyl-based ester with the mono-substituent at position 3 of the phenyl ring exhibited good AChE inhibition effects with an ascending order for the substituents: Cl < NO₂ < CH₃ < OCH₃. Furthermore, compounds with electron-withdrawing groups (Cl and NO₂) substituted at position 3 on their phenyl rings demonstrated stronger AChE inhibition effects, in comparison to their respective positional isomers. On the other hand, compound 2j with a 3-methoxyphenyl ring showed the highest inhibition effect against BChE, with an IC50 value of 223.30 µM. Molecular docking analyses were conducted for potential AChE and BChE inhibitors, and the results demonstrated that the peripheral anionic sites of target proteins were predominant binding sites for these compounds through hydrogen bonds and halogen interactions instead of hydrophobic interactions in the catalytic active site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
  14. Parambi DGT, Aljoufi F, Murugaiyah V, Mathew GE, Dev S, Lakshminarayanan B, et al.
    PMID: 30451121 DOI: 10.2174/1871524918666181119114016
    BACKGROUND: Dual-acting human monoamine oxidase B (hMAO-B) and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors are more effective than the classic one-drug one-target therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    METHODS: The ChE inhibitory ability of some halogenated thiophene chalcone-based molecules known to be selective hMAO-B inhibitors was evaluated.

    RESULTS: Based on the IC50 values, the selected compounds were found to moderately inhibit ChE, with IC50 values in the range of 14-70 µM. Among the synthesised molecules, T8 and T6 showed the most potent inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, the data revealed that T8 could be further optimized to enhance its AChE inhibitory activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
  15. Virk NA, Rehman A, Abbasi MA, Siddiqui SZ, Rashid U, Iqbal J, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 Jul;31(4(Supplementary)):1501-1510.
    PMID: 30058542
    N-(Substituted)-5-(1-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio) acetamide were synthesized by following conventional as well as microwave assisted protocol through five consecutive steps under the impact of various reaction conditions to control the reaction time and the yield of product. Starting from 4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl chloride and ethyl isonipecotate, product 3 was obtained which was converted into product 4 by treating with hydrazine hydrate. In step 3, the product 4 was refluxed with methyl isothiocyanate and KOH to yield compound 5 which was finally treated with variety of N-substituted acetamides to yield an array of different new compounds (8a-k). These synthesized compounds were evaluated for their inhibition potential against bovine carbonic anhydrase (bCA-II), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. Compound 8g demonstrated good activity against bCA-II, AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 8.69 ± 0.38 μM, 11.87±0.19 μM and 26.01±0.55 μM respectively. SAR studies assisted with molecular docking were carried out to explore the mode of binding of the compounds against the studied enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
  16. Ali MA, Ismail R, Choon TS, Yoon YK, Wei AC, Pandian S, et al.
    Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2010 Dec 1;20(23):7064-6.
    PMID: 20951037 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.09.108
    Series of pyrolidine analogues were synthesized and examined as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Among the compounds, compounds 4k and 6k were the most potent inhibitors of the series. Compound 4k, showed potent inhibitory activity against acetyl cholinesterase enzyme with IC(50) 0.10 μmol/L. Pyrolidine analogues might be potential acetyl cholinesterase agents for AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
  17. Awang K, Chan G, Litaudon M, Ismail NH, Martin MT, Gueritte F
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2010 Nov 15;18(22):7873-7.
    PMID: 20943395 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.09.044
    A significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity was observed for the hexane extract from the bark of Mesua elegans (Clusiaceae). Thus, the hexane extract was subjected to chemical investigation, which led to the isolation of nine 4-phenylcoumarins, in which three are new; mesuagenin A (1), mesuagenin C (3), mesuagenin D (4) and one new natural product; mesuagenin B (2). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data interpretation, especially 1D and 2D NMR. Four compounds showed significant AChE inhibitory activity, with mesuagenin B (2) being the most potent (IC(50)=0.7μM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
  18. Ahmad H, Ahmad S, Shah SAA, Khan HU, Khan FA, Ali M, et al.
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2018 Feb;20(2):172-181.
    PMID: 28463565 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2017.1319820
    New lycoctonine-type dual cholinesterase inhibitor, swatinine-C (1), along with three known norditerpenoid alkaloids, hohenackerine (2), aconorine (5) and lappaconitine (6) and two synthetically known but phytochemically new benzene derivatives, methyl 2-acetamidobenzoate (3) and methyl 4-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)anilino]-4-oxobutanoate (4), was isolated from the roots of A. laeve. Structures of new and known compounds (1-6) were established on the basis of latest spectroscopic techniques and by close comparison with the data available in literature. In vitro, compounds (1-6) were tested against AChE and BChE inhibitory activities. Compounds 1 and 2 showed competitive inhibition against AChE (IC50 = 3.7 μM, 4.53 μM) and BChE (IC50 = 12.23 μM, 9.94 μM), respectively. Compounds 5 and 6 showed promising noncompetitive type of inhibitory profile against AChE (IC50 = 2.51 and 6.13 μM) only. Compounds 3 and 4 showed weak inhibitory profile against both AChE and BChE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
  19. Mah SH, Teh SS, Ee GC
    Pharm Biol, 2017 Dec;55(1):920-928.
    PMID: 28152649 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2017.1285322
    CONTEXT: Sida (Malvaceae) has been used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, malarial, gastrointestinal dysentery, fevers, asthma and inflammation.

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-cholinergic activities of Sida rhombifolia Linn. whole plant for the first time.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: S. rhombifolia whole plant was extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The plant extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant (DPPH, FIC and FRAP), anti-inflammatory (NO and protein denaturation inhibitions), cytotoxic (MTT) and anti-cholinesterase (AChE) properties in a range of concentrations to obtain IC50 values. GC-MS analysis was carried out on the n-hexane extract.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities by scavenging DPPH radicals and ferrous ions with EC50 of 380.5 and 263.4 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, the n-hexane extract showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 of 52.16 and 146.03 μg/mL for NO and protein denaturation inhibition assays, respectively. The same extract also revealed the strongest effects in anti-cholinesterase and cytotoxic tests at the concentration of 100 μg/mL, AChE enzyme inhibition was 58.55% and human cancer cells, SNU-1 and Hep G2 inhibition was 68.52% and 47.82%, respectively. The phytochemicals present in the n-hexane extract are palmitic acid, linoleic acid and γ-sitosterol.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that the n-hexane extract possessed relatively high pharmacological activities in anti-inflammation, cytotoxicity and anti-cholinesterase assays. Thus, further work on the detail mechanism of the bioactive phytochemicals which contribute to the biological properties are strongly recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
  20. Liew KF, Chan KL, Lee CY
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Apr 13;94:195-210.
    PMID: 25768702 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.02.055
    A series of novel aurones bearing amine and carbamate functionalities at various positions (rings A and/or B) of the scaffold was synthesized and evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Structure-activity relationship study disclosed several potent submicromolar acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) particularly aurones bearing piperidine and pyrrolidine moieties at ring A or ring B. Bulky groups particularly methoxyls, and carbamate to a lesser extent, at either rings were also prominently featured in these AChEI aurones as exemplified by the trimethoxyaurone 4-3. The active aurones exhibited a lower butyrylcholinesterase inhibition. A 3'-chloroaurone 6-3 originally designed to improve the metabolic stability of the scaffold was the most potent of the series. Molecular docking simulations showed these AChEI aurones to adopt favourable binding modes within the active site gorge of the Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE) including an unusual chlorine-π interaction by the chlorine of 6-3 to establish additional bondings to hydrophobic residues of TcAChE. Evaluation of the potent aurones for their blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and metabolic stability using PAMPA-BBB assay and in vitro rat liver microsomes (RLM) identified 4-3 as an aurone with an optimal combination of high passive BBB permeability and moderate CYP450 metabolic stability. LC-MS identification of a mono-hydroxylated metabolite found in the RLM incubation of 4-3 provided an impetus for further improvement of the compound. Thus, 4-3, discovered within this present series is a promising, drug-like lead for the development of the aurones as potential multipotent agents for Alzheimer's disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology*
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