Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 100 in total

  1. Gong T, Heng BC, Xu J, Zhu S, Yuan C, Lo EC, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 04;105(4):1083-1093.
    PMID: 28076902 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36003
    Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence, we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells. Compared to cells plated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured on the HUVECs-DECM demonstrated more regular arrangement and elongated morphology. HUVECs-DECM significantly enhanced the rapid adhesion and proliferation rates of SHED, as demonstrated by WST-8 assay and immunocytochemistry indicating higher expression levels of vinculin by newly adherent SHED on HUVECs-DECM versus TCP. In addition, there was twofold to fivefold higher mRNA expression levels of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and VEGFR-2 in SHED after seven days of culture on DECM versus TCP. Functional testing with in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay identified more capillary-like structure formation with significantly higher tubule length in SHED induced by DECM versus TCP. Hence, the results of this study provide a better understanding of the unique characteristics of cell-specific ECM and demonstrated the potential use of HUVECs-DECM as a culture substratum conducive for stimulating the endothelial differentiation of SHED for therapeutic angiogenic applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1083-1093, 2017.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/chemistry*
  2. Jeckson TA, Neo YP, Sisinthy SP, Gorain B
    J Pharm Sci, 2020 Oct 08.
    PMID: 33039441 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2020.10.003
    Increasing incidences of chronic wounds urge the development of effective therapeutic wound treatment. As the conventional wound dressings are found not to comply with all the requirements of an ideal wound dressing, the development of alternative and effective dressings is demanded. Over the past few years, electrospun nanofiber has been recognized as a better system for wound dressing and hence has been studied extensively. Most of the electrospun nanofiber dressings were fabricated as single-layer structure mats. However, this design is less favorable for the effective healing of wounds mainly due to its burst release effect. To address this problem and to simulate the organized skin layer's structure and function, a multilayer structure of wound dressing had been proposed. This design enables a sustained release of the therapeutic agent(s), and more resembles the natural skin extracellular matrix. Multilayer structure also referred to layer-by-layer (LbL), which has been established as an innovative method of drug incorporation and delivery, combines a high surface area of electrospun nanofibers with the multilayer structure mat. This review focused on LbL multilayer electrospun nanofiber as a superior strategy in designing an optimal wound dressing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix
  3. Sukmana I
    J Artif Organs, 2012 Sep;15(3):215-24.
    PMID: 22527978 DOI: 10.1007/s10047-012-0644-6
    Tissue engineering seeks strategies to design polymeric scaffolds that allow high-cell-density cultures with signaling molecules and suitable vascular supply. One major obstacle in tissue engineering is the inability to create thick engineered-tissue constructs. A pre-vascularized tissue scaffold appears to be the most favorable approach to avoid nutrient and oxygen supply limitations as well as to allow waste removal, factors that are often hurdles in developing thick engineered tissues. Vascularization can be achieved using strategies in which cells are cultured in bioactive polymer scaffolds that can mimic extracellular matrix environments. This review addresses recent advances and future challenges in developing and using bioactive polymer scaffolds to promote tissue construct vascularization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/physiology
  4. Tan, S.L., Selvaratnam, L., Ahmad, T.S.
    JUMMEC, 2015;18(2):1-14.
    Tendon is a dense connective tissue that connects muscle to bone. Tendon can adapt to mechanical forces passing across it, through a reciprocal relationship between its cellular components (tenocytes and tenoblasts) and the extracellular matrix (ECM). In early development, the formation of scleraxis-expressing tendon progenitor population in the sclerotome is induced by a fibroblast growth factor signal secreted by the myotome. Tendon injury has been defined as a loss of cells or ECM caused by trauma. It represents a failure of cells and matrix adaptation to mechanical loading. Injury initiates attempts of tendon to repair itself, which has been defined as replacement of damaged or lost cells and ECM by new cells or new matrices. Tendon healing generally consists of four different phases: the inflammatory, proliferation, differentiation and remodelling phases. Clinically, tendons are repaired with a variety of surgical techniques, which show various degrees of success. In order to improve the conventional tendon repair methods, current tendon tissue engineering aims to investigate a repair method which can restore tissue defects with living cells, or cell based therapy. Advances in tissue engineering techniques would potentially yield to a cell-based product that could regenerate functional tendon tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix
  5. Afsah-Hejri, L., Rukayadi, Y., Fouladynezhad, N., Son, R., Nakaguchi, Y., Nishibuchi, M.
    Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a gram positive food-borne pathogen that is able to form biofilm on food factory surfaces. Formation of biofilm makes the bacteria much more resistance to environmental stresses such as disinfectant. The extracellular polymeric matrix (biofilm structure) which is mostly comprised of sticky extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and proteins can protect bacteria in a harsh condition. The efficiency of four disinfectants on removing L. monocytogenes biofilm was investigated. Five concentration levels (100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25%) of disinfectants were tested. In the microtitre assay, the optical density at 595 nm CV-OD595 value, was used to measure the amount of remained biofilm after 24 h. Results showed that disinfectants did not have significant effect on removing L. monocytogenes biofilm. Formation of L. monocytogenes biofilm significantly decreased the efficiency of disinfectants. Biofilm produced by strain number 9 showed higher resistance to disinfectant. Low concentrations (
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix
  6. Hashim SNM, Yusof MFH, Zahari W, Noordin KBAA, Kannan TP, Hamid SSA, et al.
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2016 Jun;13(3):211-217.
    PMID: 30603401 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-016-9057-6
    Combination between tissue engineering and other fields has brought an innovation in the area of regenerative medicine which ultimate aims are to repair, improve, and produce a good tissue construct. The availability of many types of scaffold, both synthetically and naturally have developed into many outstanding end products that have achieved the general objective in tissue engineering. Interestingly, most of this scaffold emulates extracellular matrix (ECM) characteristics. Therefore, ECM component sparks an interest to be explored and manipulated. The ECM featured in human amniotic membrane (HAM) provides a suitable niche for the cells to adhere, grow, proliferate, migrate and differentiate, and could possibly contribute to the production of angiogenic micro-environment indirectly. Previously, HAM scaffold has been widely used to accelerate wound healing, treat bone related and ocular diseases, and involved in cardiovascular repair. Also, it has been used in the angiogenicity study, but with a different technical approach. In addition, both side of HAM could be used in cellularised and decellularised conditions depending on the objectives of a particular research. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to investigate the behavior of ECM components especially on the stromal side of HAM and further explore the angiogenic potential exhibited by this scaffold.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix
  7. Pingguan-Murphy B, Nawi I
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2012 Aug;67(8):939-44.
    PMID: 22948463
    OBJECTIVES: The promotion of extracellular matrix synthesis by chondrocytes is a requisite part of an effective cartilage tissue engineering strategy. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of bi-axial cyclic mechanical loading on cell proliferation and the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by chondrocytes in three-dimensional cultures.

    METHOD: A strain comprising 10% direct compression and 1% compressive shear was applied to bovine chondrocytes seeded in an agarose gel during two 12-hour conditioning periods separated by a 12-hour resting period.

    RESULTS: The bi-axial-loaded chondrocytes demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis compared with samples exposed to uni-axial or no loading over the same period (p<0.05). The use of a free-swelling recovery period prior to the loading regime resulted in additional glycosaminoglycan production and a significant increase in DNA content (p<0.05), indicating cell proliferation.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the use of a bi-axial loading regime results in increased matrix production compared with uni-axial loading.

    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/genetics; Extracellular Matrix/metabolism*
  8. Mansouri N, SamiraBagheri
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Apr 1;61:906-21.
    PMID: 26838922 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.12.094
    The actual in vivo tissue scaffold offers a three-dimensional (3D) structural support along with a nano-textured surfaces consist of a fibrous network in order to deliver cell adhesion and signaling. A scaffold is required, until the tissue is entirely regenerated or restored, to act as a temporary ingrowth template for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. This review depicts some of the most significant three dimensional structure materials used as scaffolds in various tissue engineering application fields currently being employed to mimic in vivo features. Accordingly, some of the researchers' attempts have envisioned utilizing graphene for the fabrication of porous and flexible 3D scaffolds. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate the topographical and topological optimization of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in order to improve scaffolds' mechanical performances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/metabolism; Extracellular Matrix/chemistry
  9. Zielinski MS, Vardar E, Vythilingam G, Engelhardt EM, Hubbell JA, Frey P, et al.
    Commun Biol, 2019;2:69.
    PMID: 30793047 DOI: 10.1038/s42003-019-0313-x
    By analyzing isolated collagen gel samples, we demonstrated in situ detection of spectrally deconvoluted auto-cathodoluminescence signatures of specific molecular content with precise spatial localization over a maximum field of view of 300 µm. Correlation of the secondary electron and the hyperspectral images proved ~40 nm resolution in the optical channel, obtained due to a short carrier diffusion length, suppressed by fibril dimensions and poor electrical conductivity specific to their organic composition. By correlating spectrally analyzed auto-cathodoluminescence with mass spectroscopy data, we differentiated spectral signatures of two extracellular matrices, namely human fibrin complex and rat tail collagen isolate, and uncovered differences in protein distributions of isolated extracellular matrix networks of heterogeneous populations. Furthermore, we demonstrated that cathodoluminescence can monitor the progress of a human cell-mediated remodeling process, where human collagenous matrix was deposited within a rat collagenous matrix. The revealed change of the heterogeneous biological composition was confirmed by mass spectroscopy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/metabolism*; Extracellular Matrix/ultrastructure
  10. Ab-Rahim S, Selvaratnam L, Raghavendran HR, Kamarul T
    Mol. Cell. Biochem., 2013 Apr;376(1-2):11-20.
    PMID: 23238871 DOI: 10.1007/s11010-012-1543-0
    Tissue engineering approaches often require expansion of cell numbers in vitro to accelerate tissue regenerative processes. Although several studies have used this technique for therapeutic purposes, a major concern involving the use of isolated chondrocyte culture is the reduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein expressed due to the transfer of cells from the normal physiological milieu to the artificial 2D environment provided by the cell culture flasks. To overcome this issue, the use of alginate hydrogel beads as a substrate in chondrocyte cultures has been suggested. However, the resultant characteristics of cells embedded in this bead is elusive. To elucidate this, a study using chondrocytes isolated from rabbit knee articular cartilage expanded in vitro as monolayer and chondrocyte-alginate constructs was conducted. Immunohistochemical evaluation and ECM distribution was examined with or without transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) supplement to determine the ability of cells to express major chondrogenic proteins in these environments. Histological examination followed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was performed to determine the morphology and the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells. Results demonstrated a significant increase in glycosaminoglycan/mg protein levels in chondrocyte cultures grown in alginate construct than in monolayer cultures. In addition, an abundance of ECM protein distribution surrounding chondrocytes cultured in alginate hydrogel was observed. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that the use of alginate hydrogel beads in chondrocyte cultures with or without TGF-β1 supplement provided superior ECM expression than monolayer cultures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/metabolism; Extracellular Matrix/physiology*; Extracellular Matrix Proteins/metabolism
  11. Ab-Rahim S, Selvaratnam L, Kamarul T
    Cell Biol. Int., 2008 Jul;32(7):841-7.
    PMID: 18479947 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellbi.2008.03.016
    Articular cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in regulating chondrocyte functions via cell-matrix interaction, cytoskeletal organization and integrin-mediated signaling. Factors such as interleukins, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) have been shown to modulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix in vitro. However, the effects of TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol in ECM regulation require further investigation, although there have been suggestions that these factors do play a positive role. To establish the role of these factors on chondrocytes derived from articular joints, a study was conducted to investigate the effects of TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol on glycosaminoglycan secretion and type II collagen distribution (two major component of cartilage ECM in vivo). Thus, chondrocyte cultures initiated from rabbit articular cartilage were treated with 10ng/ml of TGF-beta1, 10nM of beta-estradiol or with a combination of both factors. Sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen levels were then measured in both these culture systems. The results revealed that the synthesis of GAG and type II collagen was shown to be enhanced in the TGF-beta1 treated cultures. This increase was also noted when TGF-beta1 and beta-estradiol were both used as culture supplements. However, beta-estradiol alone did not appear to affect GAG or type II collagen deposition. There was also no difference between the amount of collagen type II and GAG being expressed when chondrocyte cultures were treated with TGF-beta1 when compared with cultures treated with combined factors. From this, we conclude that although TGF-beta1 appears to stimulate chondrocyte ECM synthesis, beta-estradiol fails to produce similar effects. The findings of this study confirm that contrary to previous claims, beta-estradiol has little or no effect on chondrocyte ECM synthesis. Furthermore, the use of TGF-beta1 may be useful in future studies looking into biological mechanisms by which ECM synthesis in chondrocyte cultures can be augmented, particularly for clinical application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/drug effects; Extracellular Matrix/metabolism*
  12. Aziz J, Shezali H, Radzi Z, Yahya NA, Abu Kassim NH, Czernuszka J, et al.
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol, 2016;29(4):190-203.
    PMID: 27434176 DOI: 10.1159/000447017
    Collagen and elastin networks make up the majority of the extracellular matrix in many organs, such as the skin. The mechanisms which are involved in the maintenance of homeostatic equilibrium of these networks are numerous, involving the regulation of genetic expression, growth factor secretion, signalling pathways, secondary messaging systems, and ion channel activity. However, many factors are capable of disrupting these pathways, which leads to an imbalance of homeostatic equilibrium. Ultimately, this leads to changes in the physical nature of skin, both functionally and cosmetically. Although various factors have been identified, including carcinogenesis, ultraviolet exposure, and mechanical stretching of skin, it was discovered that many of them affect similar components of regulatory pathways, such as fibroblasts, lysyl oxidase, and fibronectin. Additionally, it was discovered that the various regulatory pathways intersect with each other at various stages instead of working independently of each other. This review paper proposes a model which elucidates how these molecular pathways intersect with one another, and how various internal and external factors can disrupt these pathways, ultimately leading to a disruption in collagen and elastin networks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/metabolism; Extracellular Matrix/ultrastructure
  13. Agarwal P, Agarwal R
    Expert Opin. Ther. Targets, 2018 07;22(7):629-638.
    PMID: 29883239 DOI: 10.1080/14728222.2018.1486822
    INTRODUCTION: Disturbances of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis in trabecular meshwork (TM) cause increased aqueous outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucomatous eyes. Therefore, restoration of ECM homeostasis is a rational approach to prevent disease progression. Since renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition positively alters ECM homeostasis in cardiovascular pathologies involving pressure and volume overload, it is likely that RAS inhibitors reduce IOP primarily by restoring ECM homeostasis. Areas covered: Current evidence showing the presence of RAS components in ocular tissue and its role in regulating aqueous humor dynamics is briefly summarized. The role of RAS in ECM remodeling is discussed both in terms of its effects on ECM synthesis and its breakdown. The mechanisms of ECM remodeling involving interactions of RAS with transforming growth factor-β, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, bone morphogenic proteins, connective tissue growth factor, and matrix metalloproteinases in ocular tissue are discussed. Expert opinion: Current literature strongly indicates a significant role of RAS in ECM remodeling in TM of hypertensive eyes. Hence, IOP-lowering effect of RAS inhibitors may primarily be attributed to restoration of ECM homeostasis in aqueous outflow pathways rather than its vascular effects. However, the mechanistic targets for RAS inhibitors have much wider distribution and consequences, which remain relatively unexplored in TM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/drug effects*; Extracellular Matrix/metabolism
  14. Wang L, Li Y, Huang G, Zhang X, Pingguan-Murphy B, Gao B, et al.
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Jun;36(3):553-65.
    PMID: 25641330 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.993588
    Natural cellular microenvironment consists of spatiotemporal gradients of multiple physical (e.g. extracellular matrix stiffness, porosity and stress/strain) and chemical cues (e.g. morphogens), which play important roles in regulating cell behaviors including spreading, proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis, especially for pathological processes such as tumor formation and progression. Therefore, it is essential to engineer cellular gradient microenvironment incorporating various gradients for the fabrication of normal and pathological tissue models in vitro. In this article, we firstly review the development of engineering cellular physical and chemical gradients with cytocompatible hydrogels in both two-dimension and three-dimension formats. We then present current advances in the application of engineered gradient microenvironments for the fabrication of disease models in vitro. Finally, concluding remarks and future perspectives for engineering cellular gradients are given.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix
  15. Gao B, Wang L, Han S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Zhang X, Xu F
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Aug;36(4):619-29.
    PMID: 25669871 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.1002381
    Diabetes now is the most common chronic disease in the world inducing heavy burden for the people's health. Based on this, diabetes research such as islet function has become a hot topic in medical institutes of the world. Today, in medical institutes, the conventional experiment platform in vitro is monolayer cell culture. However, with the development of micro- and nano-technologies, several microengineering methods have been developed to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) islet models in vitro which can better mimic the islet of pancreases in vivo. These in vitro islet models have shown better cell function than monolayer cells, indicating their great potential as better experimental platforms to elucidate islet behaviors under both physiological and pathological conditions, such as the molecular mechanisms of diabetes and clinical islet transplantation. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art advances in the microengineering methods for fabricating microscale islet models in vitro. We hope this will help researchers to better understand the progress in the engineering 3D islet models and their biomedical applications such as drug screening and islet transplantation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix
  16. Halim AS, Khoo TL, Mohd Yussof SJ
    Indian J Plast Surg, 2010 Sep;43(Suppl):S23-8.
    PMID: 21321652 DOI: 10.4103/0970-0358.70712
    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix
  17. Tabet, Tamer A., Wajir, Julynnie, Fauziah Abdul Aziz
    The term microfibril angle, MFA in wood science refers to the angle between the direction of the helical windings of cellulose microfibrils in the secondary cell wall, S2 layer of fibres and tracheids and the long axis of the cell. In this study, the mean MFA of the cell walls were determined for thin samples of thickness 200.0 µm from pith and outwards, for eight ages of Acacia mangium wood. The determination of MFA was based on a diffraction pattern arising from cellulose crystal planes of the type 002 generated by x-ray diffraction and recorded using an electronic detector. The results show an inversely relationship between MFA and age of tree in Acacia mangium wood. MFA decreased from 26.13° at age 3 year-old to 0.20° at tree of age 15 year-old for the pith region. The most significant drop occurred from 16.14° at age 7 yearold to 11.30° at age 9 year-old. An inversely relationship between MFA and storage modulus E’ was evidence in Acacia mangium at age 10-year-old. The results showed that about 76.22% variation of loss modulus E” was attributed to the MFA, while about 66.4% of the variation of glass transition Tg was explained by MFA under the same experimental conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix
  18. Abdul Khodir WKW, Abdul Razak AH, Ng MH, Guarino V, Susanti D
    J Funct Biomater, 2018 May 18;9(2).
    PMID: 29783681 DOI: 10.3390/jfb9020036
    In the current practice, the clinical use of conventional skin substitutes such as autogenous skin grafts have shown several problems, mainly with respect to limited sources and donor site morbidity. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of smart synthetic biomaterials is tremendously diffusing as skin substitutes. Indeed, engineered skin grafts or analogues frequently play an important role in the treatment of chronic skin wounds, by supporting the regeneration of newly formed tissue, and at the same time preventing infections during the long-term treatment. In this context, natural proteins such as collagen-natively present in the skin tissue-embedded in synthetic polymers (i.e., PCL) allow the development of micro-structured matrices able to mimic the functions and to structure of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Moreover, the encapsulation of drugs, such as gentamicin sulfate, also improves the bioactivity of nanofibers, due to the efficient loading and a controlled drug release towards the site of interest. Herein, we have done a preliminary investigation on the capability of gentamicin sulfate, loaded into collagen-added nanofibers, for the controlled release in local infection treatments. Experimental studies have demonstrated that collagen added fibers can be efficaciously used to administrate gentamicin for 72 h without any toxic in vitro response, thus emerging as a valid candidate for the therapeutic treatment of infected wounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix
  19. Chong PP, Chin VK, Wong WF, Madhavan P, Yong VC, Looi CY
    Genes (Basel), 2018 Nov 07;9(11).
    PMID: 30405082 DOI: 10.3390/genes9110540
    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, which causes a plethora of superficial, as well as invasive, infections in humans. The ability of this fungus in switching from commensalism to active infection is attributed to its many virulence traits. Biofilm formation is a key process, which allows the fungus to adhere to and proliferate on medically implanted devices as well as host tissue and cause serious life-threatening infections. Biofilms are complex communities of filamentous and yeast cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix that confers an enhanced degree of resistance to antifungal drugs. Moreover, the extensive plasticity of the C. albicans genome has given this versatile fungus the added advantage of microevolution and adaptation to thrive within the unique environmental niches within the host. To combat these challenges in dealing with C. albicans infections, it is imperative that we target specifically the molecular pathways involved in biofilm formation as well as drug resistance. With the advent of the -omics era and whole genome sequencing platforms, novel pathways and genes involved in the pathogenesis of the fungus have been unraveled. Researchers have used a myriad of strategies including transcriptome analysis for C. albicans cells grown in different environments, whole genome sequencing of different strains, functional genomics approaches to identify critical regulatory genes, as well as comparative genomics analysis between C. albicans and its closely related, much less virulent relative, C. dubliniensis, in the quest to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the success of C. albicans as a major fungal pathogen. This review attempts to summarize the most recent advancements in the field of biofilm and antifungal resistance research and offers suggestions for future directions in therapeutics development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix
  20. Law JX, Liau LL, Saim A, Yang Y, Idrus R
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 Dec;14(6):699-718.
    PMID: 30603521 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-017-0075-9
    Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique to fabricate continuous fibers with diameter ranging from micrometers to a few nanometers. To date, the number of polymers that have been electrospun has exceeded 200. In recent years, electrospinning has become one of the most popular scaffold fabrication techniques to prepare nanofiber mesh for tissue engineering applications. Collagen, the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in the human body, has been electrospun to fabricate biomimetic scaffolds that imitate the architecture of native human tissues. As collagen nanofibers are mechanically weak in nature, it is commonly cross-linked or blended with synthetic polymers to improve the mechanical strength without compromising the biological activity. Electrospun collagen nanofiber mesh has high surface area to volume ratio, tunable diameter and porosity, and excellent biological activity to regulate cell function and tissue formation. Due to these advantages, collagen nanofibers have been tested for the regeneration of a myriad of tissues and organs. In this review, we gave an overview of electrospinning, encompassing the history, the instrument settings, the spinning process and the parameters that affect fiber formation, with emphasis given to collagen nanofibers' fabrication and application, especially the use of collagen nanofibers in skin tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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