Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 58 in total

  1. Mohamad Ali A, Uhwut E, Liew S
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2012 Jan;8(1):e8.
    PMID: 22970064 MyJurnal DOI: 10.2349/biij.8.1.e8
    Fibrin sheath formation around long-term haemodialysis catheter is a common cause of failed dialysis access. Treatment options include pharmacological and mechanical methods. This paper reports a case of failed dialysis access due to fibrin sheath encasement. Pharmacologic thrombolysis, mechanical disruption using guide wire and catheter exchange had failed to address the issue. Eventually, fibrin sheath stripping using the loop snare technique was able to successfully restore the catheter function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin; Fibrinolysis
  2. Balakrishnan, Theenesh, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifli, Munirah Sha'ban, Nurul Hafiza Mohd Jan, Mohd Zulfadzli Ibrahim, Noorhidayah Md Nazir
    The great potential of biodegradable polymers in orthopaedic surgery is
    gradually being recognized. PLGA is one of the common polymers used. However, long
    term outcomes, with regards to PLGA, are still not well documented. Hence, we
    attempted to study the outcome of PLGA and also its combination with fibrin. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin
  3. Tan KK, Tan GH, Shamsul BS, Chua KH, Ng MHA, Ruszymah BHI, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl C:53-8.
    PMID: 16381285
    Spinal fusion using autologous bone graft is performed in an increasing rate for many spinal disorders. However, graft harvesting procedure is associated with prolonged operation time and potential donor site morbidity. We produced an engineered 'bone graft' substitute by using porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold seeded with autologous bone marrow osteoprogenitor cells (OPCs) and fibrin. This obviates bone graft harvesting, thus eliminates donor site morbidity and shortens the operation time. The aim of this study is to evaluate Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics as scaffold for autologous tissue engineered bone construct for spinal fusion in a sheep model. The sheep's marrow was aspirated from iliac crest. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were cultured for several passages in the presence of growth and differentiation factors to increase the number of OPCs. After the cultures reached confluence, they were trypsinized and seeded on Hydroxyapatite scaffold (HA). Approximately 5 million cells were generated after 3 weeks of culture. Microscopically, very tight Colony Forming Units (CFU-Fs) were seen on monolayer culture. The Von Kossa and Alizarin Red staining of monolayer culture showed positive mineralization areas; indicating the presence of OPCs. Sheep underwent a posterolateral spinal fusion in which scaffolds with or without OPCs seeded were implanted on both sides of the lumbar spine (L1-L2). Intended fusion segments were immobilized using wires. At the end of third month, the fusion constructs were harvested for histological examination. Fibrous tissue infiltration found in the inter-connecting pores of plain HA ceramics indicates inefficient new bone regeneration. New bone was found surrounding the HA ceramics seeded with autologous cells. The new bone is probably formed by the sheep BMMSCs that were initially encapsulating HA while it remained intact. The new bone is naturally fused with the vertebrae. In conclusion, the incorporation of autologous bone marrow cells improved the effectiveness of HA ceramics as 'bone graft' substitute for spinal fusion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin*
  4. Ngah NA, Ratnayake J, Cooper PR, Dias GJ, Tong DC, Mohd Noor SNF, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jan 20;26(3).
    PMID: 33498167 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26030517
    OBJECTIVE: The use of platelet concentrates (PCs) in oral and maxillofacial surgery, periodontology, and craniofacial surgery has been reported. While PCs provide a rich reservoir of autologous bioactive growth factors for tissue regeneration, their drawbacks include lack of utility for long-term application, low elastic modulus and strength, and limited storage capability. These issues restrict their broader application. This review focuses on the lyophilization of PCs (LPCs) and how this processing approach affects their biological and mechanical properties for application as a bioactive scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search of five electronic databases, including Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus, was conducted from 1946 until 2019 using a combination of search terms relating to this topic.

    RESULTS: Ten manuscripts were identified as being relevant. The use of LPCs was mostly studied in in vitro and in vivo craniofacial bone regeneration models. Notably, one clinical study reported the utility of LPCs for guided bone regeneration prior to dental implant placement.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lyophilization can enhance the inherent characteristics of PCs and extends shelf-life, enable their use in emergency surgery, and improve storage and transportation capabilities. In light of this, further preclinical studies and clinical trials are required, as LPCs offer a potential approach for clinical application in craniofacial tissue regeneration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin/therapeutic use*; Fibrin/chemistry
  5. Romano V, Cruciani M, Conti L, Fontana L
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016 12 02;12:CD011308.
    PMID: 27911983 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011308.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Pterygium, a growth of the conjunctiva over the cornea, is a progressive disease leading in advanced stages to visual impairment, restriction of ocular motility, chronic inflammation and cosmetic concerns. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice, but recurrence can be a problem. Currently the best surgical option in terms of recurrence is conjunctival autograft. To date the most common surgical methods of attaching conjunctival autografts to the sclera are through suturing or fibrin glue. Each method presents its own advantages and disadvantages. Sutures require considerable skill from the surgeon and can be associated with a prolonged operation time, postoperative discomfort and suture-related complications, whereas fibrin glue may give a decreased operation time, improve postoperative comfort and avoid suture-related problems.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of fibrin glue compared to sutures in conjunctival autografting for the surgical treatment of pterygium.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2016), Embase (January 1980 to October 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 14 October 2016.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any setting where fibrin glue was compared with sutures to treat people with pterygium.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the search results, assessed trial quality, and extracted data using standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our primary outcome was recurrence of pterygium defined as any re-growth of tissue from the area of excision across the limbus onto the cornea. The secondary outcomes were surgical time and complication rate. We graded the certainty of the evidence using GRADE.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included 14 RCTs conducted in Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Sweden and Turkey. The trials were published between 2004 and 2016, and were assessed as a mixture of unclear and low risk of bias with three studies at high risk of attrition bias. Only adults were enrolled in these studies.Using fibrin glue for the conjunctival autograft may result in less recurrence of pterygium compared with using sutures (risk ratio (RR) 0.47, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.82, 762 eyes, 12 RCTs; low-certainty evidence). If pterygium recurs after approximately 10 in every 100 surgeries with sutures, then using fibrin glue may result in approximately 5 fewer cases of recurrence in every 100 surgeries (95% CI 2 fewer to 7 fewer cases). Using fibrin glue may lead to more complications compared with sutures (RR 1.92; 95% CI 1.22 to 3.02, 11 RCTs, 673 eyes, low-certainty evidence). The most common complications reported were: graft dehiscence, graft retraction and granuloma. On average using fibrin glue may mean that surgery is quicker compared with suturing (mean difference (MD) -17.01 minutes 95% CI -20.56 to -13.46), 9 RCTs, 614 eyes, low-certainty evidence).

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analyses, conducted on people with pterygium in a hospital or outpatient setting, show fibrin glue may result in less recurrence and may take less time than sutures for fixing the conjunctival graft in place during pterygium surgery. There was low-certainty evidence to suggest a higher proportion of complications in the fibrin glue group.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/adverse effects; Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/therapeutic use*
  6. Mohd Kherman Suparman, Hazmyr Abdul Wahab, Nazer Berahim, Tengku Intan Baizura Tengku Jamaluddin
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2017;2017(1):1-12.
    Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) is a natural autologous fibrin matrix and is an effective biomaterial product. The application of PRF in oral surgery is not limited to tissue regeneration, but it has been utilized in several minor and major oral surgical procedures. Numerous studies have proven that either alone or in combination with bone graft, PRF acts as bone and soft tissue regeneration and it is able to stimulate physiological wound healing. This case report will introduce the utilization of PRF combined with autogenous bone graft in restoring four walls dental socket defect due to post-surgical extraction complication and plan for implant placement in the future. It acts in the form of a resorbable membrane and stem cell connector to the bone. After 3 months post-surgery review, there was no signs of infection or tissue rejection and the harvested bone was still viable. The PRF is comparable to commercially available membrane in the market, where clinical results can be predicted and possibility of reduction in post-surgical complications is achieved. This is due to 1) its compatibility with bone graft materials notably autogenous type, 2) induced neovascularisation and 3) reduction in inflammatory reaction. Our team is confident that the result of PRF at the edentulous region for rehabilitation purposes is beneficial and cost-effective to our patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin
  7. Mohamed-Yassin MS, Baharudin N, Ramli AS, Hashim H
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(1):47-52.
    PMID: 31289633
    It remains a challenge to diagnose aortic dissection in primary care, as classic clinical features are not always present. This case describes an atypical presentation of aortic dissection, in which the patient walked in with pleuritic central chest pain associated with a fever and elevated C-reactive protein. Classic features of tearing pain, pulse differentials, and a widened mediastinum on chest X-ray were absent. This unusual presentation highlights the need for a heightened level of clinical suspicion for aortic dissection in the absence of classic features. The case is discussed with reference to the literature on the sensitivity and specificity of the classic signs and symptoms of aortic dissection. A combination of the aortic dissection detection risk score (ADD-RS) and D-dimer test is helpful in ruling out this frequently lethal condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  8. Farrah-Hani Imran, Ian, Chik, Kelly, Enda Gerard, Razman Jarmin
    Initial wound care idioms were designed around a moist dressing in presumed better wound healing. As wound care advances, innovations of dressings were formed. In the Guru-UKM Method (GUM), we combined two well-established dressings producing a synergistic effect in burn wound management. Patients with deep partial thickness burns were selected for the GUM. From the time of admission, they receive 2 cycles of paraffin tulle dressings once every two days to allow demarcation, then are reassessed for suitability of the GUM technique. We discuss 7 different burn cases that presented to our Burn Unit from January 2014 – June 2015.All dressings should create a suitable moist environment for healing, yet should be a painless dressing to help the patient return to normal function as soon as possible. In burn wounds, a suitable dressing ideally also biochemically debrides fibrin and softens hardened eschar and slough, without necessitating the patient to undergo general anaesthesia and surgical debridement. The Guru-UKM Method is a combination dressing technique that facilitates optimal burn wound management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin
  9. Munirah S, Samsudin OC, Chen HC, Salmah SH, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:35-6.
    PMID: 19024971
    Chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage biopsy and were cultivated in vitro. Approximately 30 million of cultured chondrocytes per ml were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted either with the autologous 'chondrocytes-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blank (AF). Sheep were euthanized after 12 weeks. The gross morphology of all defects treated with ACFC implantation, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly normal appearance according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. ACFC significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF in accordance with the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale. The relative sulphated glycosaminoglycans content (%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ACFC when compared to control groups; ACI vs. fibrin only vs. untreated (blank). Results showed that ACFC implantation exhibited superior cartilage-like tissue regeneration compared to ACI. If the result is applicable to the human, it possibly will improve the existing treatment approaches for cartilage restoration in orthopaedic surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin*
  10. Tay SP, Cheong SK, Boo NY
    Malays J Pathol, 2006 Jun;28(1):41-8.
    PMID: 17694958 MyJurnal
    Catheterization of the umbilical artery has been a useful aid in the management of sick neonates for the past few decades. However, it is associated with various complications. Reported studies strongly suggest a significant role of intravascular catheterization in the development of aortic thrombi. Increase in thrombosis of large vessels is believed to be related to mechanical injury in the catheterized vessels, which provide direct exposure of blood to tissue factor (TF), the primary cellular initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. This study was conducted to determine the levels of plasma TF, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and D-dimer (DD) in infants with umbilical arterial catheter (UAC)-associated thrombosis. Quantification of TF was carried out using an in-house sandwich ELISA, whereas TFPI and DD levels were measured with commercial immunoassay kits. Infants with UAC inserted were found to have significantly higher levels of plasma TF (p < 0.001) than baseline levels. However, there were no significantly elevated levels of TFPI or DD. Infants with UAC-associated thrombosis demonstrated a greater increase of TF level (median: 414.5 pg/mL; range: -76.0, 6667.0) than infants without UAC-associated thrombosis (105.0 pg/mL; -976.0, 9480.0; p = 0.009) following UAC insertion. Our findings indicate that quantification and monitoring of TF levels could predict thrombus formation in infants with indwelling UAC. Following umbilical arterial catheterisation, infants with an approximately 3-fold rise in plasma TF levels were most at risk of developing abdominal aorta thrombosis as confirmed by real-time abdominal ultrasonography.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis
  11. Mazlyzam AL, Aminuddin BS, Fuzina NH, Norhayati MM, Fauziah O, Isa MR, et al.
    Burns, 2007 May;33(3):355-63.
    PMID: 17321690
    Our aim of this study was to develop a new methodology for constructing a bilayer human skin equivalent to create a more clinical compliance skin graft composite for the treatment of various skin defects. We utilized human plasma derived fibrin as the scaffold for the development of a living bilayer human skin equivalent: fibrin-fibroblast and fibrin-keratinocyte (B-FF/FK SE). Skin cells from six consented patients were culture-expanded to passage 1. For B-FF/FK SE formation, human fibroblasts were embedded in human fibrin matrix and subsequently another layer of human keratinocytes in human fibrin matrix was stacked on top. The B-FF/FK SE was then transplanted to athymic mice model for 4 weeks to evaluate its regeneration and clinical performance. The in vivo B-FF/FK SE has similar properties as native human skin by histological analysis and expression of basal Keratin 14 gene in the epidermal layer and Collagen type I gene in the dermal layer. Electron microscopy analysis of in vivo B-FF/FK SE showed well-formed and continuous epidermal-dermal junction. We have successfully developed a technique to engineer living bilayer human skin equivalent using human fibrin matrix. The utilization of culture-expanded human skin cells and fibrin matrix from human blood will allow a fully autologous human skin equivalent construction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin/physiology*
  12. Law JX, Chowdhury SR, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BHI
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2017 Dec;18(4):585-595.
    PMID: 28748415 DOI: 10.1007/s10561-017-9645-2
    Fibrin has excellent biocompatibility and biological properties to support tissue regeneration and promote wound healing. However, the role of diluted fibrin in wound healing has yet to be elucidated as it is commonly used in high concentration. This study was aimed to examine the effects of diluted plasma-derived fibrin (PDF) on keratinocyte and fibroblast wound healing in term of cell proliferation, migration, extracellular matrix (ECM) production and soluble factor secretion. Two PDF concentrations, 10 and 20% (v/v) were tested on keratinocytes and fibroblasts indirectly co-cultured in the transwell system. The control group was cultured with 5% FBS. Results showed that PDF reduced the keratinocyte growth rate and fibroblast migration, and increased the fibroblast ECM gene expression whereby significant differences were found between the 20% PDF group and the 5% FBS group. Similar trend was seen for the 10% PDF group but the differences were not significant. Comparison of the soluble factors between the PDF groups demonstrated that the level of growth-related oncogene alpha, interleukin-8 and epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 were significantly higher in the 10% PDF group, whilst interleukin-1 alpha and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor were significantly more concentrated in the 20% PDF group. Our results suggested that PDF selectively elevated the expression of collagen type 1 and collagen type 3 in fibroblasts but slowed down the migration in concentration-dependent manner. These novel findings provide new insight into the role of PDF in wound healing and may have important implications for the use of fibrin in skin tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin/metabolism*
  13. Tay SP, Cheong SK, Boo NY
    Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis, 2003 Feb;14(2):125-9.
    PMID: 12632021
    The investigation of many hemostatic defects in newborns is restricted by the lack of normal reference values. The coagulation system of the neonate differs in many ways from that of the adult. The present study was designed to compare the concentrations of tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and D-dimer (DD) in the umbilical cord blood of healthy newborns and in adult plasma. TF antigen was quantified using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas TFPI and DD levels were measured with commercial kits. The mean TF level in cord blood (mean standard deviation, 183.94 103.63 pg/ml) was significantly higher ( = 0.008) than that in adults (136.64 65.09 pg/ml). Cord blood exhibited enhanced fibrinolysis, as was reflected by a significantly higher level of DD (924.57 733.87 ng/ml, 0.001) than that in adults (45.57 17.21 ng/ml). Conversely, cord blood (30.88 10.16 ng/ml) demonstrated significantly lower ( 0.001) TFPI levels than that in adults (55.77 21.16 ng/ml). However, no significant differences of these three hemostatic markers were noted between both gender groups in newborns and adults. Our findings indicate that an active and dynamic state of hemostasis exists in cord blood, as the fluidity of cord blood remains preserved in the presence of birth injury.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis*
  14. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Sivanesaratnam V
    Pathology, 1993 Jul;25(3):250-2.
    PMID: 8265242
    We report the first documented Malaysian case of aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) of the vulva. A 56-yr-old woman of Indian ethnic origin presented with a vulval lesion which was clinically mistaken for a Bartholin's cyst. The lesion was surgically excised and a diagnosis of AAM was made histologically. Of particular interest was the finding of foamy and mononuclear inflammatory cells and fibrin in the walls of most of the lesional blood vessels. The patient recovered uneventfully and remains without tumor recurrence at the time of writing 37 mths after initial presentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin/analysis
  15. Vardar E, Larsson HM, Allazetta S, Engelhardt EM, Pinnagoda K, Vythilingam G, et al.
    Acta Biomater, 2018 02;67:156-166.
    PMID: 29197579 DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.11.034
    Endoscopic injection of bulking agents has been widely used to treat urinary incontinence, often due to urethral sphincter complex insufficiency. The aim of the study was to develop a novel injectable bioactive collagen-fibrin bulking agent restoring long-term continence by functional muscle tissue regeneration. Fibrin micro-beads were engineered using a droplet microfluidic system. They had an average diameter of 140 μm and recombinant fibrin-binding insulin-like growth factor-1 (α2PI1-8-MMP-IGF-1) was covalently conjugated to the beads. A plasmin fibrin degradation assay showed that 72.5% of the initial amount of α2PI1-8-MMP-IGF-1 loaded into the micro-beads was retained within the fibrin micro-beads. In vitro, the growth factor modified fibrin micro-beads enhanced cell attachment and the migration of human urinary tract smooth muscle cells, however, no change of the cellular metabolic activity was seen. These bioactive micro-beads were mixed with genipin-crosslinked homogenized collagen, acting as a carrier. The collagen concentration, the degree of crosslinking, and the mechanical behavior of this bioactive collagen-fibrin injectable were comparable to reference samples. This novel injectable showed no burst release of the growth factor, had a positive effect on cell behavior and may therefore induce smooth muscle regeneration in vivo, necessary for the functional treatment of stress and other urinary incontinences.

    STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Urinary incontinence is involuntary urine leakage, resulting from a deficient function of the sphincter muscle complex. Yet there is no functional cure for this devastating condition using current treatment options. Applied physical and surgical therapies have limited success. In this study, a novel bioactive injectable bulking agent, triggering new muscle regeneration at the injection site, has been evaluated. This injectable consists of cross-linked collagen and fibrin micro-beads, functionalized with bound insulin-like growth factor-1 (α2PI1-8-MMP-IGF-1). These bioactive fibrin micro-beads induced human smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. Thus, this injectable bulking agent is apt to be a good candidate for regeneration of urethral sphincter muscle, ensuring a long-lasting treatment for urinary incontinence.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin/pharmacology; Fibrin/therapeutic use*
  16. Law JX, Musa F, Ruszymah BH, El Haj AJ, Yang Y
    Med Eng Phys, 2016 Sep;38(9):854-61.
    PMID: 27349492 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2016.05.017
    Collagen and fibrin are widely used in tissue engineering due to their excellent biocompatibility and bioactivities that support in vivo tissue formation. These two hydrogels naturally present in different wound healing stages with different regulatory effects on cells, and both of them are mechanically weak in the reconstructed hydrogels. We conducted a comparative study by the growth of rat dermal fibroblasts or dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes together in collagen and fibrin constructs respectively with and without the reinforcement of electrospun poly(lactic acid) nanofiber mesh. Cell proliferation, gel contraction and elastic modulus of the constructs were measured on the same gels at multiple time points during the 22 day culturing period using multiple non-destructive techniques. The results demonstrated considerably different cellular activities within the two types of constructs. Co-culturing keratinocytes with fibroblasts in the collagen constructs reduced the fibroblast proliferation, collagen contraction and mechanical strength at late culture point regardless of the presence of nanofibers. Co-culturing keratinocytes with fibroblasts in the fibrin constructs promoted fibroblast proliferation but exerted no influence on fibrin contraction and mechanical strength. The presence of nanofibers in the collagen and fibrin constructs played a favorable role on the fibroblast proliferation when keratinocytes were absent. Thus, this study exhibited new evidence of the strong cross-talk between keratinocytes and fibroblasts, which can be used to control fibroblast proliferation and construct contraction. This cross-talk activity is extracellular matrix-dependent in terms of the fibrous network morphology, density and strength.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin
  17. Low Qin Jian, Teo Kuo Zhau, Mohd Nadzri Misni, Cheo Seng Wee
    Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is widely used in the investigation of suspected pulmonary embolism. CTPA is not without adverse effects as it involves intravenous contrast injection and radiation exposure. The annual incidence of pulmonary embolism is 60 – 70 per 100,000 populations and CTPA remains the commonest imaging modality1. This study aims to audit all CTPA performed at Hospital Sultanah Nora Ismail, Batu Pahat, Johor for the entire year of 2018 to illustrate the demographic data, symptoms, risk factors, clinical scoring system applied and patients’ outcome. A retrospective study was conducted to audit all CTPA performed between 1st January to 31st December 2018 via the radiology department electronic records and patients’ records. There were a total of 60 CTPA performed in the entire year of 2018 with 16 positive and 44 negative scans. Among the 16 positive scans, 7 (44%) had a Wells score above 6, 6 (38%) had a Wells score between 2 – 6 and 3 (18%) had a Wells score less than 2. Out of the 16 positive scans, 4 (25%) were known malignancy and 1 was a known case of anti-phospholipid syndrome. All 60 patients had electrographs and arterial blood gases performed prior to CTPA. D dimer was performed in 15 cases (5%). Among the 16 positive scan patients, 4 (25%) passed away during the same admission directly or indirectly related to pulmonary embolism. This annual computed tomography audit report will assist clinicians in making better diagnostic decision when dealing with patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  18. Lee KW, Yusof Khan AHK, Ching SM, Chia PK, Loh WC, Abdul Rashid AM, et al.
    Front Neurol, 2020;11:579070.
    PMID: 33123082 DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2020.579070
    Background: As the world witnessed the devastation caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, a growing body of literature on COVID-19 is also becoming increasingly available. Stroke has increasingly been reported as a complication of COVID-19 infection. However, a systematic synthesis of the available data has not been conducted. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of currently available epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data related to both stroke and COVID-19 infection. Methods: We systematically searched Medline, Cinahl, and PubMed for studies related to stroke and COVID-19 from inception up to June 4, 2020. We selected cohort studies, case series, and case reports that reported the occurrence of stroke in COVID-19 patients. A fixed-effects model was used to estimate the pooled frequency of stroke in COVID-19 patients with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Twenty-eight studies were included in the systematic review and seven studies for the meta-analysis. The pooled frequency of stroke in COVID-19 patients was 1.1% (95% CI: 0.8, 1.3). The heterogeneity was low (I2 = 0.0%). Even though the frequency of stroke among patients having COVID-19 infection was low, those with concomitant COVID-19 infection and stroke suffered from a more severe infection and eventually had a poorer prognosis with a higher mortality rate (46.7%) than COVID-19 alone. Many COVID-19 patients shared the common traditional risk factors for stroke. We noted that ischemic stroke involving the anterior circulation with large vessels occlusion is the most common type of stroke with more strokes seen in multi-territorial regions, suggesting systemic thromboembolism. An elevated level of D-dimers, C-reactive protein, ferritin, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin, ESR, fibrinogen, and a positive antiphospholipid antibody were also noted in this review. Conclusions: The occurrence of stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection is uncommon, but it may pose as an important prognostic marker and indicator of severity of infection, by causing large vessels occlusion and exhibiting a thrombo-inflammatory vascular picture. Physicians should be made aware and remain vigilant on the possible two-way relationship between stroke and COVID-19 infection. The rate of stroke among patients with COVID-19 infection may increase in the future as they share the common risk factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  19. Rethinasamy R, Alias A, Kandasamy R, Raffiq A, Looi MC, Hillda T
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Sep;26(5):139-147.
    PMID: 31728126 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.5.13
    Background: Neurosurgical patients are varied, encompassing cranial and spinal diseases and trauma, and are admitted under both elective and emergency settings. In all settings, neurosurgery patients are at risk of deep vein thrombosis. D-dimer and ultrasound Doppler have long been good screening and confirmatory tools for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We conducted a study to identify the factors associated with DVT among neurosurgical patients, and the overall rate of occurrence at our centre. We aimed to also compare our results to the incidence in similar studies elsewhere in which more judicious use of pharmacological prophylaxis was undertaken. We also included the Well's score to validate its usefulness in screening for DVT in our local setting.

    Methods: All patients admitted into our centre were screened for eligibility and those who underwent surgery from September 2016 to September 2017 had a D-dimer screening after surgery, followed by an ultrasound Doppler if the former was positive. The choice of anticoagulant therapy was not influenced by this study, and observation of the use was in keeping with usual practices in our centre was done.

    Results: A total number of 331 patients were recruited in this study, however, after the inclusion and exclusion criteria had been met, 320 patients remained eligible, i.e. suitable for analysis. The mean age of our patients was 46 years, with 66% being male patients. A majority of the cases in this study were cranial related, with only 5% being spine surgeries. On the multivariate analysis, the Well's score and the number of days in bed remained statistically significant, after adjusting for age group, gender, ethnicity, type of central venous access and type of DVT prophylaxis with an adjusted odd's ratio, and a confidence interval of 95%, and P < 0.05 for each.

    Conclusion: Well's scoring and number of days in bed were independent factors affecting the rate of DVT in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures in our centre.

    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  20. Perera E, Rodriguez-Viera L, Montero-Alejo V, Perdomo-Morales R
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2020 Jul;31(2):187-209.
    PMID: 32922675 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2020.31.2.10
    Digestive proteases from marine organisms have been poorly applied to biomedicine. Exceptions are trypsin and other digestive proteases from a few cold-adapted or temperate fish and crustacean species. These enzymes are more efficient than enzymes from microorganism and higher vertebrates that have been used traditionally. However, the biomedical potential of digestive proteases from warm environment species has received less research attention. This review aims to provide an overview of this unrealised biomedical potential, using the debridement application as a paradigm. Debridement is intended to remove nonviable, necrotic and contaminated tissue, as well as fibrin clots, and is a key step in wound treatment. We discuss the physiological role of enzymes in wound healing, the use of exogenous enzymes in debridement, and the limitations of cold-adapted enzymes such as their poor thermal stability. We show that digestive proteases from tropical crustaceans may have advantages over their cold-adapted counterparts for this and similar uses. Differences in thermal stability, auto-proteolytic stability, and susceptibility to proteinase inhibitors are discussed. Furthermore, it is proposed that the feeding behaviour of the source organism may direct the evaluation of enzymes for particular applications, as digestive proteases have evolved to fill a wide variety of feeding habitats, natural substrates, and environmental conditions. We encourage more research on the biomedical application of digestive enzymes from tropical marine crustaceans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibrin
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