Community-based monitoring is increasingly recognised as one solution to sustainable environmental management. However, the development of community-based monitoring has led to confusion or misconceptions regarding other similar initiatives. Through a review of the characteristics and synthesising criteria of effective community-based monitoring, this article addresses how to distinguish community-based monitoring from other forms of community engagement research. A review of relevant community-based monitoring literature identifies the characteristics of and knowledge gaps in procedures and governance structures. Additionally, evidence of common benefits, challenges and lessons learned for successful community-based monitoring are deliberated. As an outcome of the review, the article synthesises a set of community-based monitoring criteria as follows: (1) efficacy of initiatives, (2) technicality aspects, (3) feedback mechanisms and (4) sustainability. These synthesised criteria will be instrumental in designing customised community-based monitoring initiatives for environmental sustainability.
Histology, a branch of anatomy is a correlational science between structure of tissues and their
functions. Knowledge of histology is emphasised for undergraduate medical students as a basic for
clinical knowledge and research. To impart retainable and reproducible knowledge in histology, a new
laboratory manual with images and clinical correlates was introduced to the Year I MBBS students
in the Academic Session 2017/2018 during their general anatomy module. The objective structured
practical examination marks between 101 students of Batches 2016/17 and 2017/18 were analysed.
The difference in marks between both the batches were analysed using SPSS 20. Batch 2017/18
students who used the new lab manual scored better than the previous batch who used the old
manual. Independent t-test was not statistically significant. The students who used the new manual
fared better than their seniors. Since the difference was not statistically significant, it can be concluded
that if existent, drawbacks in the lab manual should be improved and adequate usage of the manual by
the students should be emphasised. Nevertheless, usage of the new lab manual shows that the students
could understand the subject and score better with less study hours.
The advancement of technology has allowed a variety of tools for employees and
managers, or knowledge workers, to choose as communication tools, especially for
managing project teams. Instead of communicating and updating project progress
through emails and short messaging system, social messaging (SM) applications, such
as WhatsAppTM, are the current daily choice among them. The over-utilisation of the
SM applications has given an opportunity for a research on project knowledge
retention within project team, since it becomes an addiction to create new groups each
time a new project team is formed. It is believed that project knowledge resides within
these virtual groups, and this paper looks into how project knowledge is managed by
analysing the communication patterns against a measurement metrics based on
personal knowledge management (PKM) theory called GUSC Model. The
communication patterns found existed in the SM application are qualitatively
identified and mapped against the PKM processes within, with weighted score
assigned to each process to quantitatively measure the overall project knowledge
management participation. The differences among the organisational communication
levels, namely upper and lower level communication levels, are analysed and the final
result of participation expectation on member of SM application groups is presented.
The outcome of this research recommends the future intervention on SM application
usage and the application of knowledge management concept in current
This paper aims to presents the implementation of Organizational Memory Information System (OMIS) framework in managing knowledge in organization. OMIS providing a way for organization to leveraging tacit knowledge in capturing, codifying, storing and transferring knowledge. Every year data, information and knowledge had increased then becomes wasted memories due to the retirement, replacement and resignation of staff. This can have a great impact if the knowledge is not used wisely for future purpose. This could give great impact when it is not used wisely. Organization become more efficient and competitive if they used the collections of memory in the form of collected data, information, and knowledge. Organizations which are not efficient will do the process, and study the same repeatedly. Implementation of this framework is a good way to increase effectiveness of knowledge sharing in university. But some knowledge is hard to capture especially tacit knowledge. Many organizations attempt to capture tacit knowledge and codify it so that it can be shared around the organization for greater value. So this paper is mainly focused on implementation of Organizational Memory Information System (OMIS) framework in order to manage knowledge more centralized and organized in organization.
This essay considers the development of the nuclear science programme in Malaysia from a transnational perspective by examining the interactions between state agents and other external nuclear-knowledge/technology related actors and agents. Going beyond the model of knowledge diffusion that brings together concerns articulated in Harris's (2011) geographies of long distance knowledge and Reinhardt's (2011) role of the expert in knowledge transfer, the proposed three-phase model of knowledge transfer theorises the pathways undertaken by a late-blooming participant of modern science and technology as the latter moves from epistemic dependency to increasing independence despite the hurdles encountered, and the underdevelopment of many areas of its technoscientific economy. The model considers tensions stemming from the pressures of expediency for meeting national developmental goals on the one side, and the call to support the objectives of basic science on the other. The three phases of the model are epistemic transition, epistemic transplantation and localisation, and epistemic generation (ETTLG). As additional support for the proposed model, three arguments are proffered as deeper explanations of the epistemic goal by using Malaysia as a case study: knowledge transfer for political legitimization, knowledge transfer for countering agnotology, and knowledge transfer for social engineering and science diplomacy.
A survey was carried out among primary school teachers in the district of Kota Bharu, Malaysia to assess the level of knowledge on asthma and its management. Our findings revealed that primary school teachers were less informed about the management and treatment of asthma. They were relatively more knowledgeable about the causes and symptomatology of asthma. The majority of respondents had misunderstanding regarding the effect of rain, smoking and cold weather on asthma. It is important that teachers should be able to recognise symptoms of an asthmatic attack or take the necessary precautions to avoid such an attack. Many teachers agreed on the need to have an asthma education programme in their teaching curriculum.
Matched MeSH terms: Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*; Knowledge*
Objective: To assess postgraduate candidates’ knowledge on basic sciences and to compare
their achievement based on two years study in the Department of Psychiatry, National University of Malaysia (UKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: This is a study assessing
areas of difficulties in basic sciences for the Malaysian postgraduate candidates sitting for
mock MCQ examination papers in two consecutive years. Results: The candidates in both
years failed on MCQ papers (scoring marks are only 43% and 40% for the year 2006 and
2005 respectively), which is consistent with their final examination outcomes. The candidates in the year 2006 were much superior in neuroanatomy (percentages of median scores: 47% vs. 31%, p
The urban transit network design problem (UTNDP) involves the development of a transit route set and associated schedules for an urban public transit system. The design of efficient public transit systems is widely considered as a viable option for the economic, social, and physical structure of an urban setting. This paper reviews four well-known population-based metaheuristics that have been employed and deemed potentially viable for tackling the UTNDP. The aim is to give a thorough review of the algorithms and identify the gaps for future research directions.
An e-learning website is very useful, especially for students and lecturers, as this platform is very efficient for blended learning. Thus, the main objective of this research was to determine the user expectations of e-learning websites of comprehensive universities through localisation based on user preferences. This research showed how users interact with e-learning websites and indicated the patterns that can be used as standard guidelines to design the best e-learning websites. It was found localisation of e-learning websites was scarce and slow interaction with e-learning websites has inconvenienced users. Additionally, too many web objects on the user interface of e-learning websites have a tendency to confuse users. A mixed method approach was used I this study, namely content analysis (qualitative) and localisation (quantitative). Thus, this research contributes to knowledge by guiding users on localising their web objects according to their preferences and hopefully allow for an easy and quick information search for e-learning websites.
In the development of current vehicle capabilities required an effective braking system, has a little wear, and
safety riding. The objective of the research is to determine wear and braking distance because of braking load and
speed motorcycle Honda supra X125 cc. This research used the speed of 50 km/h, 60 km/h, and 70 km/h. Braking load
used to be 4 kg, 5 kg, and 6 kg. The test was done by dynamic method and the research was done in two stages; testing
in the field and measuring brake wear in the lab using a profile projector. Testing the hardness of brake was done to
know hardness brake before and after testing due to the effect of wear, braking time, and braking distance.From testing
it was found that increasing of braking load, resulted in increasing wear. The smallest wear was 6 x 10-5 mm/sea at a
speed of 50 km/h, braking load of 4 kg, and braking time of 15.94 seconds. Increasing the speed resulted in increasing
braking distances with the smallest of braking distance was 55 meters at the breaking load of 6 kg, the speed of 50
km/h and braking time 9.93 seconds. The hardness of brake lining, increased after the brake lining wear testing. The
hardness before the test was 95.8 HRN and after the test was 100.4 HRN.
The side sensitive group runs (SSGR) chart is better than both the Shewhart and synthetic charts in detecting small and moderate process mean shifts. In practical circumstances, the process parameters are seldom known, so it is necessary to estimate them from in-control Phase-I samples. Research has discovered that a large number of in-control Phase-I samples are needed for the SSGR chart with estimated process parameters to behave similarly to a chart with known process parameters. The common metric to evaluate the performance of the control chart is average run length (ARL). An assumption for the computation of the ARL is that the shift size is assumed to be known. In reality however, the practitioners may not know the following shift size in advance. In light of this, the expected average run length (EARL) will be considered to measure the performance of the SSGR chart. Moreover, the standard deviation of the ARL (SDARL) will be studied, which is used to quantify the between-practitioner variability in the SSGR chart with estimated process parameters. This paper proposes the optimal design of the estimated process parameters SSGR chart based on the EARL criterion. The application of the optimal SSGR chart with estimated process parameters is demonstrated with actual data taken from a manufacturing company.
Currently, the development of information technology and the increase in the number of nursing students occur drastically. Based on this premise, the purpose of this article is to shed light into the future development of curriculum for the nursing field. Philosophy is considered one of the most important components of both education system and curriculum, because the educational philosophies reflect the social, economic and political aspects of a society, in which they are applied. As an educator, understanding the philosophy to be adapted in the curriculum and learning process is important, to provide a framework for the best performance of both the teacher and the student. In conclusion, it is important to implement the philosophy of curriculum in the education program as each philosophy aids in the principles and guidelines of the learning process. Globally, most programs are usually based on the philosophy related to that program. Therefore, as an educator, we must know the philosophical development of the curriculum of education, so that we are able to analyse and choose which is appropriate.
Learning is often quoted as a lifelong process. In other words, life is about learning. As prominent institutions, universities are concerned with valued and measurable learning among undergraduate students so that their mastery level of a particular content knowledge can be quantitatively gauged. Of many types of assessments, summative assessment plays a greater role in majority of engineering courses due to nature of the content knowledge. This paper mathematically investigates the fairness issue of equal weightage for all summative assessments i.e., assignments, mid-term test and end-term examination. A multiple objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) is utilized to assign equal weight for the aforementioned assessments. It was found that the number of students failing the selected engineering course increases by about five times using the MOORA method. The finding clearly reveals the advantages of the former method (unequal weights) as compared to MOORA method in terms of catering students with different learning styles and speed of knowledge acquisition.
Heart disease knowledge is an important concept for health education, yet there is lack of evidence on proper validated instruments used to measure levels of heart disease knowledge in the Malaysian context.