Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 206 in total

  1. Tan YT, Chua ASM, Ngoh GC
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Feb;297:122522.
    PMID: 31818720 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122522
    Since the introduction of deep eutectic solvent (DES) in biomass processing field, the efficiency of DES in lignocellulosic biopolymer model compounds' (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) solubilisation and conversion was widely recognized. Nevertheless, DES's potential for biorefinery application can be reflected more accurately through their performance in raw lignocellulosic biomass processing rather than model compound conversion. Therefore, this review examines the studies on raw lignocellulosic biomass fractionation using DES and the subsequent conversion of DES-fractionated products into bio-based products. The review stresses on three key parts: performance of varying types of DESs and pretreatment schemes for biopolymer fractionation, properties and conversion of fractionated saccharides as well as DES-extracted lignin. The prospects and challenges of DES implementation in biomass processing will also be discussed. This review provides a front-to-end view on the DES's performance, starting from pretreatment to DES-fractionated products conversion, which would be helpful in devising a comprehensive biomass utilization process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin*
  2. Sheng Y, Lam SS, Wu Y, Ge S, Wu J, Cai L, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2021 Mar;324:124631.
    PMID: 33454445 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124631
    The demands of energy sustainability drive efforts to bio-chemical conversion of biomass into biofuels through pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Pretreatment leads to significant structural changes of the complex lignin polymer that affect yield and productivity of the enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Structural changes of lignin after pretreatment include functional groups, inter unit linkages and compositions. These changes influence non-productive adsorption of enzyme on lignin through hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. This paper reviews the relationships between structural changes of lignin and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. The formation of pseudo-lignin during dilute acid pretreatment is revealed, and their negative effect on enzymatic hydrolysis is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin*
  3. Yiin CL, Yap KL, Ku AZE, Chin BLF, Lock SSM, Cheah KW, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2021 Aug;333:125195.
    PMID: 33932810 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125195
    Biomass wastes exhibit a great potential to be used as a source of non-depleting renewable energy and synthesis of value-added products. The key to the valorization of excess lignocellulosic biomass wastes in the world lies on the pretreatment process to recalcitrant barrier of the lignocellulosic material for the access to useful substrates. A wide range of pretreatment techniques are available and advances in this field is continuously happening, in search for cheap, effective, and environmentally friendly methods. This review starts with an introduction to conventional approaches and green solvents for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Subsequently, the mechanism of actions along with the advantages and disadvantages of pretreatment techniques were reviewed. The roles of choline chloride (ChCl) in green solvents and their potential applications were also comprehensively reviewed. The collection of ideas in this review serve as an insight for future works or interest on biomass-to-energy conversion using green solvents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin*
  4. Chukwuma OB, Rafatullah M, Tajarudin HA, Ismail N
    PMID: 34204975 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18116001
    Discovering novel bacterial strains might be the link to unlocking the value in lignocellulosic bio-refinery as we strive to find alternative and cleaner sources of energy. Bacteria display promise in lignocellulolytic breakdown because of their innate ability to adapt and grow under both optimum and extreme conditions. This versatility of bacterial strains is being harnessed, with qualities like adapting to various temperature, aero tolerance, and nutrient availability driving the use of bacteria in bio-refinery studies. Their flexible nature holds exciting promise in biotechnology, but despite recent pointers to a greener edge in the pretreatment of lignocellulose biomass and lignocellulose-driven bioconversion to value-added products, the cost of adoption and subsequent scaling up industrially still pose challenges to their adoption. However, recent studies have seen the use of co-culture, co-digestion, and bioengineering to overcome identified setbacks to using bacterial strains to breakdown lignocellulose into its major polymers and then to useful products ranging from ethanol, enzymes, biodiesel, bioflocculants, and many others. In this review, research on bacteria involved in lignocellulose breakdown is reviewed and summarized to provide background for further research. Future perspectives are explored as bacteria have a role to play in the adoption of greener energy alternatives using lignocellulosic biomass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin*
  5. Sun Q, Chen WJ, Pang B, Sun Z, Lam SS, Sonne C, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2021 Dec;341:125807.
    PMID: 34474237 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125807
    In recent years, visualization and characterization of lignocellulose at different scales elucidate the modifications of its ultrastructural and chemical features during hydrothermal pretreatment which include degradation and dissolving of hemicelluloses, swelling and partial hydrolysis of cellulose, melting and redepositing a part of lignin in the surface. As a result, cell walls are swollen, deformed and de-laminated from the adjacent layer, lead to a range of revealed droplets that appear on and within cell walls. Moreover, the certain extent morphological changes significantly promote the downstream processing steps, especially for enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic fermentation to bioethanol by increasing the contact area with enzymes. However, the formation of pseudo-lignin hinders the accessibility of cellulase to cellulose, which decreases the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. This review is intended to bridge the gap between the microstructure studies and value-added applications of lignocellulose while inspiring more research prospects to enhance the hydrothermal pretreatment process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin*
  6. Liao JJ, Latif NHA, Trache D, Brosse N, Hussin MH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Nov 01;162:985-1024.
    PMID: 32592780 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.168
    The most critical issues faced by the world nowadays is to provide the sustainability of consumption for energy and natural resources. Lignin is said to be one of the alternative new discoveries best-suited lignocellulosic biomass due to its low cost, sufficient availability and environmentally safe. The valuable properties exhibited by lignin can give broader applications usage such as in composite materials, wood industries, polymer composite industries, pharmaceutical and corrosion inhibitor industries. Many biomass wastes resources, isolation processes and treatments are undergoing development in order to enhance the producing new lignin-based materials on an industrial scale. Therefore, this review discussed on the current knowledge on the structure and chemistry of isolation of lignin from different sources using various common methods, its characterization, properties and its applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/isolation & purification*; Lignin/chemistry*
  7. Ahmad Rizal NFA, Ibrahim MF, Zakaria MR, Kamal Bahrin E, Abd-Aziz S, Hassan MA
    Molecules, 2018 Apr 02;23(4).
    PMID: 29614823 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23040811
    The combination of superheated steam (SHS) with ligninolytic enzyme laccase pretreatment together with size reduction was conducted in order to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm biomass into glucose. The oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) were pretreated with SHS and ground using a hammer mill to sizes of 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mm before pretreatment using laccase to remove lignin. This study showed that reduction of size from raw to 0.25 mm plays important role in lignin degradation by laccase that removed 38.7% and 39.6% of the lignin from OPEFB and OPMF, respectively. The subsequent saccharification process of these pretreated OPEFB and OPMF generates glucose yields of 71.5% and 63.0%, which represent a 4.6 and 4.8-fold increase, respectively, as compared to untreated samples. This study showed that the combination of SHS with laccase pretreatment together with size reduction could enhance the glucose yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/metabolism*
  8. Huang Y, Liu S, Zhang J, Syed-Hassan SSA, Hu X, Sun H, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Jul;307:123192.
    PMID: 32220819 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123192
    This study investigated the interactions between volatile and char during biomass pyrolysis at 400 °C, employing a β-5 lignin dimer and amino-modified graphitized carbon nanotube (CNT-NH2) as their models, respectively. The results demonstrated that both -NH2 and its carrier (CNT) facilitated the conversion of the β-5 dimer, which significantly increased from 9.7% (blank run), to 61.6% (with CNT), and to 96.6% (with CNT-NH2). CNT mainly favored the breakage of C-O bond in the feedstock to produce dimers with a yield of 55.5%, while CNT-NH2 promoted the cleavage of both C-O and C-C bonds to yield monomers with a yield up to 63.4%. Such significant changes in the pyrolysis behaviors of the β-5 lignin dimer after the introduction of CNT-NH2 were considered to be mainly caused by hydrogen-bond formations between -NH2 and the dimeric feedstock/products, in addition to the π-π stacking between CNT and aromatic rings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin*
  9. Sankaran R, Parra Cruz RA, Pakalapati H, Show PL, Ling TC, Chen WH, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Feb;298:122476.
    PMID: 31810736 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122476
    Microalgal and lignocellulosic biomass is the most sumptuous renewable bioresource raw material existing on earth. Recently, the bioconversion of biomass into biofuels have received significant attention replacing fossil fuels. Pretreatment of biomass is a critical process in the conversion due to the nature and structure of the biomass cell wall that is complex. Although green technologies for biofuel production are advancing, the productivity and yield from these techniques are low. Over the past years, various pretreatment techniques have been developed and successfully employed to improve the technology. This paper presents an in-depth review of the recent advancement of pretreatment methods focusing on microalgal and lignocellulosic biomass. The technological approaches involving physical, chemical, biological and other latest pretreatment methods are reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin
  10. Mohammed MA, Salmiaton A, Wan Azlina WA, Mohamad Amran MS
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Apr;110:628-36.
    PMID: 22326334 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.056
    Empty fruit bunches (EFBs), a waste material from the palm oil industry, were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification. A high content of volatiles (>82%) increased the reactivity of EFBs, and more than 90% decomposed at 700°C; however, a high content of moisture (>50%) and oxygen (>45%) resulted in a low calorific value. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the higher the heating rate and the smaller the particle size, the higher the peak and final reaction temperatures. The least squares estimation for a first-order reaction model was used to study the degradation kinetics. The values of activation energy increased from 61.14 to 73.76 and from 40.06 to 47.99kJ/mol when the EFB particle size increased from 0.3 to 1.0mm for holocellulose and lignin degradation stages, respectively. The fuel characteristics of EFB are comparable to those of other biomasses and EFB can be considered a good candidate for gasification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/analysis
  11. Fan YV, Klemeš JJ, Perry S, Lee CT
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Feb 01;231:352-363.
    PMID: 30366314 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.10.020
    Lignocellulosic waste (LW) is abundant in availability and is one of the suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion (AD). However, it is a complex solid substrate matrix that hinders the hydrolysis stage of anaerobic digestion. This study assessed various pre-treatment and post-treatments of lignocellulosic waste for anaerobic digestion benefiting from advanced P-graph and GaBi software (Thinkstep, Germany) from the perspective of cost and environmental performances (global warming potential, human toxicity, ozone depletion potential, particulate matter, photochemical oxidant creation, acidification and eutrophication potential). CaO pre-treatment (P4), H2S removal with membrane separation post-treatment (HSR MS) and without the composting of digestate is identified as the cost-optimal pathway. The biological (P7- Enzyme, P8- Microbial Consortium) and physical (P1- Grinding, P2- Steam Explosion, P3- Water Vapour) pre-treatments alternatives have lower environmental impacts than chemical pre-treatments (P4- CaO, P5- NaOH, P6- H2SO4) however they are not part of the near cost optimal solutions. For post-treatment, the near cost optimal alternatives are H2S removal with organic physical scrubbing (HSR OPS) and H2S removal with amine scrubbing (HSR AS). HSR AS has a better performance in the overall environmental impacts followed by HSR MS and HSR OPS. In general, the suggested cost-optimal solution is still having relatively lower environmental impacts and feasible for implementation (cost effective). There is very complicated to find a universal AD solution. Different scenarios (the type of substrate, the scale, product demand, policies) have different constraints and consequently solutions. The trade-offs between cost and environment performances should be a future extension of this work.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin*
  12. Akhtar J, Idris A, Abd Aziz R
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2014 Feb;98(3):987-1000.
    PMID: 24292125 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-013-5319-6
    Production of succinic acid via separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) are alternatives and are environmentally friendly processes. These processes have attained considerable positions in the industry with their own share of challenges and problems. The high-value succinic acid is extensively used in chemical, food, pharmaceutical, leather and textile industries and can be efficiently produced via several methods. Previously, succinic acid production via chemical synthesis from petrochemical or refined sugar has been the focus of interest of most reviewers. However, these expensive substrates have been recently replaced by alternative sustainable raw materials such as lignocellulosic biomass, which is cheap and abundantly available. Thus, this review focuses on succinic acid production utilizing lignocellulosic material as a potential substrate for SSF and SHF. SSF is an economical single-step process which can be a substitute for SHF - a two-step process where biomass is hydrolyzed in the first step and fermented in the second step. SSF of lignocellulosic biomass under optimum temperature and pH conditions results in the controlled release of sugar and simultaneous conversion into succinic acid by specific microorganisms, reducing reaction time and costs and increasing productivity. In addition, main process parameters which influence SHF and SSF processes such as batch and fed-batch fermentation conditions using different microbial strains are discussed in detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/metabolism*
  13. Nur-Nazratul FMY, Rakib MRM, Zailan MZ, Yaakub H
    PLoS One, 2021;16(9):e0258065.
    PMID: 34591932 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0258065
    The changes in lignocellulosic biomass composition and in vitro rumen digestibility of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after pre-treatment with the fungus Ganoderma lucidum were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the pre-treatment for 2-12 weeks has gradually degraded the OPEFB in a time-dependent manner; whereby lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were respectively degraded by 41.0, 20.5, and 26.7% at the end of the incubation period. The findings were corroborated using the physical examination of the OPEFB by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the OPEFB pre-treated for 12 weeks has shown the highest in vitro digestibility of dry (77.20%) and organic (69.78%) matter, where they were enhanced by 104.07 and 96.29%, respectively, as compared to the untreated control. The enhancement in the in vitro ruminal digestibility was negatively correlated with the lignin content in the OPEFB. Therefore, biologically delignified OPEFB with G. lucidum fungal culture pre-treatment have the potential to be utilized as one of the ingredients for the development of a novel ruminant forage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/metabolism*
  14. Wang M, Han L, Liu S, Zhao X, Yang J, Loh SK, et al.
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Sep;10(9):1424-33.
    PMID: 26121186 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400723
    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/metabolism*; Lignin/chemistry*
  15. Sekeri SH, Ibrahim MNM, Umar K, Yaqoob AA, Azmi MN, Hussin MH, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Dec 01;164:3114-3124.
    PMID: 32853611 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.181
    A study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of lignin, extracted from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) biomass as water-in-oil (W/O) emulsifying agent. To achieve this goal, soda lignin (SL) was extracted via soda pulping process and a series of nanosized soda lignin (NSL) were prepared using homogenizer at three different speed i.e. 10,400 rpm (NSL 10), 11,400 rpm (NSL 11) and 12,400 rpm (NSL 12) for one hour. All prepared samples were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potential analyser, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Extreme High Resolution Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (XHR-FESEM). The result of FTIR showed that there is no prominent change occurred in spectra of all samples while a good stability was reflected by TGA curves. The percentage of creaming index and visual observations of all samples demonstrated that NSL 12 and dosage 2 g (out of 1 g, 1.5 g and 2 g) were found to be the best among all samples. Furthermore, the results of IFT indicate that NSL 12 was proven to be more stable than the commercial product. Therefore, NSL 12 is selected for toxicological studies and was found safe in both, in vitro and in vivo studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/pharmacology; Lignin/chemistry*
  16. Tang PL, Hassan O, Maskat MY, Badri K
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:891539.
    PMID: 26798644 DOI: 10.1155/2015/891539
    In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF) was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen) and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP)] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt.) and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes) on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17 ± 49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67 ± 0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57 ± 1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68 ± 23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44 ± 6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26 ± 41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21 ± 2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75 ± 3.40 ppm ferulic acid), among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt.) was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid). Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g(-1) lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83 ± 14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19 ± 3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80 ± 1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06 ± 1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19 ± 2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/chemistry*
  17. Surendran A, Siddiqui Y, Saud HM, Ali NS, Manickam S
    J Appl Microbiol, 2018 Sep;125(3):876-887.
    PMID: 29786938 DOI: 10.1111/jam.13922
    AIM: Lignolytic (lignin degrading) enzyme, from oil palm pathogen Ganoderma boninense Pat. (Syn G. orbiforme (Ryvarden)), is involved in the detoxification and the degradation of lignin in the oil palm and is the rate-limiting step in the infection process of this fungus. Active inhibition of lignin-degrading enzymes secreted by G. boninense by various naturally occurring phenolic compounds and estimation of efficiency on pathogen suppression was aimed at.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: In our work, 10 naturally occurring phenolic compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory potential towards the lignolytic enzymes of G. boninense. Additionally, the lignin-degrading enzymes were characterized. Most of the peholic compounds exhibited an uncompetitive inhibition towards the lignin-degrading enzymes. Benzoic acid was the superior inhibitor to the production of lignin-degrading enzymes, when compared between the 10 phenolic compounds. The inhibitory potential of the phenolic compounds towards the lignin-degrading enzymes are higher than that of the conventional metal ion inhibitor. The lignin-degrading enzymes were stable in a wide range of pH but were sensitive to higher temperature.

    CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated the inhibitor potential of 10 naturally occurring phenolic compounds towards the lignin-degrading enzymes of G. boninense with different efficacies.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The study has shed a light towards a new management strategy to control basal stem rot disease in oil palm. It serves as a replacement for the existing chemical control.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/metabolism*
  18. Hazwan Hussin M, Aziz AA, Iqbal A, Ibrahim MNM, Latif NHA
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Feb 01;122:713-722.
    PMID: 30399384 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.11.009
    The recent study focused on lignin-phenol-glyoxal (LPG) as an alternative way to replace toxic formaldehyde used in commercially available wood adhesives. The concern of the uses of carcinogenic formaldehyde in wood adhesive industry has become major problem over human health, environmental and economy issues. In this study, lignin isolated from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) via soda and Kraft pulping were modified into SLPG (soda lignin-phenol-glyoxal) and KLPG (Kraft lignin-phenol-glyoxal) adhesives and were compared to phenol-formaldehyde (PF). Complementary analyses such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermal stability; Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to characterize all isolated lignin samples. The physical properties of the resins were further characterized in term of viscosity, gel time and total solid content. It was found that soda lignin comprised higher phenolic OH content and greater molecular weight compared to Kraft lignin. Various molar ratio of adhesives were applied on plywood and were mechanically tested. The 30% (w/w) SLPG has shown to have higher tensile strength and internal bonding stress at 72.08 MPa and 53.83 N mm-2 respectively to that of PF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/chemistry*
  19. Pang SC, Voon LK, Chin SF
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2018 Apr;184(4):1142-1154.
    PMID: 28965305 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2616-z
    The conversion of starchy sago (Metroxylon sagu) pith waste (SPW), a lignocellulosic biomass waste, to fermentable sugars under mild conditions had been successfully demonstrated. The optimum depolymerization of SPW was achieved at 2 wt% sample loading which was catalyzed by 100 mM of oxalic acid in the presence of 25 wt% NaCl solution at 110 °C for 3 h. Up to 97% SPW sample was being converted into fermentable sugars with limited formation of by-products after two sequential depolymerization cycles. Both reaction temperature and concentration of oxalic acid were crucial parameters for the depolymerization of SPW which exhibited a high selectivity for the production of glucose over other reducing sugars.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/chemistry*
  20. Sarwono A, Man Z, Bustam MA, Subbarao D, Idris A, Muhammad N, et al.
    Environ Technol, 2018 Jun;39(12):1522-1532.
    PMID: 28524800 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1332108
    Coating fertilizer particles with thin films is a possibility to control fertilizer release rates. It is observed that novel urea cross-linked starch-lignin composite thin films, prepared by solution casting, swell on coming into contact with water due to the increase in volume by water uptake by diffusion. The effect of lignin content, varied from 0% to 20% in steps of 5% at three different temperatures (25°C, 35°C and 45°C), on swelling of the film was investigated. By gravimetric analysis, the equilibrium water uptake and diffusion coefficient decrease with lignin content, indicating that the addition of lignin increases the hydrophobicity of the films. When temperature increases, the diffusion coefficient and the amount of water absorbed tend to increase. Assuming that swelling of the thin film is by water uptake by diffusion, the diffusion coefficient is estimated. The estimated diffusion coefficient decreases from 4.3 to 2.1 × 10-7 cm2/s at 25°C, from 5.3 to 2.9 × 10-7 cm2/s at 35°C and from 6.2 to 3.8 × 10-7 cm2/s at 45°C depending on the lignin content. Activation energy for the increase in diffusion coefficient with temperature is observed to be 16.55 kJ/mol. An empirical model of water uptake as a function of percentage of lignin and temperature was also developed based on Fick's law.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/chemistry*
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