Recent progress with tailored growth and post-process sorting enables carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies with predominantly metallic or semi-conducting concentrations. Cryogenic and microwave measurements performed here show transport dimensionality and overall order increasing with increasing metallic concentration, even in atmospheric doping conditions. By 120 GHz, the conductivity of predominantly semi-conducting assemblies grew to 400% its DC value at an increasing growth rate, while other concentrations a growth rate that tapered off. A generalized Drude model fits to the different frequency dependent behaviors and yields useful quality control parameters such as plasma frequency, mean free path, and degree of localization. As one of the first demonstrations of waveguides fabricated from this material, sorted CNTs from both as-made and post-process sources were inserted into sections of practical micro-strip. With both sources, sorted CNT micro-strip increasingly outperformed the unsorted with increasing frequency-- illustrating that sorted CNT assemblies will be important for high frequency applications.
A novel approach in the design of a safe, high performance hemodialysis membrane is of great demand. Despite many advantages, the employment of prodigious nanomaterials in hemodialysis membrane is often restricted by their potential threat to health. Hence, this work focusses on designing a biocompatible polyethersulfone (PES) hemodialysis membrane embedded with poly (citric acid)-grafted-multi walled carbon nanotubes (PCA-g-MWCNTs). Two important elements which could assure the safety of the nanocomposite membrane, i.e. (i) dispersion stability and (ii) leaching of MWCNTs were observed. The results showed the improved dispersion stability of MWCNTs in water and organic solvent due to the enriched ratio of oxygen-rich groups which subsequently enhanced membrane separation features. It was revealed that only 0.17% of MWCNTs was leached out during the membrane fabrication process (phase inversion) while no leaching was detected during permeation. In terms of biocompatibility, PES/PCA-g-MWCNT nanocomposite membrane exhibited lesser C3 and C5 activation (189.13 and 5.29ng/mL) and proteins adsorption (bovine serum albumin=4.5μg/cm2, fibrinogen=15.95μg/cm2) as compared to the neat PES membrane, while keeping a normal blood coagulation time. Hence, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNT nanocomposite membrane is proven to have the prospect of becoming a safe and high performance hemodialysis membrane.
This study assessed the environmental impacts of the formulation of graphene oxide (GO)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) conductive membranes and of the process operating parameters of electrically-enhanced palm oil mill effluent (POME) filtration. Two different analyses approaches were employed, cradle-to-gate approach for conductive membrane production and gate-to-gate approach for the POME filtration process. The parameters in conductive-membrane formulation (e.g. the weight ratio of carbon nanomaterials, and concentration of GO/MWCNT nanohybrids) and process operating parameters (e.g. electric field strength and electricity operating mode) were investigated. The findings herein are twofold. Firstly, for the fabrication of GO/MWCNT conductive membranes, the best weight ratio of GO:MWCNTs was found to be 1:9, given its superior membrane electrical conductivity with lower environmental impacts by 8.51% compared to pristine MWCNTs. The most suitable concentration of carbon nanomaterials was found to be 5 wt%, given its lowest impacts on resource depletion, human health, and ecosystems. Secondly, for the electrically-enhanced POME filtration, the optimum process operating parameters were found to be the application of an electric field of 300 V/cm in the continuous mode, given its lower environmental impacts (22.99%-89.30%) secondary to its requirement of the least electricity to produce permeate. The present study has established not only the optimized conditions in membrane formulation but also the operating parameters of electrically-enhanced filtration; such findings enable the use of cleaner production and sustainable approach to minimize fouling for industrial applications, whilst maintaining excellent efficiency.
This study investigated the interactions between volatile and char during biomass pyrolysis at 400 °C, employing a β-5 lignin dimer and amino-modified graphitized carbon nanotube (CNT-NH2) as their models, respectively. The results demonstrated that both -NH2 and its carrier (CNT) facilitated the conversion of the β-5 dimer, which significantly increased from 9.7% (blank run), to 61.6% (with CNT), and to 96.6% (with CNT-NH2). CNT mainly favored the breakage of C-O bond in the feedstock to produce dimers with a yield of 55.5%, while CNT-NH2 promoted the cleavage of both C-O and C-C bonds to yield monomers with a yield up to 63.4%. Such significant changes in the pyrolysis behaviors of the β-5 lignin dimer after the introduction of CNT-NH2 were considered to be mainly caused by hydrogen-bond formations between -NH2 and the dimeric feedstock/products, in addition to the π-π stacking between CNT and aromatic rings.
Several multi-walled carbon nanotubes supported Ni-Ce catalysts were synthesized, and their performance in carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDRM) for syngas production was evaluated. The attachment of Ni-Ce nanoparticles to the functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) support was carried out using four synthesis routes, i.e., impregnation (I), sol-gel (S), co-precipitation (C), and hydrothermal (H) methods. Results indicated that synthesis method influences the properties of the NiCe/fCNT catalysts in terms of homogeneity of metal dispersion, size of crystallites, and metal-support interaction. The activity of the catalysts followed the order of NiCe/fCNT(H) > NiCe/fCNT(S) > NiCe/fCNT(C) > NiCe/fCNT(I). The NiCe/fCNT(H) catalyst exhibited the highest catalytic activity with CH4 and CO2 conversions of 92 and 96%, respectively, and resulted in syngas product with consistent H2/CO ratio of 0.91 at reaction temperature of 800 °C without notable deactivation up to 30 h of reaction. Moreover, the growth of carbon on the spent catalyst was only 2% with deposition rate of 4.08 mg/gcat·h; this was plausibly due to the well-dispersed distribution of nanoparticles on fCNT surface and abundant presence of oxygenated groups on the catalyst surface.
Carbon nanomaterials, due to their catalytic activity and high surface area, have potential as cell immobilization supports to increase the production of xylanase. Recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis used for xylanase production was integrated into a polymeric gel network with carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanomaterials were pretreated before cell immobilization with hydrochloric acid (HCl) treatment and glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking, which contributes to cell immobilization performance. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) were further screened using a Plackett-Burman experimental design. Cell loading and agar concentration were the most important factors in xylanase production with low cell leakage. Under optimized conditions, xylanase production was increased by more than 400% compared to free cells. Immobilized cell material containing such high cell densities may exhibit new and unexplored beneficial properties because the cells comprise a large fraction of the component. The use of carbon nanomaterials as a cell immobilization support along with the entrapment method successfully enhances the production of xylanase, providing a new route to improved bioprocessing, particularly for the production of enzymes. KEY POINTS: • Carbon nanomaterials (CNTs, GO) have potential as cell immobilization supports. • Entrapment in a polymeric gel network provides space for xylanase production. • Plackett-Burman design screen for the most important factor for cell immobilization.
The experimental determination of thermophysical properties of nanofluid (NF) is time-consuming and costly, leading to the use of soft computing methods such as response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate these properties. The present study involves modelling and optimization of thermal conductivity and viscosity of NF, which comprises multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and thermal oil. The modelling is performed to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of NF by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Both models were tested and validated, which showed promising results. In addition, a detailed optimization study was conducted to investigate the optimum thermal conductivity and viscosity by varying temperature and NF weight per cent. Four case studies were explored using different objective functions based on NF application in various industries. The first case study aimed to maximize thermal conductivity (0.15985 W/m oC) while minimizing viscosity (0.03501 Pa s) obtained at 57.86 °C and 0.85 NF wt%. The goal of the second case study was to minimize thermal conductivity (0.13949 W/m °C) and viscosity (0.02526 Pa s) obtained at 55.88 °C and 0.15 NF wt%. The third case study targeted maximizing thermal conductivity (0.15797 W/m °C) and viscosity (0.07611 Pa s), and the optimum temperature and NF wt% were 30.64 °C and 0.0.85,' respectively. The last case study explored the minimum thermal conductivity (0.13735) and maximum viscosity (0.05263 Pa s) obtained at 30.64 °C and 0.15 NF wt%.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the most studied allotropic form of carbon. They can be used in various biomedical applications due to their novel physicochemical properties. In particular, the small size of CNTs, with a large surface area per unit volume, has a considerable impact on their toxicity. Despite of the use of CNTs in various applications, toxicity is a big problem that requires more research. In this Review, we discuss the toxicity of CNTs and the associated mechanisms. Physicochemical factors, such as metal impurities, length, size, solubilizing agents, CNTs functionalization, and agglomeration, that may lead to oxidative stress, toxic signaling pathways, and potential ways to control these mechanisms are also discussed. Moreover, with the latest mechanistic evidence described in this Review, we expect to give new insights into CNTs' toxicological effects at the molecular level and provide new clues for the mitigation of harmful effects emerging from exposure to CNTs.
Most of the polymers and their blends, utilized in carbon capture membranes, are costly, but cellulose acetate (CA) being inexpensive is a lucrative choice. In this research, pure and mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have been fabricated to capture carbon from natural gas. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been utilized in the fabrication of membranes to modify the chain flexibility of polymers. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) provide mechanical strength, thermal stability, an extra free path for CO2 molecules and augment CO2/CH4 selectivity. Membranes of pure CA, CA/PEG blend of different PEG concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%) and CA/PEG/MWCNTs blend of 10% PEG with different MWCNTs concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%) were prepared in acetone using solution casting techniques. Fabricated membranes were characterized using SEM, TGA and tensile testing. Permeation results revealed remarkable improvement in CO2/CH4 selectivity. In single gas experiments, CO2/CH4 selectivity is enhanced 8 times for pure membranes containing 10% PEG and 14 times for MMMs containing 10% MWCNTs. In mix gas experiments, the CO2/CH4 selectivity is increased 13 times for 10% PEG and 18 times for MMMs with 10% MWCNTs. Fabricated MMMs have a tensile strength of 13 MPa and are more thermally stable than CA membranes.
In this work, sand/zinc oxide (ZnO)/titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based photocatalysts were hybridized with graphene oxide (GO) and GO_multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid solution. The novel hybrid was then used in photocatalysis to degrade dye contamination. The nanocomposite photocatalyst was initially fabricated by growing ZnO nanorods (NRs) via sol-gel immersion followed by synthesizing TiO2 NRs for different times (5 and 20 h) using a hydrothermal method on sand as a substrate. Prior to the hybridization, the initial GO was synthesized using electrochemical exfoliation and further mixed with 1 wt% MWCNTs to form GO_MWCNTs hybrid solution. The synthesized GO and GO_MWCNTs hybrid solution were then incorporated onto sand/ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite-based photocatalysts through immersion. Various sand/ZnO/TiO2-based photocatalysts were then tested for methylene blue (MB) dye degradation within 3 days. On the basis of UV-Vis measurement, the highest MB degradation was achieved by using sand/ZnO NRs/TiO2 NRs (5 h)/GO_MWCNTs (92.60%). The high surface area and high electrical conductivity of GO_MWCNTs prolonged the lifetime of electron/hole separation and thus enhanced the photocatalytic performance.
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-tannase composite was investigated as an immobilized biocatalyst on the basis of its facile preparation, low cost, and excellent aqueous dispersibility. Cross-linked tannase enzymes, obtained in the presence of glutaraldehyde, were composited with MWCNT via physical adsorption. Multiple techniques were applied to investigate, and corroborate the successful adsorption of cross-linked tannase onto the MWCNT structure. Green tea infusion extract post-treatment using the composite preparation showed elevated radical scavenging activities relative to the control. Green tea infusion extract exhibited a markedly reduced EC50 value on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals following its treatment with the enzyme composite, which represents 20%-34% enhancement in its free radical scavenging capacity. Stoichiometry and number of reduced DPPH were determined and compared. The antioxidative potential of a widely consumed, health-beneficial green tea is elevated by the treatment with MWCNT-tannase composite. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Cross-linked tannase enzymes were composited with pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes via simple physical adsorption. The composite presents key advantages such as low specific volume compared to other well-known immobilization media, inert, facile enzyme composition, and ease of recovery for repeated use. The work demonstrated carbon nanotube prosthetic utility in the biotransformation of food-based health commodity sought after for its nutritional benefits. The approach is of both industrial- and agricultural importance, and is a promising and viable strategy to obtain a natural, functional food supplement for the multi-billion dollar well-being and health-related industries.
A novel tweakable nanocomposite was prepared by spark plasma sintering followed by systematic oxidation of carbon nanotube (CNT) molecules to produce alumina/carbon nanotube nanocomposites with surface porosities. The mechanical properties (flexural strength and fracture toughness), surface area, and electrical conductivities were characterized and compared. The nanocomposites were extensively analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) for 2D qualitative surface morphological analysis. Adding CNTs in ceramic matrices and then systematically oxidizing them, without substantial reduction in densification, induces significant capability to achieve desirable/application oriented balance between mechanical, electrical, and catalytic properties of these ceramic nanocomposites. This novel strategy, upon further development, opens new level of opportunities for real-world/industrial applications of these relatively novel engineering materials.
The present work covers the preparation of carbon-based nanosorbents by ethylene decomposition on stainless steel mesh without the use of external catalyst for the treatment of water containing nickel ions (Ni2+). The reaction temperature was varied from 650 to 850 degrees C, while reaction time and ethylene to nitrogen flow ratio were maintained at 30 min and 1:1 cm3/min, respectively. Results show that nanosorbents synthesised at a reaction temperature of 650 degrees C had the smallest average diameter (75 nm), largest BET surface area (68.95 m2/g) and least amount of impurity (0.98 wt.% Fe). A series of batch-sorption tests were performed to evaluate the effects of initial pH, initial metal concentration and contact time on Ni2+ removal by the nanosorbents. The equilibrium data fitted well to Freundlich isotherm. The kinetic data were best correlated to a pseudo second-order model indicating that the process was of chemisorption type. Further analysis by the Boyd kinetic model revealed that boundary layer diffusion was the controlling step. This primary study suggests that the prepared material with Freundlich constants compared well with those in the literature, is a promising sorbent for the sequestration of Ni2+ in aqueous solutions.
The capability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to adsorb lead (Pb) in aqueous solution was investigated. Batch mode adsorption experiment was conducted to determine the effects of pH, agitation speed, CNTs dosage and contact time. The removal of Pb(II) reached maximum value 85% or 83% at pH 5 or 40 mg/L of CNTs, respectively. Higher correlation coefficients from Langmuir isotherm model indicates the strong adsorptions of Pb(II) on the surface of CNTs (adsorption capacity Xm = 102.04 mg/g). The results indicates that the highest percentage removal of Pb (96.03%) can be achieved at pH 5, 40 mg/L of CNTs, contact time 80 min, and agitation speed 50 r/min.
Polypyrrole (PPy) and polypyrrole-carboxylic functionalized multi wall carbon nanotube composites (PPy/f-MWCNT) were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The structure of the resulting complex nanotubes was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of f-MWCNT concentration on the electrical properties of the resulting composites were studied at temperatures between 100 K and 300 K. The Hall mobility and Hall coefficient of PPy and PPy/f-MWCNT composite samples with different concentrations of f-MWCNT were measured using the van der Pauw technique. The mobility decreased slightly with increasing temperature, while the conductivity was dominated by the gradually increasing carrier density.
Neuroregeneration is the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells, or cell products involved in neurodegeneration and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Nowadays, application of nanotechnology is commonly used in developing nanomedicines to advance pharmacokinetics and drug delivery exclusively for central nervous system pathologies. In addition, nanomedical advances are leading to therapies that disrupt disarranged protein aggregation in the central nervous system, deliver functional neuroprotective growth factors, and change the oxidative stress and excitotoxicity of affected neural tissues to regenerate the damaged neurons. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are allotropes of carbon that have been exploited by researchers because of their excellent physical properties and their ability to interface with neurons and neuronal circuits. This review describes the role of carbon nanotubes and graphene in neuroregeneration. In the future, it is hoped that the benefits of nanotechnologies will outweigh their risks, and that the next decade will present huge scope for developing and delivering technologies in the field of neuroscience.
This work demonstrated the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on powder activated carbon (PAC) impregnated with Ni-catalyst through chemical vapour deposition. The optimized effects of reaction temperature, time and feedstock flow rates on CNT growth were examined. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and potassium permanganate in acidic solution (KMnO4/H2SO4) were used to functionalize CNTs samples. A primary screening of methylene blue (MB) adsorption was conducted. The chemical, physical and morphological properties of the adsorbent with the highest removal efficiency were investigated using FESEM, EDX, TEM, BET surface area, RAMAN, TGA, FTIR, and zeta potential. The resulting carbon nanotube-loaded activated carbons possessed abundant pore structure and large surface area. The MB removal by the as-synthesized CNTs was more remarkable than that by the modified samples. Adsorption studies were carried out to evaluate the optimum conditions, kinetics and isotherms for MB adsorption process. The response surface methodology-central composite design (RSM-CCD) was used to optimize the adsorption process parameters, including pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. The investigation of the adsorption behaviour demonstrated that the adsorption was well fitted with the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm with the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 174.5 mg/g. Meanwhile, the adsorption of MB onto adsorbent was driven by the electrostatic attraction and π-π interaction. Moreover, the as-obtained CNT-PAC exhibited good reusability after four repeated operations. In view of these empirical findings, the low-cost CNT-PAC has potential for removal of MB from aqueous solution.
In this study two deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using ethylene glycol (EG) and two different ammonium-based salts. The potential of these DESs as novel agents for CNTs functionalization was examined by performing a comprehensive characterization study to identify the changes developing after the functionalization process. The impact of DESs was obvious by increasing the surface area of CNTs to reach 197.8 (m2/g), and by adding new functional groups to CNTs surface without causing any damage to the unique structure of CNTs. Moreover, CNTs functionalized with DESs were applied as new adsorbents for the removal of methyl orange (MO) from water. The adsorption conditions were optimized using RSM-CCD experimental design. The kinetics and the equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using different kinetic and isotherm models. According to the regression results, adsorption kinetics data were well described by pseudo-second order model, whereas adsorption isotherm data were best represented by Langmuir isotherm model. The highest recorded maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) value was found to be 310.2 mg/g.
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cements (BCs) have some drawbacks, including limited bioactivity and bone formation, as well as inferior mechanical properties, which may result in failure of the BC. To deal with the mentioned issues, novel bioactive polymethyl methacrylate-hardystonite (PMMA-HT) bone cement (BC) reinforced with 0.25 and 0.5 wt% of carbon nanotube (CNT) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was synthesized. In this context, the obtained bone cements were evaluated in terms of their mechanical and biological characteristics. The rGO reinforced bone cement exhibited better mechanical properties to the extent that the addition of 0.5 wt% of rGO where its compressive and tensile strength of bioactive PMMA-HT/rGO cement escalated from 92.07 ± 0.72 MPa, and 40.02 ± 0.71 MPa to 187.48 ± 5.79 MPa and 64.92 ± 0.75 MPa, respectively. Besides, the mechanisms of toughening, apatite formation, and cell interaction in CNT and rGO encapsulated PMMA have been studied. Results showed that the existence of CNT and rGO in BCs led to increase of MG63 osteoblast viability, and proliferation. However, rGO reinforced bone cement was more successful in supporting MG63 cell attachment compared to the CNT counterpart due to its wrinkled surface, which made a suitable substrate for cell adhesion. Based on the results, PMMA-HT/rGO can be a proper bone cement for the fixation of load-bearing implants.
This paper presents a functionalized, horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network as a sensing element to enhance the sensitivity of a pressure sensor. The synthesis of horizontally oriented nanotubes from the AuFe catalyst and their deposition onto a mechanically flexible substrate via transfer printing are studied. Nanotube formation on thermally oxidized Si (100) substrates via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition controls the nanotube coverage and orientation on the flexible substrate. These nanotubes can be simply transferred to the flexible substrate without changing their physical structure. When tested under a pressure range of 0 to 50 kPa, the performance of the fabricated pressure sensor reaches as high as approximately 1.68%/kPa, which indicates high sensitivity to a small change of pressure. Such sensitivity may be induced by the slight contact in isolated nanotubes. This nanotube formation, in turn, enhances the modification of the contact and tunneling distance of the nanotubes upon the deformation of the network. Therefore, the horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network has great potential as a sensing element for future transparent sensors.