Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 37 in total

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  1. Mohamad Jamil PAS, Karuppiah K, Rasdi I, How V, Mohd Tamrin SB, Mani KKC, et al.
    Rev Environ Health, 2021 Jun 25;36(2):167-176.
    PMID: 33594842 DOI: 10.1515/reveh-2020-0107
    This paper provides a specific deliberation on occupational hazards confronted daily by Malaysian Traffic Police. Traffic police is a high-risk occupation that involves a wide range of tasks and, indirectly, faced with an equally wide variety of hazards at work namely, physical, biological, psychosocial, chemical, and ergonomic hazards. Thereupon, occupational injuries, diseases, and even death are common in the field. The objective of this paper is to collate and explain the major hazards of working as Malaysian traffic police especially in Point Duty Unit, their health effects, and control measures. There are many ways in which these hazards can be minimised by ensuring that sufficient safety measures are taken such as a wireless outdoor individual exposure indicator system for the traffic police. By having this system, air monitoring among traffic police may potentially be easier and accurate. Other methods of mitigating these unfortunate events are incorporated and addressed in this paper according to the duty and needs of traffic police.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  2. Arasteh-Rad, H., Khairulmizam Samsudin, Abdul Rahman Ramli, Mohammad Ali Tavallaie
    MyJurnal
    The rapid development of roads and the increasing number of vehicles have complicated road traffic enforcement in many countries due to limited resources of the traffic police, specifically when traffic infraction registration is done manually. The efficiency of the traffic police can be improved by a computer-based method. This study focused on mobile traffic infraction registration system benchmarking which is used to evaluate the server performance under load. The study attempts to provide a clear guideline for the performance evaluation of mobile road traffic infraction registration system, whereby the traffic police can make decision based on them to migrate from the manual-method toward computer-based method. A closed form of benchmark tool was used for the evaluation of the system performance. The tool was configured to imitate ramp scenarios, and statistics were gathered. The server was monitored at different times and works. Contributing factors include bottleneck, traffic, and response time, which are related with criteria and measurements. The system resource was also monitored for the tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  3. Yulita Y, Idris MA, Dollard MF
    Int J Occup Saf Ergon, 2020 Oct 15.
    PMID: 32912109 DOI: 10.1080/10803548.2020.1822054
    Objective. Our innovation was to propose a multilevel model to explain how an organizational factor, psychosocial safety climate (PSC) - the climate for worker psychological health - related to work investment (work engagement and workaholism) and, in turn, psychological distress. Methods. Longitudinal data were collected in Peninsular Malaysia across 26 police departments from 392 police personnel, matched across 4 months, and were tested using hierarchical linear modeling. Results. The analysis revealed between-group effects linking PSC to job resources, to work engagement and to workaholism. When PSC operated by improving job resources, aside from increased work engagement, it could unwittingly boost workaholism. However, this only existed under low PSC conditions. The secondary function of PSC buffered the impact of job resources on workaholism and psychological distress. When PSC was high, job resources reduced both workaholism and psychological distress, suggesting that PSC enabled resources to do their job of mitigating unfavorable conditions. Conclusions. Results support a multilevel PSC-extended job demands-resources motivational path with cross-links, and PSC's moderation function, as an explanation of worker psychological health. Confirming PSC as a leading indicator and the importance of a motivational path, this article presents new evidence in support of targeting PSC to improve worker psychological health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  4. Hanjeet K, Lai PF, Anuar HM
    Med J Malaysia, 1996 Mar;51(1):129-30.
    PMID: 10967991
    A total of 1131 Police Field Force personnel were screened serologically for schistosomiasis in Malaysia. A total of 150 (13.3%) were tested positive or borderline. Stool samples from 75 of these cases were however all negative for schistosome eggs. This survey suggests that Police Field Force personnel may be agents for propagating the schistosome life cycle in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police*
  5. Irniza R, Emilia ZA, Muhammad Saliluddin S, Nizam Isha AS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Jul;21(4):42-50.
    PMID: 25977621 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to measure police-specific stressors. The present study was the first to have translated the PSQ to Malay. This study aims to test the reliability, construct validity, and component structure of the Malay-version PSQ.

    METHODS: A set of survey consisted of the Malay-version PSQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Global Stress Questionnaire (GSQ) and General Self-rated Health (GSRH) were distributed to 300 traffic police officers in Kuala Lumpur and all traffic police officers in a few districts of Pahang and Negeri Sembilan.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 65.5% (N = 262). The reported Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for Operational PSQ (PSQ-Op) and 0.94 for Organisational PSQ (PSQ-Org). Findings indicated that the PSQ had positive construct validity with the GSRH, GSQ, and GHQ. After excluding four factors related to lifestyles, all police-specific stressors were highly loaded (0.50) in one component.

    CONCLUSION: It is confirmed that the Malay-version PSQ, excluding the four factors related to lifestyle, was uni-dimensional, reliable, and a valid questionnaire. This study proffers a potentially better instrument for assessing the stressors among Malaysian police.

    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  6. Oxley J, Ravi MD, Yuen J, Hoareau E, Hashim HH
    Ann Adv Automot Med, 2014 1 11;57:329-36.
    PMID: 24406968
    In Malaysia, motorcycle crashes constitute approximately 60 percent of all road trauma, and a substantial proportion involve children 16 years and younger. There are, however, many gaps in our knowledge on contributing factors to crashes and injury patterns amongst children killed and seriously injured in motorcycle crashes. The aim of this study was to examine fatal and serious injury motorcycle-related collisions to identify contributing factors and injury patterns amongst child motorcyclists. All identified motorcyclist fatal crashes between 2007 and 2011 (inclusive) were extracted from the national Police-reported crash database (M-ROADS) and a range of variables were selected for examination. A total of 17,677 crashes were extracted where a rider or pillion was killed and of these crashes 2,038 involved children, equating to 12 percent. Examination of crashes involving children revealed that some crashes involved more than two children on the motorcycle, therefore, overall children constituted 9.5% of fatal and 18.4% of serious injury collisions. A high proportion of child fatal or serious injury collisions involved the child as the rider (62%), and this was most common for children aged between 10 and 16 years. The majority of collisions occurred on rural roads, in speed limit zones of 50-70km/h, and approximately one-third occurred at an intersection. Collisions involving another motorcycle or a passenger vehicle contributed to 41% and 53% of the total fatalities and severe injuries, respectively. A high proportion (43.9%) of the children (25.5% riders and 18.8% pillion) sustained head injuries with 37.7% being in the 10-16 age group. Furthermore, 52.4% of the children sustaining head injuries did not wear a helmet. The implications of these findings for countermeasures within a Safe System framework, particularly interventions aimed at reducing the rate of unlicensed riding and helmet wearing, and infrastructure countermeasures are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  7. Singh, Shamser, Nambiar, Phrabhakaran
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2008;29(2):119-127.
    MyJurnal
    Forensic odontological examination of a disputed bitemark can furnish the police and the prosecutor with useful evidence to either implicate or exonerate a person in relation to a crime, on the basis that each person’s bitemark is as distinctive as his or her dentition. The aims of this article are (a) to evaluate the extent of which bitemark evidence is reliable as a proof of identification of a biter for the purposes of criminal investigation and prosecution in Malaysia and (b) to make the necessary recommendations (if any) for the purpose of improving the reliability of such evidence. Where a questioned bitemark is not sufficiently detailed, any findings made from its examination shall be highly unreliable and prejudicial. On the other hand, where a bitemark is sufficiently detailed, then any findings made from its examination may be reliable, provided that the forensic odontologists and other practitioners in the criminal justice system are professionally trained to handle the said bitemark. Therefore, police officers must be given a basic training in the field of forensic odontology so that they will be able to appreciate the evidential value of bitemark and contribute to the development of bitemark cases in Malaysia. The relevant authorities governing the dental practice in Malaysia should standardize the methodology and terminology used in bitemark examination and in the reporting of its findings so that confusion and inconsistency among the forensic odontologists are kept absolutely low. Finally, forensic odontologists must be given specialized training in bitemark examination so that the probative value of their findings can be improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  8. Irniza Rasdi, Nadia Farhana Ismail, Andy, Shin Shyen Kong, Suhainizam Muhammad Saliluddin
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: The prevalence of stress among Malaysian police is high in which 38.8% polices have severe stress related to work resources and workplace environment. Psychosocial safety climate is one of the indicators that can be used to avoid psychosocial health problems. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the risk factors of psychosocial safety climate and to measure the effectiveness of a customised safety website in improving the safety climate. Methodology: This study involved 105 police officers who were randomly selected from nine different departments in PDRM Bukit Aman. A survey adapted from previous study was used to determine the psychosocial safety climate levels among respondents. Then, occupational safety website was introduced to the respondents and being used for two weeks. Lastly, post survey was done to see the difference of psychosocial safety climate before and after the use of the website. Results and Discussion: Findings showed that team psychological safety (r=0.381, p= , p=
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  9. Lee HL, Krishnasamy M, Abdullah AG, Jeffery J
    Trop Biomed, 2004 Dec;21(2):69-75.
    PMID: 16493401
    Forensic entomological specimens received by the Unit of Medical Entomology, IMR., from hospitals and the police in Malaysia in the last 3 decades (1972 - 2002) are reviewed. A total of 448 specimens were received. From these, 538 identifications were made with the following results: Eighteen species of cyclorrphaga flies were identified consisting of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) 215 cases (47.99%), Ch. rufifacies (Masquart) 132 (29.46%), Ch. villeneuvi Patton 10 (2.23%), Ch. nigripes Aubertin 7 (1.56%), Ch. bezziana Villeneuve 4 (0.89%), Ch. pinguis (Walker) 1 (0.22%), Chrysomya sp. 47 (10.49%), Sarcophaga sp. 28 (6.25%), Lucilia sp. 21 (4.69%), Hermetia sp. 15 (3.35%), He. illucens (Linnaeus) 1 (0.22%), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) 3 (0.67%), Hemipyrellia sp. 2 (0.45%), Ophyra spinigera 1 (0.22%), Ophyra sp. 6 (1.34%), Calliphora sp. 24 (5.36%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) 1 (0.22%) and Eristalis sp. 1 (0.22%). Other non - fly insect specimens are Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus) (Pubic louse) 2 (0.45%) and Coleoptera (Beetles) 1 (0.22%). Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in cadavers from different ecological habitats. Sy. nudiseta is an uncommon species, thus far found only on cadavers from indoors. Sy. nudiseta is reported for the second time in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 329 cases (73.44%) had a single fly infestation, 109 cases (24.33%) had double fly infestation and 10 cases (2.23%) had triple fly infestation. Five cases (1.12%) had eggs and 3 cases (0.67%) had larval stages that were not identifiable. No arthropods were retrieved from cadavers in 8 cases (1.79%). In conclusion, although large number of fly species were found on human cadavers, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  10. Lee SP
    MyJurnal
    This study focused on drug epidemic in Selangor for 3 consecutive years (2016-2018). Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah (HTAR) analysed an estimate of 12988 samples for drug abuse (opiates and cannabinoids) from 2016 until 2018. Being the centre for receiving samples collected by Police and National Anti-Drug agencies in Southwest Selangor, these areas were combed for analytical study of habitual abusers, their age-related patterns and ethnic origins for better understanding and planning for advocates of control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  11. Putri Anis Syahira MJ, Karmegam K, Nur Athirah Diyana MY, Irniza R, Shamsul Bahri MT, Vivien H, et al.
    Work, 2020;66(1):25-29.
    PMID: 32417810 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-203147
    BACKGROUND: Malaysian traffic policemen are constantly exposed to unhealthy air in the outdoor environment, which results in various health problems. This study investigates the relationship of the personal exposure level to PM2.5 and lung functions in traffic policemen in Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru.

    METHODS: A pulmonary function test using a spirometer was carried out to measure the lung function of the traffic policemen. The personal exposure level to PM2.5 was measured using a pump with a PVC filter and 5.0μm pore size. A questionnaire requesting the background data, such as age, height, and weight, was also used for testing lung function abnormalities.

    RESULTS: The PM2.5 personal exposure level was found to be significantly related to lung function (predicted FEV1 and predicted FVC) at p-value 

    Matched MeSH terms: Police*
  12. Surif S, Chai CY
    Environ Pollut, 1995;88(2):177-81.
    PMID: 15091558
    The study of lead exposure among workers in Selangor and the Federal Territory was carried out based on the delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) level in urine. Occupations which are expected to have higher lead exposure were chosen in this research. The ALA level in the workers' urine was linked to a few variables which may contribute to the lead level in the body. The result of this study showed that the ALA level of the urine of university students (0.352 +/- 0.038 mg/100 ml) < clerical staff (0.560 +/- 0.043 mg/100 ml) < traffic police (0.612 +/- 0.064 mg/100 ml) < vehicle workshop workers (0.673 +/- 0.099 mg/100 ml) < petrol kiosk workers (0.717 +/- 0.069 mg/100 ml) < bus drivers/conductors (0.850 +/- 0.055 mg/100 ml) which was similar to workers in the printing industry (0.852 +/- 0.110 mg/100 ml). The ALA levels in the urine of the exposed workers were significantly different from the control group (university students). However, results obtained from clerical staff revealed that they were also in the exposed group category. Analysis of variance showed that the exposed groups are in a population which is different from the control population. Correlation tests suggest that there is no significant connection between the ALA level in the urine and the variables tested. Furthermore, Duncan's Multiple Range Test showed no significant differences between the smoking/non smoking group, alcoholic/non-alcoholic group, race and sex (p > 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  13. Marhani Midin, Salina Abdul Aziz, Phang, Cheng-Kar
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(2):206-215.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: Mental health services in Malaysia often face competition from traditional healers especially among patients with psychosis. The objective of the study is to determine whether patients who sought help earlier from traditional healers had longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and more adverse experiences in pathways to psychiatric care. Methods: This is a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 50 inpatients with first-episode
    psychosis in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and statistical manual, 4th edition) Clinical Version for Axis I Disorders (SCID-CV) was used for establishing diagnosis. Onset of psychosis was defined as any one positive symptom with a score of >3 on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Socio-demographic
    data, information on pathways and treatment delaying factors were determined through face-to-face interview and semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Fifty-four percent of the patients had at least one contact with traditional healers prior to consulting psychiatric service, and it was the most popular first point of non-psychiatric help-seeking contact
    (48%). Contact with traditional healers was not associated with age, gender, ethnic, education level, longer DUP or treatment delay, and admissions with violent behaviour or police assistance. Of those who had sought help from traditional healers, one third were recommended by at least one of their traditional healers to seek medical help. Conclusion:
    Consultation involving traditional healers was a popular choice, and not associated with treatment delay. Traditional healers in an urban setting may be potential collaborators in managing patients with first-episode psychosis. Future research should explore the frontiers of such collaborative work.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  14. Ahmad Syazrin Muhammad, Juliana Jalaludin, NurAqilah M. Yusof
    MyJurnal
    Exposure to traffic air pollutant have shown a significant health effect on respiratory systems and decreased in lung function among traffic policemen. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationships between personal exposure levels to PM2.5 and respiratory health among traffic policemen working at Traffic Police Station in Kuala Lumpur and general duty policemen attached to Police Headquarters, Bukit Aman. A cross sectional comparative study was conducted among 50 traffic policemen from Traffic Police Station Kuala Lumpur and 50 general duty policemen from Police Headquarters Bukit Aman as comparative group. A purposive sampling method was used to select the respondents based on inclusive criteria such as age between 25 to 60 years, no history of respiratory disease and working not less than 3 years as traffic policemen. Questionnaire based on ATS (1978) was used to collect information on socio-demographic and respiratory symptoms. Spirometer (Spirolab II Model) was used to perform lung function tests. Personal Air Sampling Pump (Aircheck 52) was used to measure personal exposure level to PM2.5. The mean exposure level of PM2.5 among the traffic policemen was 22.33 ± 8.54μg/m³ compared to only 5.60 ± 4.29μg/m³ for comparative group. There was a significant difference in all lung function parameters between the exposed group and comparative group.From the finding, it shows that there was significant relationship between working duration (years) and lung function parameters among both exposed and comparative group. The result from this research shows that traffic policemen were determined as having lower lung function parameters due to their nature of work and the environment. Also, there was a significant association between exposure to fine particle (PM2.5) and lung function among the exposed group. Finding from this study indicated that exposure to elevated concentration level to traffic related air pollutant was the risk factors in the development of respiratory diseases as shown by the higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the reduction in lung function among traffic policemen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  15. Marret, M.J., Aili, H., Koh, M.T.
    MyJurnal
    This paper looks at some of the problems encountered when cases of abuse and injuries occur in children placed in child care in an urban community in Malaysia. It is based on the study of 37 children referred to our hospital's Child Protection Services over the past four years for injuries and incidents where the child-minders came under suspicion. They constituted 12% of the 285 children referred to the Child Protection Team during that period for evaluation of suspected child abuse. Twenty six children had experienced physical trauma. Fifty eight percent of these were young infants with cranial injuries or limb fractures but no history to explain their occurrence. Four had superficial injuries from accidents secondary to inadequate supervision. The other 11 children had been sexually abused. The perpetrators in 73% of cases were either the husbands or sons of the child-minder. Ninety five percent of the incidents occured at home-based nurseries. Prospects of any punitive measures were remote in most instances due to uncertainty about the perpetrator, or insufficient corroborative evidence required in sexual abuse cases. There were three documented cases where the family refused to lodge a police report or co-operate with investigations out of a reluctance to implicate or offend the child-minders who were mainly neighbours, relatives or friends in 58% of cases. Ninety seven percent of the facilities were unregistered, making surveillance for recurrent incidents and adherence to safety standards difficult. These incidents were almost certainly an underestimate of the problem. Training of child-care providers, improved legislation and enforcement as well as education of parents to choose suitable facilities are issues which need to be tackled.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  16. Khoo LS, Lai PS, Saidin MH, Noor Z, Mahmood MS
    Forensic Sci Int, 2018 Jul;288:242-255.
    PMID: 29783180 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.04.017
    Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce. The authors have therefore innovated the cling film plastic wrap as an alternative for the cadaver body bag used at the disaster site. The plastic wrap was tested on six different experimental subjects, i.e. both adult and child mannequins; body parts of the mannequin figure (arm and hand); a human adult subject and an unknown dead body. The strengths of the cling film plastic wrap are discussed in comparison with the cadaver body bag in the aspects of costing, weight, duration of the wrap, water and body fluid resistant properties, visibility and other advantages. An average savings of more than 5000% are noted for both adult body wrap and child body wrap compared to the cadaver body wrap. This simply means that the authors can either wrap 25 adult dead bodies or 80 children dead bodies with the cost of 1 cadaver body bag. The cling film plastic wrap has proven to have significant innovation impact for dead body management particularly by the first responders in large scale disasters. With proper handling of dead bodies, first responders can manage the dead with dignity and respect in an overwhelmed situation to facilitate the humanitarian victim identification process later.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  17. Azahar Che Latiff, Mohd Dahlan A. Malek, Wan Anor Wan Sulaiman, Puteri Hayati Megat Ahmed
    MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study is to identify the effectiveness of integrative therapy treatment towards
    depression and aggression among prison inmates. Integrative therapy in this study refers to treatment
    module which are consisted of four integrated theories in a counselling process. It involved the
    combined therapy of Person Client Centred (PCC), Rational Emotions Behaviour Therapy (REBT)
    and Choice Theory Reality Therapy (CTRT) as technical treatment. Meanwhile, Stimulus Organism
    Response (SOR) act as educational principle or training. Integrative therapy is conducted on the
    respondents for six session of group counselling. This study is a quasi-experiment involving 160 depressed prison inmates (80 treatment; 80 control) and 140 aggressive inmates (70 treatment; 70
    control) from five prison institutions as the respondent for this study using purposive sampling.
    Inmates are identified as respondents using high cutting point of depression using Beck Depression
    Inventory (BDI) and high aggression using Aggressive Questionnaires (AQ). For the data analysis, nonparametric
    test such as Mann-Whitney Test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test were used based on the
    normality test using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test. Result from the Mann-Whitney Test
    shows that the treatment group had higher declining rate as compared to the controlled group for
    depression and aggression. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test also shows the same result as the treatment
    group indicates a decline in rate from the pre and post of the treatment compared to the controlled
    group. The results of this study are hope to act as the medium for using integrative model which is
    rarely use in studies in this country especially in the field of treatment for prison inmates. It is also
    expected that it can be applied in different setting which offer treatment service such as hospitals,
    social work institution, police institute, schools, higher learning institutions and others.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  18. Suraya Hanim Abdullah Hashim, Liew K. Y., Sahadevan M., Shoib M. S., Zainal Abidin H., Abidin N. N., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction:Increasing number and the complexity of dengue cases pose a great challenge. The dengue outbreak preparedness and contingency plan is a series of collective intervention or polices put into place via collective agreement between administrative, Medical, Emergency Department and Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact implementation of a dengue contingency plan on the clinical outcome of dengue cases. Methods: Implementation of the dengue outbreak preparedness and contingency plan was commenced in 2017. A pre-intervention (2017) and post-intervention (2018) retrospective review of mortality cases and referral to ICU were undertaken. The interventions included mandatory fast review by Emergency Physician, Medical Physi-cian and Anaesthesist in Emergency Department for ill patients (Dengue Care Pathway), cohorting dengue patient to one ward with mandatory monitoring and review system, clinical management adhering to the Clinical Practice Guideline of Management of Dengue Infection in Adults (2015), referring ill patients to ICU, deployment of nurses and experienced doctors to the dengue ward based on ratio of staff to patients, increasing number of doctors on-call at the dengue ward and a dengue bed manager system led by the Matron and Sisters. The plan was activated by mutual agreement between the Head of Medical Department and the Hospital Director. Results: There was a marked increment of admission of dengue cases into intensive care unit by 59% either directly from emergency department or the dengue wards in 2018 compared to 2017. The mortality rates reduced significantly from 5.4 deaths for every 1000 admission in 2017 to 3.3 in 2018. This is a reduction 2.1 death for every 1000 dengue admission. Conclusion:The implementation of the dengue outbreak preparedness and contingency plan aided the team to provide best care and practice in dengue management especially in the severely ill.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  19. Mohd Salim NS, Umar MA, Shaharudin S
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2018 Dec;13(6):576-581.
    PMID: 31435381 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.10.007
    Objectives: The isokinetic evaluation of the ankle joint is important in determining the effectiveness of the rehabilitation programme for the management of ankle sprains. This study aimed to determine the effects of physiotherapy programme on isokinetic variables in individuals with grade I ankle sprains.

    Methods: Seven patients with acute grade 1 ankle sprain (15 days of ankle sprain) were recruited. They were provided with 7 days of protection, optimal loading, ice, compression, and elevation (POLICE) treatment, and the standard physiotherapy programme consisted of towel stretching and balancing exercises on one leg. Pain scale score was recorded daily during the physiotherapy programme. The isokinetic ankle strengths of the patient's injured and uninjured legs were compared before and after the physiotherapy programme. Isokinetic tests were conducted in painless range of motion for the injured leg.

    Results: Pain was significantly reduced after the patients underwent the standard physiotherapy programme. No significant differences were observed in terms of the ankle peak torque, time to peak torque, and ankle plantar flexion-to-dorsiflexion ratio of the injured and uninjured legs. The injured leg showed significant improvement in terms of ankle eversion-to-inversion ratio (E:I) after 7 days of performing the standard physiotherapy programme.

    Conclusion: Performing the standard physiotherapy programme for 1 week reduces pain and improves the ankle E:I in patients with grade 1 ankle sprain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Police
  20. Islam MN, See KL, Ting LC, Khan J
    Malays J Med Sci, 2006 Jan;13(1):30-6.
    PMID: 22589588
    This paper investigates the pattern of sexual offence cases attended at the One Stop Crisis Center (OSCC) of the Accident and Emergency Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan. A total of 439 reported sexual offence cases were examined over a period of 4 years from 2000 to 2003. Sexual offence constituted by male partner or boyfriend in 18.9%, by relatives in 27.3% and by "others" in 53.8% of cases. Only 0.7% of victims did not attempt to lodge a police report. There is a significant relationship between occupation and the risk of experiencing sexual violence. Students were mostly targeted by the perpetrator throughout the study period. Among the offences, rape cases were the highest in number, among those who attended at the OSCC, HUSM with a total of 72.7%; followed by 27.3% of incest; 26.4% of child sexual abuse; 4.8% of sodomy and lastly 1.6% of gerontophilia cases. Only 70% of the specimens obtained from sexual offences victims were sent for laboratory analysis. The result remained negative in 82.4% specimens and thus the laboratory analysis result is merely functioning as a supportive evidence for sexual offence cases attended at OSCC. The studies showed that most of the sexual assault perpetrators were known to the victims. The place of crime was also known to the perpetrators. Health sectors of various levels should be working in conjunction to promote a societal changes to improve more of the women's right and thus to reduce the violence crime.
    Matched MeSH terms: Police
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