Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 94 in total

  1. Marufuzzaman M, Reaz MB, Rahman LF, Chang TG
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:709635.
    PMID: 24574913 DOI: 10.1155/2014/709635
    High-speed current controller for vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is presented. The controller is developed based on modular design for faster calculation and uses fixed-point proportional-integral (PI) method for improved accuracy. Current dq controller is usually implemented in digital signal processor (DSP) based computer. However, DSP based solutions are reaching their physical limits, which are few microseconds. Besides, digital solutions suffer from high implementation cost. In this research, the overall controller is realizing in field programmable gate array (FPGA). FPGA implementation of the overall controlling algorithm will certainly trim down the execution time significantly to guarantee the steadiness of the motor. Agilent 16821A Logic Analyzer is employed to validate the result of the implemented design in FPGA. Experimental results indicate that the proposed current dq PI controller needs only 50 ns of execution time in 40 MHz clock, which is the lowest computational cycle for the era.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors*
  2. Kooy N, Mohamed K, Pin LT, Guan OS
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2014;9(1):320.
    PMID: 25024682 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-9-320
    Since its introduction in 1995, nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated in many researches as a simple, low-cost, and high-throughput process for replicating micro- and nanoscale patterns. Due to its advantages, the nanoimprint lithography method has been rapidly developed over the years as a promising alternative to conventional nanolithography processes to fulfill the demands generated from the recent developments in the semiconductor and flexible electronics industries, which results in variations of the process. Roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is the most demanded technique due to its high-throughput fulfilling industrial-scale application. In the present work, a general literature review on the various types of nanoimprint lithography processes especially R2R NIL and the methods commonly adapted to fabricate imprint molds are presented to provide a clear view and understanding on the nanoimprint lithography technique as well as its recent developments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  3. Al-Ta'ii HM, Periasamy V, Amin YM
    Sensors (Basel), 2015;15(5):11836-53.
    PMID: 26007733 DOI: 10.3390/s150511836
    Detection of nuclear radiation such as alpha particles has become an important field of research in recent history due to nuclear threats and accidents. In this context; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) acting as an organic semiconducting material could be utilized in a metal/semiconductor Schottky junction for detecting alpha particles. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the effect of alpha irradiation on an Al/DNA/p-Si/Al Schottky diode by investigating its current-voltage characteristics. The diodes were exposed for different periods (0-20 min) of irradiation. Various diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series resistance, Richardson constant and saturation current were then determined using conventional, Cheung and Cheung's and Norde methods. Generally, ideality factor or n values were observed to be greater than unity, which indicates the influence of some other current transport mechanism besides thermionic processes. Results indicated ideality factor variation between 9.97 and 9.57 for irradiation times between the ranges 0 to 20 min. Increase in the series resistance with increase in irradiation time was also observed when calculated using conventional and Cheung and Cheung's methods. These responses demonstrate that changes in the electrical characteristics of the metal-semiconductor-metal diode could be further utilized as sensing elements to detect alpha particles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors*
  4. Tripathy A, Pramanik S, Cho J, Santhosh J, Osman NA
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(9):16343-422.
    PMID: 25256110 DOI: 10.3390/s140916343
    The humidity sensing characteristics of different sensing materials are important properties in order to monitor different products or events in a wide range of industrial sectors, research and development laboratories as well as daily life. The primary aim of this study is to compare the sensing characteristics, including impedance or resistance, capacitance, hysteresis, recovery and response times, and stability with respect to relative humidity, frequency, and temperature, of different materials. Various materials, including ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers, used for sensing relative humidity have been reviewed. Correlations of the different electrical characteristics of different doped sensor materials as the most unique feature of a material have been noted. The electrical properties of different sensor materials are found to change significantly with the morphological changes, doping concentration of different materials and film thickness of the substrate. Various applications and scopes are pointed out in the review article. We extensively reviewed almost all main kinds of relative humidity sensors and how their electrical characteristics vary with different doping concentrations, film thickness and basic sensing materials. Based on statistical tests, the zinc oxide-based sensing material is best for humidity sensor design since it shows extremely low hysteresis loss, minimum response and recovery times and excellent stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors*
  5. Chee HL, Rampal KG
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Aug;58(3):387-98.
    PMID: 14750379
    A study conducted between 1998-2001 on the semiconductor industry in Penang and Selangor found that irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea and stress were identified as the three leading health problems by women workers from a checklist of 16 health problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, including age, working duration in current factory, and marital status, in a multiple logistic regression model, wafer polishing workers were found to experience significantly higher odds of experiencing irregular menstruation. Dysmenorrhea was found to be significantly associated with chemical usage and poor ventilation, while stress was found to be related to poor ventilation, noise and low temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors*
  6. Tan ML, Lentaris G, Amaratunga Aj G
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2012;7(1):467.
    PMID: 22901374
    The performance of a semiconducting carbon nanotube (CNT) is assessed and tabulated for parameters against those of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Both CNT and MOSFET models considered agree well with the trends in the available experimental data. The results obtained show that nanotubes can significantly reduce the drain-induced barrier lowering effect and subthreshold swing in silicon channel replacement while sustaining smaller channel area at higher current density. Performance metrics of both devices such as current drive strength, current on-off ratio (Ion/Ioff), energy-delay product, and power-delay product for logic gates, namely NAND and NOR, are presented. Design rules used for carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are compatible with the 45-nm MOSFET technology. The parasitics associated with interconnects are also incorporated in the model. Interconnects can affect the propagation delay in a CNTFET. Smaller length interconnects result in higher cutoff frequency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  7. Harun, S.W., Sulaiman, A.H., Ahmad, H.
    ASM Science Journal, 2009;3(1):27-30.
    We demonstrate a multi-wavelength light source using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in conjunction with an array waveguide grating (AWG). The experimental results showed more than 20 channels with a wavelength separation of 0.8 nm and an optical signal-to-noise ratio of more than 10 dB under room temperature. The channels operated at the wavelength region from 1530.4 nm to 1548.6 nm, which corresponded to AWG filtering wavelengths with SOA drive current of 350 mA. The proposed light source had the advantages of a simple and compact structure, multi-wavelength operation and the system could be upgraded to generate more wavelengths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  8. Abdulrazzaq BI, Ibrahim OJ, Kawahito S, Sidek RM, Shafie S, Yunus NA, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2016 Sep 28;16(10).
    PMID: 27690040
    A Delay-Locked Loop (DLL) with a modified charge pump circuit is proposed for generating high-resolution linear delay steps with sub-picosecond jitter performance and adjustable delay range. The small-signal model of the modified charge pump circuit is analyzed to bring forth the relationship between the DLL's internal control voltage and output time delay. Circuit post-layout simulation shows that a 0.97 ps delay step within a 69 ps delay range with 0.26 ps Root-Mean Square (RMS) jitter performance is achievable using a standard 0.13 µm Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process. The post-layout simulation results show that the power consumption of the proposed DLL architecture's circuit is 0.1 mW when the DLL is operated at 2 GHz.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  9. Mohd Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos, Zainal Abidin Talib, Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus, Liew, Josephine Ying Chyi, Paulus, Wilfred Sylvester
    Semiconductor thin films Copper Tin Selenide, Cu2SnSe3, a potential compound for solar cell applications or semiconductor radiation detector were prepared by thermal evaporation method onto well-cleaned glass substrates. The as-deposited films were annealed in flowing purified nitrogen N2, for 2 hours in a temperature range from 100˚C to 500˚C. The structure of as-deposited and annealed films has been studied by X-ray diffraction technique. The semi-quantitative analysis indicated from Reitveld refinement show that the samples composed of Cu2SnSe3 and SnSe. These studies revealed that the films were structured in mixed phase between cubic space group F-43m (no. 216) and orthorhombic space group P n m a (no. 62). The crystallite size and lattice strain were determined from Scherrer calculation method. The results show that increasing in annealing temperature resulted in direct increase in crystallite size and decrease in lattice strain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  10. Nor Akmar Mohd Yahya, Siti Azlida Ibrahim, Norizah Abdul Rahman, Mohd Adzir Mahdi, Mohd Hanif Yaacob
    Semiconductor metal oxide (SMO) as a sensing layer for gas detection has been widely used. Many researches have been performed to enhance the sensing performance including its sensitivity, reliability and selectivity. Electrical sensors that use resistivity as an indicator of its sensing are popular and well established. However, the optical based sensor is still much to explore in detecting gas. By integrating it with SMO, the sensor offers good alternative to overcome some drawbacks from electrical sensors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  11. Huang YL, Chang WS, Van CN, Liu HJ, Tsai KA, Chen JW, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2016 Aug 25;8(34):15795-801.
    PMID: 27533610 DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04997d
    Ferroelectric photoelectrodes, other than conventional semiconductors, are alternative photo-absorbers in the process of water splitting. However, the capture of photons and efficient transfer of photo-excited carriers remain as two critical issues in ferroelectric photoelectrodes. In this work, we overcome the aforementioned issues by decorating the ferroelectric BiFeO3 (BFO) surface with Au nanocrystals, and thus improving the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of BFO film. We demonstrate that the internal field induced by the spontaneous polarization of BFO can (1) tune the efficiency of the photo-excited carriers' separation and charge transfer characteristics in bare BFO photoelectrodes, and (2) modulate an extra optical absorption within the visible light region, created by the surface plasmon resonance excitation of Au nanocrystals to capture more photons in the Au/BFO heterostructure. This study provides key insights for understanding the tunable features of PEC performance, composed of the heterostructure of noble metals and ferroelectric materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  12. Mohd Sharizal Alias, Mohd Fauzi Maulud, Mohd Razman Yahya, Abdul Fatah Awang Mat, Suomalainen S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2008;37:233-237.
    Inclusive analysis on the optical characteristics of InGaAs/GaAs QW structure for 980 nm semiconductor laser operation is presented from experimental and theoretical point of view. The InGaAs/GaAs quantum well structure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy at different indium composition and quantum well thickness for optical characteristic comparison. Photoluminescence spectra from the measurement show that the spectrum is in good agreement with the simulation results. Detail simulation on the material gain for the InGaAs/GaAs quantum well as a function of carrier densities and operating temperature is also performed in order to optimize the semiconductor laser design for device fabrication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  13. Osintsev D, Sverdlov V, Makarov A, Selberherr S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:205-211.
    Spin field-effect transistors (SpinFETs) are promising candidates for future integrated microelectronic circuits. A SpinFET is composed of two ferromagnetic contacts (source and drain), which sandwich a semiconductor channel. Current modulation is achieved by electrically tuning the gate voltage dependent strength of the spin-orbit interaction in the semiconductor region. We investigated the properties of SpinFETs for various parameters - the band mismatch, the barrier height between the contacts and the channel and the strength of the spin-orbit coupling, for various temperatures. We demonstrated that the creation of Schottky barriers between the channel and the contacts guarantees a pronounced modulation of the magnetoresistance sufficient to open a possibility to operate SpinFETs at room temperature. We also demonstrated that silicon fins with [100] orientation exhibit a stronger dependence on the value of the spin-orbit interaction and are thus preferable for practical realization of silicon-based SpinFETs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  14. Baiuitiar Ul Haq, Ahmed R, Shaari A, Afaq A, Hussain R
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:813-817.
    The central theme of nanotechnology to miniaturize devices has stimulated interest in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS). DMS that simultaneously exhibit magnetic and semiconducting behavior are capable of parting properties of two different function devices into one. In this research we present our first principles investigations related to the structural and electronic properties of, Cr doped zinc-blende (zB) ZnO, DMS. These calculations are carried out using full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-L(APW+lo)) with generalized gradient approximations approach as implemented in WIEN2k code. In this study, the effect of Cr doping on lattice parameters, spin polarized electronic band structure, density of states (Dos) of ZnO is presented and analyzed in detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  15. Hitam CNC, Jalil AA
    J Environ Manage, 2020 Mar 15;258:110050.
    PMID: 31929077 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.110050
    Photocatalytic degradation is among the promising technology for removal of various dyes and organic contaminants from environment owing to its excellent catalytic activity, low energy utilization, and low cost. As one of potential photocatalysts, Fe2O3 has emerged as an important material for degradation of numerous dyes and organic contaminants caused by its tolerable band gap, wide harvesting of visible light, good stability and recyclability. The present review thoroughly summarized the classification, synthesis route of Fe2O3 with different morphologies, and several modifications of Fe2O3 for improved photocatalytic performance. These include the incorporation with supporting materials, formation of heterojunction with other semiconductor photocatalysts, as well as the fabrication of Z-scheme. Explicitly, the other photocatalytic applications of Fe2O3, including for removal of heavy metals, reduction of CO2, evolution of H2, and N2 fixation are also deliberately discussed to further highlight the huge potential of this catalyst. Moreover, the prospects and future challenges are also comprised to expose the unscrutinized criteria of Fe2O3 photocatalyst. This review aims to contribute a knowledge transfer for providing more information on the potential of Fe2O3 photocatalyst. In the meantime, it might give an idea for utilization of this photocatalyst in other environmental remediation application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  16. Talebi S, Daraghma SMA, Subramaniam RT, Bhassu S, Gnana Kumar G, Periasamy V
    ACS Omega, 2020 Apr 14;5(14):7802-7808.
    PMID: 32309689 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.9b03831
    Proteins have been increasingly suggested as suitable candidates for the fabrication of biological computers and other biomolecular-based electronic devices mainly due to their interesting structure-related intrinsic electrical properties. These natural biopolymers are environmentally friendly substitutes for conventional inorganic materials and find numerous applications in bioelectronics. Effective manipulation of protein biomolecules allows for accurate fabrication of nanoscaled device dimensions for miniaturized electronics. The prerequisite, however, demands an interrogation of its various electronic properties prior to understanding the complex charge transfer mechanisms in protein molecules, the knowledge of which will be crucial toward development of such nanodevices. One significantly preferred method in recent times involves the utilization of solid-state sensors where interactions of proteins could be investigated upon contact with metals such as gold. Therefore, in this work, proteins (hemoglobin and collagen) were integrated within a two-electrode system, and the resulting electronic profiles were investigated. Interestingly, structure-related electronic profiles representing semiconductive-like behaviors were observed. These characteristic electronic profiles arise from the metal (Au)-semiconductor (protein) junction, clearly demonstrating the formation of a Schottky junction. Further interpretation of the electronic behavior of proteins was done by the calculation of selected solid-state parameters. For example, the turn-on voltage of hemoglobin was measured to occur at a lower turn-on voltage, indicating the possible influence of the hem group present as a cofactor in each subunit of this tetrameric protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  17. Dey D, De D, Ahmadian A, Ghaemi F, Senu N
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2021 Jan 29;16(1):20.
    PMID: 33512575 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-020-03467-x
    Doping is the key feature in semiconductor device fabrication. Many strategies have been discovered for controlling doping in the area of semiconductor physics during the past few decades. Electrical doping is a promising strategy that is used for effective tuning of the charge populations, electronic properties, and transmission properties. This doping process reduces the risk of high temperature, contamination of foreign particles. Significant experimental and theoretical efforts are demonstrated to study the characteristics of electrical doping during the past few decades. In this article, we first briefly review the historical roadmap of electrical doping. Secondly, we will discuss electrical doping at the molecular level. Thus, we will review some experimental works at the molecular level along with we review a variety of research works that are performed based on electrical doping. Then we figure out importance of electrical doping and its importance. Furthermore, we describe the methods of electrical doping. Finally, we conclude with a brief comparative study between electrical and conventional doping methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  18. Mondal AK, Mohamed MA, Ping LK, Mohamad Taib MF, Samat MH, Mohammad Haniff MAS, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Jan 28;14(3).
    PMID: 33525586 DOI: 10.3390/ma14030604
    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is a promising wide-band-gap semiconductor material for UV optical detectors and high-power transistor applications. The fabrication of p-type Ga2O3 is a key problem that hinders its potential for realistic power applications. In this paper, pure α-Ga2O3 and Ca-doped α-Ga2O3 band structure, the density of states, charge density distribution, and optical properties were determined by a first-principles generalized gradient approximation plane-wave pseudopotential method based on density functional theory. It was found that calcium (Ca) doping decreases the bandgap by introducing deep acceptor energy levels as the intermediate band above the valence band maximum. This intermediate valence band mainly consists of Ca 3p and O 2p orbitals and is adequately high in energy to provide an opportunity for p-type conductivity. Moreover, Ca doping enhances the absorptivity and reflectivity become low in the visible region. Aside, transparency decreases compared to the pure material. The optical properties were studied and clarified by electrons-photons interband transitions along with the complex dielectric function's imaginary function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  19. Sarjidan MAM, Shuhaimi A, Majid WHA
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2019 Nov 01;19(11):6995-7003.
    PMID: 31039852 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2019.16724
    A simple spin-coating process for fabricating vertical organic light-emitting transistors (VOLETs) is realized by utilizing silver nanowire (AgNW) as a source electrode. The optical, electrical and morphological properties of the AgNW formation was initially optimized, prior VOFET fabrication. A high molecular weight of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] MEH-PPV was used as an organic semiconductor layer in the VOFET in forming a multilayer structure by solution process. It was found that current density and luminance intensity of the VOLET can be modulated by a small magnitude of gate voltage. The modulation process was induced by changing an injection barrier via gate voltage bias. A space-charge-limited current (SCLC) approach in determining transistor mobility has been introduced. This preliminary and fundamental work is beneficial towards all-solution processing display devices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors
  20. Tan GH, Sidek RM, Ramiah H, Chong WK, Lioe de X
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:163414.
    PMID: 25197694 DOI: 10.1155/2014/163414
    This journal presents an ultra-low-voltage current bleeding mixer with high LO-RF port-to-port isolation, implemented on 0.13 μm standard CMOS technology for ZigBee application. The architecture compliments a modified current bleeding topology, consisting of NMOS-based current bleeding transistor, PMOS-based switching stage, and integrated inductors achieving low-voltage operation and high LO-RF isolation. The mixer exhibits a conversion gain of 7.5 dB at the radio frequency (RF) of 2.4 GHz, an input third-order intercept point (IIP3) of 1 dBm, and a LO-RF isolation measured to 60 dB. The DC power consumption is 572 µW at supply voltage of 0.45 V, while consuming a chip area of 0.97 × 0.88 mm(2).
    Matched MeSH terms: Semiconductors*
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