Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 96 in total

  1. Lim SJ, Wan Aida WM, Schiehser S, Rosenau T, Böhmdorfer S
    Food Chem, 2019 Jan 30;272:222-226.
    PMID: 30309536 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.08.034
    Fucoidan is a sulphated polysaccharide, made up mainly of l-fucose, which is found in brown seaweeds. Its chemical structure is diverse and depends on maturity, species and geographical location. The objective of this study was to elucidate the chemical structure of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus harvested in Japan. The fucoidan was subject to purification prior to monosaccharide profiling, sulphate content determination, and linkage analysis. Our results showed that Japanese Cladosiphon okamuranus fucoidan contained 70.13 ± 0.22 wt% fucose and 15.16 ± 1.17 wt% sulphate. Other minor monosaccharides found were d-xylose, d-galactose, d-mannose, d-glucose, d-arabinose, d-rhamnose and d-glucuronic acid. Linkage analysis revealed that fucopyranoside units along the backbone are linked, through α-1,3-glycosidic bonds, with fucose branching at C-2, and one sulphate group at C-4 per every three fucose units, i.e. the structure of fucoidan from Japanese Cladosiphon okamuranus is [→3)-α-fuc(1→]0.52[→3)-α-fuc-4-OSO3-(1→]0.33[→2)-α-fuc]0.14.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates/chemistry
  2. Khezri R, Hosseini S, Lahiri A, Motlagh SR, Nguyen MT, Yonezawa T, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Oct 02;21(19).
    PMID: 33023274 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21197303
    Zinc-air batteries (ZABs) offer high specific energy and low-cost production. However, rechargeable ZABs suffer from a limited cycle life. This paper reports that potassium persulfate (KPS) additive in an alkaline electrolyte can effectively enhance the performance and electrochemical characteristics of rechargeable zinc-air flow batteries (ZAFBs). Introducing redox additives into electrolytes is an effective approach to promote battery performance. With the addition of 450 ppm KPS, remarkable improvement in anodic currents corresponding to zinc (Zn) dissolution and limited passivation of the Zn surface is observed, thus indicating its strong effect on the redox reaction of Zn. Besides, the addition of 450 ppm KPS reduces the corrosion rate of Zn, enhances surface reactions and decreases the solution resistance. However, excess KPS (900 and 1350 ppm) has a negative effect on rechargeable ZAFBs, which leads to a shorter cycle life and poor cyclability. The rechargeable ZAFB, using 450 ppm KPS, exhibits a highly stable charge/discharge voltage for 800 cycles. Overall, KPS demonstrates great promise for the enhancement of the charge/discharge performance of rechargeable ZABs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates/pharmacology; Sulfates/chemistry*
  3. Ng KA, Low KH, Tay KS
    Water Environ Res, 2023 Apr;95(4):e10862.
    PMID: 37032435 DOI: 10.1002/wer.10862
    The combination of UV and water-soluble Fe(III) complexes is an effective method for generating Fe(II) in situ for activating advanced oxidation processes. This study explored the potential of Fe(III)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Fe(III)-DTPA) and Fe(III)-ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (Fe(III)-EGTA) in activating the UV/persulfate (UV/PS) for sulfamethazine removal. The initial screening showed that Fe(III)-EGTA and Fe(III)-DTPA could significantly improve the rate of sulfamethazine removal. The optimum molar ratios of persulfate to Fe(III)-DTPA and Fe(III)-EGTA were 100:1 and 100:2.5. The predicted percentage of sulfamethazine removal under the optimized conditions, obtained using response surface methodology, was ~99% for both catalysts. The pH range of 6 to 8 did not significantly affect the performance of UV/PS in the removal of sulfamethazine. The percentage sulfamethazine removal in the selected water samples was ranged from 93.6% to 99.6%, agreeing with the predicted value. The performance of both catalysts in activating UV/PS is comparable with that of the frequently used Fe(III)-EDDS. PRACTITIONERS POINTS: The potential of Fe(III)-DTPA and Fe(III)-EGTA in activating UV/persulfate (UV/PS) was explored. Fe(III)-DTPA and Fe(III)-EGTA improved the performance of UV/PS in sulfamethazine removal. Fe(III)-DTPA and Fe(III)-EGTA are effective in catalyzing UV/PS under pH 6 to 8. The performance of Fe(III)-DTPA and Fe(III)-EGTA is comparable with well-studied Fe(III)-EDDS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates/chemistry
  4. Willis Poratti G, Yaakop AS, Chan CS, Urbieta MS, Chan KG, Ee R, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2016;4(4).
    PMID: 27540078 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00870-16
    Desulfotomaculum copahuensis strain CINDEFI1 is a novel spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the Copahue volcano area, Argentina. Here, we present its draft genome in which we found genes related with the anaerobic respiration of sulfur compounds similar to those present in the Copahue environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  5. Joon, Ching Juana, Mohd Ambar Yarmob, Zhangc, Jingchang
    New solid acid catalyst consisting of zirconium sulfate (ZS) supported on a pure-HMS hexagonal mesoporous material (HMS) have been prepared and characterized. This heterogeneous catalyst is able to make a contribution to the field of acid catalyst involving bulky organic molecules. XRD analysis shows that ZS is intact after impregnated on HMS surface and formed finely dispersed species. No ZS crystal phase was developed even at ZS loadings as high as 40 wt %. The occurrence of chemical interaction between ZS and HMS was observed by XPS analysis. Further, XRF results demonstrated that there is no leaching of ZS elements after impregnation. This study shows that ZS can be impregnated on HMS and would be a promising solid acid catalyst for acid-type reactions espcially invovling bulky organic molecuels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  6. Mohd Ali MKFB, Abu Bakar A, Md Noor N, Yahaya N, Ismail M, Rashid AS
    Environ Technol, 2017 Oct;38(19):2427-2439.
    PMID: 27875932 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2016.1264486
    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is among the common corrosion types for buried and deep-water pipelines that result in costly repair and pipeline failure. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are commonly known as the culprit of MIC. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of combination of ultrasound (US) irradiation and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (known as Hybrid soliwave technique, HyST) at pilot scale to inactivate SRB. The influence of different reaction times with respect to US irradiation and UV radiation and synergistic effect toward SRB consortium was tested and discussed. In this research, the effect of HyST treatment toward SRB extermination and corrosion studies of carbon steel coupon upon SRB activity before and after the treatment were performed using weight loss method. The carbon steel coupons immersed in SRB sample were exposed to HyST treatment at different time of exposure. Additionally, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were used to investigate the corrosion morphology in verifying the end product of SRB activity and corrosion formation after treatment. Results have shown that the US irradiation treatment gives a synergistic effect when combined with UV radiation in mitigating the SRB consortium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  7. Leila Khodapanah, Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman
    Eshtehard aquifer located in southwest of Tehran province, Iran, provides a large amount of water requirement for inhabitants of Eshtehard district. Monitoring and analyzing of groundwater quality are important for protecting groundwater as sustainable water resource. One of the most advanced techniques for groundwater quality interpolation and mapping is geostatistics methods. The purposes of this study are (1) to investigate major ions concentration and their relative abundance to provide an overview of present groundwater chemistry and (2) to map the groundwater quality in the study area using geostatistics techniques. In this investigation, ArcGIS 9.2 was used for predicting spatial distribution of some groundwater characteristics such as: Chloride, Sulfate, pH, and Conductivity. These methods are applied for data from 44 wells within the study area. The final maps show that the south parts of the Eshtehard aquifer have suitable groundwater quality for human consumption and in general, the groundwater quality degrades south to north and west to east of the Eshtehard plain along the groundwater flow path.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  8. Irwan, J.M., Teddy, T.
    Concrete durability determines service life of structures. It can though, be weakened by aggressive environmental conditions. For instance, bio-corrosion process is due to the presence and activity of microorganisms which produce sulphuric acid to form sulphate deterioration of concrete materials. The problems related to durability and repair systems are due to lack of suitable concrete materials. The use bacteria for concrete repairing and plugging of pores and cracking in concrete has been recently explored. Previous studies had proved the possibility of using specific bacteria via bio concrete as a sustainable method for improving concrete properties. Thus, lack of information on the application of bio concrete exposed to extreme condition was the motivation for this research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  9. Teddy, T., Irwan, J.M., Othman, N.
    Strength and durability are important characteristics of concrete and desired engineering properties. Exposure to aggressive environment threatens durability of concrete. Previous studies on bio-concrete using several types of bacteria, including sulphate reduction bacteria (SRB), had to increase durability of concrete have shown promising results. This study used mixtures designed according to concrete requirement for sea water condition with SRB composition of 3%, 5% and 7% respectively. The curing time were 28, 56 and 90 days respectively. The mechanical properties, namely compressive strength and water permeability, were tested using cube samples. The results showed compressive strength had higher increase than the control at 53.9 Mpa. The SRB with 3%composition had maximum water permeability. Thus, adding SRB in concrete specimens improves compressive strength and water permeability. This is particularly suitable for applications using chloride ion penetration (sea water condition) where corrosion tends to affect durability of concrete constructions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  10. Chiam SL, Lim HN, Hafiz SM, Pandikumar A, Huang NM
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 15;8(1):3093.
    PMID: 29449631 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21572-x
    The energy density of conventional supercapacitors is in the range of 6-10 Wh kg-1, which has restricted them from many applications that require devices with long durations. Herein, we report a method for enhancing the energy density of a device through the parallel stacking of five copper foils coated on each side with graphene nanoplatelets. Microporous papers immersed in 2 M aqueous sodium sulphate were used as separators. With a low contact resistance of 0.05 Ω, the supercapacitor yielded an optimum specific energy density and a specific power density of 24.64 Wh kg-1 and 402 W kg-1 at 0.8 V, respectively. The working potential was increased to 2.4 V when three of the supercapacitors were connected in series, forming a tandem device. Its potential for real applications was manifested by the ability to light up a light-emitting diode for 40 s after charging for 60 s.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  11. Pratika RA, Wijaya K, Utami M, Mulijani S, Patah A, Alarifi S, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2023 Nov;341:139822.
    PMID: 37598950 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.139822
    The dehydration of ethanol into diethyl ether over a SO4/SiO2 catalyst was investigated. The SO4/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by the sulfation method using 1, 2, and 3 M of sulfuric acid (SS1, SS2, and SS3) via hydrothermal treatment. This study is focused on the synthesis of a SO4/SiO2 catalyst with high total acidity that can be subsequently utilized to convert ethanol into diethyl ether. The total acidity test revealed that the sulfation process increased the total acidity of SiO2. The SS2 catalyst (with 2 M sulfuric acid) displayed the highest total acidity of 7.77 mmol/g, whereas the SiO2 total acidity was only 0.11 mmol/g. Meanwhile, the SS3 catalyst (with 3 M sulfuric acid) has a lower total acidity of 7.09 mmol/g due to the distribution of sulfate groups on the surface having reached its optimum condition. The crystallinity and structure of the SS2 catalyst were not affected by the hydrothermal treatment or the sulfate process on silica. Furthermore, The SS2 catalyst characteristics in the presence of sulfate lead to a flaky surface in the morphology and non-uniform particle size. In addition, the surface area and pore volume of the SS2 catalyst decreased (482.56-172.26 m2/g) and (0.297-0.253 cc/g), respectively, because of the presence of sulfate on the silica surface. The SS2 catalyst's pore shape information explains the formation of non-uniform pore sizes and shapes. Finally, the activity and selectivity of SO4/SiO2 catalysts in the conversion of ethanol to diethyl ether yielded the highest ethanol conversion of 70.01% and diethyl ether product of 9.05% from the SS2 catalyst (the catalyst with the highest total acidity). Variations in temperature reaction conditions (175-225 °C) show an optimum reaction temperature to produce diethyl ether at 200 °C (11.36%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  12. Al Azzam KM, Saad B, Aboul-Enein HY
    Electrophoresis, 2010 Sep;31(17):2957-63.
    PMID: 20690150 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201000266
    Binding constants for the enantiomers of modafinil with the negatively charged chiral selector sulfated-β-CD (S-β-CD) using CE technique is presented. The calculations of the binding constants employing three different linearization plots (double reciprocal, X-reciprocal and Y-reciprocal) were performed from the electrophoretic mobility values of modafinil enantiomers at different concentrations of S-β-CD in the BGE. The highest inclusion affinity of the modafinil enantiomers were observed for the S-enantiomer-S-β-CD complex, in agreement with the computational calculations performed previously. Binding constants for each enantiomer-S-β-CD complex at different temperatures, as well as thermodynamic parameters for binding, were calculated. Host-guest binding constants using the double reciprocal fit showed better linearity (r(2)>0.99) at all temperatures studied (15-30°C) and compared with the other two fit methods. The linear van't Hoff (15-30°C) plot obtained indicated that the thermodynamic parameters of complexation were temperature dependent for the enantiomers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates/chemistry
  13. Yeap SS, Tanavalee A, Perez EC, Tan MP, Reyes BHM, Lee JK, et al.
    Aging Clin Exp Res, 2021 May;33(5):1149-1156.
    PMID: 33774784 DOI: 10.1007/s40520-021-01834-x
    BACKGROUND: Since 2014, the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) algorithm for the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is available worldwide.

    AIM: Based on this document, a Southeast Asia Working Group (SEAWG) wished to see how the new ESCEO algorithm developed in 2019 was perceived by Southeast Asian experts and how it was integrated into their clinical practice.

    METHODS: A SEAWG was set up between members of the international ESCEO task force and a group of Southeast Asian experts.

    RESULTS: Non-pharmacological management should always be combined with pharmacological management. In step 1, symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis are the main background therapy, for which high-quality evidence is available only for the formulations of patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. In step 2, oral NSAIDs are a useful option, considering the cardiovascular/renal/gastrointestinal profiles of the individual patient. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid and corticosteroids are a possible alternative to oral NSAIDs, but limited evidence is available. If steps 1 and 2 do not give adequate relief of symptoms, tramadol can be used, but its safety is debated. In general, the indications of the ESCEO algorithm are important in Southeast Asian countries, but the reimbursement criteria of local health systems are an important aspect for adherence to the ESCEO algorithm.

    CONCLUSION: This guidance provides evidence-based and easy-to-follow advice on how to establish a treatment algorithm in knee OA, for practical implementation in clinical practice in Southeast Asian countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Chondroitin Sulfates/therapeutic use
  14. Yee CN, Ooi CHR, Tan LP, Misran M, Tang NT
    PLoS One, 2019;14(3):e0213697.
    PMID: 30913207 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213697
    That water may not be an inert medium was indicated by the presence at water's interfaces a negatively charged solute free zone of several hundred microns in thickness called the exclusion zone (EZ). Further evidence was demonstrated by Ovchinnikova's experiments (2009) showing that water can store and release substantial amount of charge. We demonstrate that the charge storage capacity of water arises from highly stable large-scale ionic structures with measurable charge imbalances and discrete levels of charge density. We also show evidence that the charge zones formation requires ionic solutes, and their formation correlate to large change in conductivity, by as much as 250%. Our experiments indicate that large-scale structuring plays a pivotal role in electrolysis and conductivity in ionic solution. We propose that water is an electrochemically active medium and present a new model of electrolysis and conductivity in ionic solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates/chemistry
  15. Ishak AR, Hamid FS, Mohamad S, Tay KS
    Waste Manag, 2018 Jun;76:575-581.
    PMID: 29503052 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.02.047
    In this work, the feasibility of coagulation-flocculation coupled with UV-based sulfate radical oxidation process (UV/SRAOP) in the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of stabilized landfill leachate (SLL) was evaluated. For coagulation-flocculation, ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as the coagulant. The effect of initial pH of SLL and COD:FeCl3 ratio on the COD removal was evaluated. The result revealed that COD:FeCl3 ratio of 1:1.3 effectively removed 76.9% of COD at pH 6. The pre-treated SLL was then subjected to UV/SRAOP treatment. For UV/SRAOP, the sulfate radical (SR) was generated using UV-activated persulfate (UV/PS) and peroxymonosulfate (UV/PMS). The dosage of oxidant and reaction time were found to be the main parameters that influence the efficiency of COD removal. On the other hand, the effect of initial pH (3-7) and the type of oxidant (PS and PMS) was found to have no significant influence on COD removal efficiency. At optimum conditions, approximately 90.9 and 91.5% of COD was successfully removed by coagulation-flocculation coupled with UV/PS and UV/PMS system, respectively. Ecotoxicity study using zebrafish showed a reduction in toxicity of SLL from 10.1 to 1.74 toxicity unit (TU) after coagulation-flocculation. The TU remained unchanged after UV/PS treatment but slightly increased to 1.80 after UV/PMS treatment due to the presence of residual sulfate ion in the treated effluent. In general, it can be concluded that coagulation-flocculation coupled with UV/SRAOP could be a potential water treatment method for SLL treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates/chemistry*
  16. Sabapathy L, Mohammed BS, Al-Fakih A, Wahab MMA, Liew MS, Amran YHM
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Jul 13;13(14).
    PMID: 32668788 DOI: 10.3390/ma13143125
    The objective of this research was to determine the durability of an engineered cementitious composite (ECC) incorporating crumb rubber (CR) and graphene oxide (GO) with respect to resistance to acid and sulphate attacks. To obtain the mix designs used for this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized, which yielded the composition of 13 mixes containing two variables (crumb rubber and graphene oxide). The crumb rubber had a percentage range of 0-10%, whereas the graphene oxide was tested in the range of 0.01-0.05% by volume. Three types of laboratory tests were used in this study, namely a compressive test, an acid attack test to study its durability against an acidic environment, and a sulphate attack test to examine the length change while exposed to a sulphate solution. Response surface methodology helped develop predictive responsive models and multiple objectives that aided in the optimization of results obtained from the experiments. Furthermore, a rubberized engineered cementitious composite incorporating graphene oxide yielded better chemical attack results compared to those of a normal rubberized engineered cementitious composite. In conclusion, nano-graphene in the form of graphene oxide has the ability to enhance the properties and overcome the limitations of crumb rubber incorporated into an engineered cementitious composite. The optimal mix was attained with 10% crumb rubber and 0.01 graphene oxide that achieved 43.6 MPa compressive strength, 29.4% weight loss, and 2.19% expansion. The addition of GO enhances the performance of rubberized ECC, contributing to less weight loss due to the deterioration of acidic media on the ECC. It also contributes to better resistance to changes in the length of the rubberized ECC samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  17. Jamulidin, S.N.K., Manogaran. M., Yakasai, M.H., Rahman, M.F.A., Shukor, M.Y.
    In this study, a novel glyphosate-degrading shows the ability to reduce molybdenum to
    molybdenum blue. The enzyme from this bacterium was partially purified and partially
    characterized to ascertain whether the Mo-reducing enzyme from this bacterium shows better or
    lower efficiency in reducing molybdenum compared to other Mo-reducing bacterium that only
    exhibits a single biotransformation activity. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium
    sulphate fractionation. The Vmax for the electron donating substrate or NADH was at 1.905 nmole
    Mo blue/min while the Km was 6.146 mM. The regression coefficient was 0.98. Comparative
    assessment with the previously characterized Mo-reducing enzyme from various bacteria showed
    that the Mo-reducing enzyme from Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain AQ5-12 showed a lower
    enzyme activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  18. Fathul Karim Sahrani, Madzlan Abd. Aziz, Zaharah Ibrahim, Adibah Yahya
    The corrosion potential of AISI 304 stainless steel coupons influenced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been studied. Pure colony of SRB was isolated from the Malaysia Marine and Heavy Engineering, Pasir Gudang, Johor. Open circuit potential measurements were carried out in variable types of culturing solutions with SRB1, SRB2, combination of SRB1 & SRB2 and without SRBs inoculated. Results showed that the corrosion potential, Eoc increased in the presence of SRBs (in pure and mixed culture) compared to that of control. EDS analysis showed the strong peak of sulphur in coupon containing SRB cultures compared to the control. ESEM data showed that the high density cell of SRBs were associated with corroding sections of surface steel comparing with non-corroding sections for coupons immersed in VMNI medium containing SRBs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  19. Hammed, A. M., Jaswir, I., Simsek, S., Alam, Z., Amid, A.
    This study involves extraction of sulfated polysaccahride (SP) from brown seaweed (Turbinaria turbinata). Eight processing conditions affecting enzyme aided extraction (EAE) were screened using Plackett-Burman design. Three significant factors (hydrolysis time, enzyme concentration and extraction stage) were optimized using Faced Centred Central Composite Design in Random Surface Methods. Micrograph obtained using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that cellulase degradation ruptured the seaweed cell matrix thus caused increase in the release of SP. The optimum conditions for extraction of SP from T. turbinata are: extraction stage of 2, hydrolysis time of 19.5 h and enzyme concentration of 1.5 μl/ml to produce 25.13% yield. The SP obtained from cellulase treated T. turbinata is a suitable anti-inflammatory agent for pharmaceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
  20. Azman EA, Ismail R, Ninomiya S, Jusop S, Tongkaemkaew U
    PLoS One, 2023;18(9):e0290703.
    PMID: 37713375 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0290703
    Acid sulfate soil characterized by pyrite (FeS2) which produces high acidity (soil pH < 3.5) and release high amount of Al3+ and Fe2+. Application of 4 t ha-1 Ground Magnesium Limestone (GML), is a common rate used for acid sulfate soil by the rice farmers in Malaysia. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the integral effect of ground magnesium limestone (GML) and calcium silicate and to determine the optimal combination on acid sulfate soils in Malaysia. The acid sulfate soils were incubated under the submerged condition for 120 days with GML (0, 2, 4, 6 t ha-1) in combination with calcium silicate (0, 1, 2, 3 t ha-1) arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The soil was sampled after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of incubation and analyzed for soil pH, exchangeable Al, Ca, Mg, K and available Si. A total of 2 out of 16 combinations met the desired soil requirement for rice cultivation. The desired chemical soil characteristics for rice cultivation are soil pH > 4, exchangeable Al < 2 cmolc Kg-1, exchangeable Ca > 2 cmolc kg-1, exchangeable Mg > 1 cmolc kg-1 and Si content > 43 mg kg-1. The combinations are i) 2 t ha-1 calcium silicate + 2 t ha-1 GML, and ii) 3 t ha-1 calcium silicate + 2 t ha-1 GML, respectively. These combination rates met the desired requirement of soil chemical characteristics for rice cultivation. Soil acidity was reduced by a gradual release of Ca2+ and SiO32- from calcium silicate continuously filling the exchange sites and reducing the potential of extra (free) H+ availability in the soil system. Combination of calcium silicate and GML, shows the ameliorative effect with; i) release of Ca, ii) binding of Al3+ making it inert Al-hydroxides and, iii) bind H+ to produce water molecules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sulfates
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