Tetracycline (TC), a popularly found drug pollutant, can be contaminated in food and aquatic regions and causes a severe impact on human health. In this research, a visible light active p-stannic oxide/n-copper manganate (p-SnO2/n-CuMnO2) heterojunction was synthesized and has been applied for a signal on photoelectrochemical sensing of antibiotic TC. Firstly, the n-SnO2 microrods were synthesized via a simple and efficient homogeneous precipitation method and the p-CuMnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile ultrasound-assisted hydrothermal method. The SnO2/CuMnO2 microrods p-n heterojunction was prepared through a simple impregnation method and physicochemical properties of the microrods are characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UVDRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Mott-Schottky analyses. The photoelectrochemical sensing performance of SnO2/CuMnO2 microrods was 2.7 times higher than that of as-synthesized pure SnO2 microrods is due to the more visible light absorption ability and p-n heterojunction (synergy). The designed SnO2/CuMnO2/ITO sensor gives photocurrent signals for the detection of TC in the range of 0.01-1000 μM with the detection limit (LOD) of 5.6 nM. The practical applicability of the sensor was monitored in cow milk and the Taipei River water sample.
Low-temperature growth of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs) was obtained on catalyst-free amorphous glass substrates at 250 °C by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser deposition. These ITO NWs have branching morphology as grown in Ar ambient. As suggested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), our ITO NWs have the tendency to grow vertically outward from the substrate surface, with the (400) plane parallel to the longitudinal axis of the nanowires. These NWs are low in electrical resistivity (1.6×10⁻⁴ Ω cm) and high in visible transmittance (~90–96%), and were tested as the electrode for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). An enhanced current density of ~30 mA cm⁻² was detected at bias voltages of ~19–21 V with uniform and bright emission. We found that the Hall mobility of these NWs is 2.2–2.7 times higher than that of ITO film, which can be explained by the reduction of Coulomb scattering loss. These results suggested that ITO nanowires are promising for applications in optoelectronic devices including OLED, touch screen displays, and photovoltaic solar cells.
In this paper, Taguchi experimental design technique was applied for optimization of chromium (Cr)/silver (Ag)/indium
tin oxide (ITO) SPR sensor for operation in near infrared region. Four factors were considered which include wavelength,
thickness of Cr, thickness of Ag, and thickness of ITO. Finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method was used in numerical
analysis for minimum reflectance (Rmin) and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) performance parameters. The results
obtained from the Taguchi method shows that the optimized parameter for Rmin was 785 nm of wavelength, Cr (1 nm),
Ag (40 nm) and ITO (20 nm), whereas the optimized parameter for FWHM was 785 of wavelength, Cr (0 nm), Ag (40 nm)
and ITO (0 nm). In short, the optimum parameters for achieving the desired performance of sensor were successfully
predicted using Taguchi optimization method.
The effect of TiO₂ nanoparticle (NP) content on the improvement of poly(9,9'-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO)/Fluorol 7GA organic light emitting diode (OLED) performance is demonstrated here. The PFO/Fluorol 7GA blend with specific ratios of TiO₂ NPs was prepared via a solution blending method before being spin-coated onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate to act as an emissive layer in OLEDs. A thin aluminum layer as top electrode was deposited onto the emissive layer using the electron beam chamber. Improvement electron injection from the cathode was achieved upon incorporation of TiO₂ NPs into the PFO/Fluorol 7GA blend, thus producing devices with intense luminance and lower turn-on voltage. The ITO/(PFO/Fluorol 7GA/TiO₂)/Al OLED device exhibited maximum electroluminescence intensity and luminance at 25 wt % of TiO₂ NPs, while maximum luminance efficiency was achieved with 15 wt % TiO₂ NP content. In addition, this work proved that the performance of the devices was strongly affected by the surface morphology, which in turn depended on the TiO₂ NP content.
The crystal and mol-ecular structures of two tri-phenyl-tin di-thio-carbamate compounds, viz. [Sn(C6H5)3(C8H16NS2)], (I), and [Sn(C6H5)3(C10H12NS2)], (II), are described. The di-thio-carbamate ligand in each mol-ecule coordinates in an asymmetric fashion resulting in heavily distorted tetra-hedral C3S coordin-ation geometries for the Sn atoms, with the distortions traced to the close approach of the non-coordinating thione-S atom. The mol-ecular packing in both compounds features C-H⋯π(Sn-phen-yl) inter-actions. In (I), the donors are Sn-phenyl-C-H groups leading to centrosymmetric aggregates, while in (II), the donors are both Sn-phenyl-C-H and methyl-C-H groups leading to supra-molecular chains propagating along the b axis. The identified aggregates assemble into their respective crystals with no directional inter-actions between them. An analysis of the Hirshfeld surfaces show distinctive patterns, but an overwhelming predominance (>99% in each case) of H⋯H, C⋯H/H⋯C and S⋯H/H⋯S contacts on the respective Hirshfeld surface.
Landfill leachate can threaten the environment and human life. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the efficiency of ozone (O3 ), O3 with zirconium tetrachloride (O3 /ZrCl4 ), and O3 with tin tetrachloride (O3 /SnCl4 ) in remediating the stabilized anaerobic landfill leachate (SAL) from Alor Pongsu, Perak. Hydroxyl radical (OH•) is an important oxidizing agent in the ozonation process. Its presence was tested using tert-butyl alcohol. Results showed that using ZrCl4 and SnCl4 in ozonation boosted the generation of hydroxyl radical, thereby enhancing the oxidation process and pollutant removal inside the sample. The O3 /ZrCl4 mix at chemical oxygen demand (COD) to ZrCl4 ratio of 1:1.5, pH 8-9, and 90-min reaction time resulted in the highest reduction rates of COD and color at 91.9% and 99.6%, respectively. All results demonstrated that the optimum performance occurred at alkaline conditions (pH > 8), proving that OH radicals primarily oxidized the pollutants through an indirect reaction pathway. The biodegradability (biochemical oxygen demand/COD) ratio was also considerably improved from 0.02 (raw) to 0.37 using O3 /ZrCl4 , compared with using O3 alone and using O3 /SnCl4 , which only recorded 0.23 and 0.28, respectively, after the treatment. The study demonstrated that O3 /ZrCl4 was the most efficient combination. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The O3 /ZrCl4 recorded the highest COD and color removals. The O3 /ZrCl4 combination also recorded higher OH• concentrations. The biodegradability of leachate (BOD5 /COD ratio) improved from 0.02 to 0.37.
In photosynthesis, a very small amount of the solar energy absorbed is transformed into chemical energy, while the rest is wasted as heat and fluorescence. This excess energy can be harvested through biophotovoltaic platforms to generate electrical energy. In this study, algal biofilms formed on ITO anodes were investigated for use in the algal biophotovoltaic platforms. Sixteen algal strains, comprising local isolates and two diatoms obtained from the Culture Collection of Marine Phytoplankton (CCMP), USA, were screened and eight were selected based on the growth rate, biochemical composition and photosynthesis performance using suspension cultures. Differences in biofilm formation between the eight algal strains as well as their rapid light curve (RLC) generated using a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometer, were examined. The RLC provides detailed information on the saturation characteristics of electron transport and overall photosynthetic performance of the algae. Four algal strains, belonging to the Cyanophyta (Cyanobacteria) Synechococcus elongatus (UMACC 105), Spirulina platensis. (UMACC 159) and the Chlorophyta Chlorella vulgaris (UMACC 051), and Chlorella sp. (UMACC 313) were finally selected for investigation using biophotovoltaic platforms. Based on power output per Chl-a content, the algae can be ranked as follows: Synechococcus elongatus (UMACC 105) (6.38×10(-5) Wm(-2)/µgChl-a)>Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 051 (2.24×10(-5) Wm(-2)/µgChl-a)>Chlorella sp.(UMACC 313) (1.43×10(-5) Wm(-2)/µgChl-a)>Spirulina platensis (UMACC 159) (4.90×10(-6) Wm(-2)/µgChl-a). Our study showed that local algal strains have potential for use in biophotovoltaic platforms due to their high photosynthetic performance, ability to produce biofilm and generation of electrical power.
This paper reports the potential application of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) in improving the microelectronic characteristics of Schottky barrier diode (SBD) prepared from a semiconducting material poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (F8). Two SBDs, Ag/F8/P3HT/ITO and Ag/F8-CdSe QDs/P3HT/ITO, are fabricated by spin coating a 10 wt% solution of F8 in chloroform and 10:1 wt% solution of F8:CdSe QDs, respectively, on a pre-deposited poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. To study the electronic properties of the fabricated devices, current-voltage (I-V) measurements are carried out at 25 °C in dark conditions. The I-V curves of Ag/F8/P3HT/ITO and Ag/F8-CdSe QDs/P3HT/ITO SBDs demonstrate asymmetrical behavior with forward bias current rectification ratio (RR) of 7.42 ± 0.02 and 142 ± 0.02, respectively, at ± 3.5 V which confirm the formation of depletion region. Other key parameters which govern microelectronic properties of the fabricated devices such as charge carrier mobility (µ), barrier height (ϕb), series resistance (Rs) and quality factor (n) are extracted from their corresponding I-V characteristics. Norde's and Cheung functions are also applied to characterize the devices to study consistency in various parameters. Significant improvement is found in the values of Rs, n, and RR by 3, 1.7, and 19 times, respectively, for Ag/F8-CdSe QDs/P3HT/ITO SBD as compared to Ag/F8/P3HT/ITO. This enhancement is due to the incorporation of CdSe QDs having 3-dimensional quantum confinement and large surface-to-volume area. Poole-Frenkle and Richardson-Schottky conduction mechanisms are also discussed for both of the devices. Morphology, optical bandgap (1.88 ± 0.5 eV) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CdSe QDs with a peak intensity at 556 nm are also reported and discussed.
Nanocrystalline SnO(x) (x = 1-2) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a simple chemical bath deposition method. Triethanolamine was used as complexing agent to decrease time and temperature of deposition and shift the pH of the solution to the noncorrosive region. The films were characterized for composition, surface morphology, structure and optical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that SnO(x) thin films consist of a polycrystalline structure with an average grain size of 36 nm. Atomic force microscopy studies show a uniform grain distribution without pinholes. The elemental composition was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average O/Sn atomic percentage ratio is 1.72. Band gap energy and optical transition were determined from optical absorbance data. The film was found to exhibit direct and indirect transitions in the visible spectrum with band gap values of about 3.9 and 3.7 eV, respectively. The optical transmittance in the visible region is 82%. The SnO(x) nanocrystals exhibit an ultraviolet emission band centered at 392 nm in the vicinity of the band edge, which is attributed to the well-known exciton transition in SnO(x). Photosensitivity was detected in the positive region under illumination with white light.
Matched MeSH terms: Tin Compounds/chemical synthesis*; Tin Compounds/chemistry
Hierarchical Si/ZnO trunk-branch nanostructures (NSs) have been synthesized by hot wire assisted chemical vapor deposition method for trunk Si nanowires (NWs) on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and followed by the vapor transport condensation (VTC) method for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) which was laterally grown from each Si nanowires (NWs). A spin coating method has been used for zinc oxide (ZnO) seeding. This method is better compared with other group where they used sputtering method for the same process. The sputtering method only results in the growth of ZnO NRs on top of the Si trunk. Our method shows improvement by having the growth evenly distributed on the lateral sides and caps of the Si trunks, resulting in pine-leave-like NSs. Field emission scanning electron microscope image shows the hierarchical nanostructures resembling the shape of the leaves of pine trees. Single crystalline structure for the ZnO branch grown laterally from the crystalline Si trunk has been identified by using a lattice-resolved transmission electron microscope. A preliminary photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell testing has been setup to characterize the photocurrent of sole array of ZnO NR growth by both hydrothermal-grown (HTG) method and VTC method on ITO substrates. VTC-grown ZnO NRs showed greater photocurrent effect due to its better structural properties. The measured photocurrent was also compared with the array of hierarchical Si/ZnO trunk-branch NSs. The cell with the array of Si/ZnO trunk-branch NSs revealed four-fold magnitude enhancement in photocurrent density compared with the sole array of ZnO NRs obtain from VTC processes.
A nanocrystalline SnO2 thin film was synthesized by a chemical bath method. The parameters affecting the energy band gap and surface morphology of the deposited SnO2 thin film were optimized using a semi-empirical method. Four parameters, including deposition time, pH, bath temperature and tin chloride (SnCl2·2H2O) concentration were optimized by a factorial method. The factorial used a Taguchi OA (TOA) design method to estimate certain interactions and obtain the actual responses. Statistical evidences in analysis of variance including high F-value (4,112.2 and 20.27), very low P-value (<0.012 and 0.0478), non-significant lack of fit, the determination coefficient (R2 equal to 0.978 and 0.977) and the adequate precision (170.96 and 12.57) validated the suggested model. The optima of the suggested model were verified in the laboratory and results were quite close to the predicted values, indicating that the model successfully simulated the optimum conditions of SnO2 thin film synthesis.
Reactions of 5-benzyloxy-4-methylpent-2-enyl(tributyl)stannane with aldehydes promoted by bismuth(III) iodide were usefully stereoselective in favour of the (E)-1,5-anti-6-benzyloxy-5-methylalk-3-en-1-ols. Similar stereoselectivity was observed for reactions of analogous 5-benzyloxy-4-methylpent-2-enyl bromides with aldehydes when promoted by a low valency bismuth species prepared by reduction of bismuth(III) triiodide with powdered zinc so providing a "tin-free" procedure. The analogous reactions of 4-benzyloxypent-2-enyl(tributyl)stannane with aldehydes promoted by bismuth(III) iodide were also stereoselective but gave lower yields. Attempted 1,6-stereocontrol using these reactions resulted in only modest stereoselectivities. Aspects of the chemistry of the products were studied in particular their stereoselective conversion into aliphatic compounds with methyl bearing stereogenic centres at 1,5,9,13- and 1,3,5-positions along the aliphatic chain. Mechanistically, allylic organobismuth species may be involved in both sets of reactions but this was not confirmed although the similar stereoselectivities observed for both the bismuth(III) iodide mediated reactions of the pent-2-enylstannanes and the low-valency bismuth promoted reactions of the pent-2-enyl bromides are consistent with participation of similar intermediates.
A new class of liquid crystalline acetylide-imine system was successfully synthesized, characterized
and deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated substrate via electrochemical deposition
method for potential organic film application. The relationship between liquid crystal
molecular structure, phase transition temperature and electrical performance was evaluated.
The mesomorphic properties were identified via polarized optic microscopy (POM) which displayed
fan-shaped texture of smectic A phase and their corresponding transition enthalpies
are in concurrence with DSC and TGA studies. The findings from the conductivity analysis
revealed that the fabricated film exhibits good electrical performance where it displayed
linear current-voltage relationship of I-V curve. Therefore, this proposed type of molecular
framework has given an ideal indication to act as transporting material for application in
A controllable electrochemical synthesis to convert reduced graphene oxide (rGO) from graphite flakes was introduced and investigated in detail. Electrochemical reduction was used to prepare rGO because of its cost effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and ability to produce rGO thin films in industrial scale. This study aimed to determine the optimum applied potential for the electrochemical reduction. An applied voltage of 15 V successfully formed a uniformly coated rGO thin film, which significantly promoted effective electron transfer within dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Thus, DSSC performance improved. However, rGO thin films formed in voltages below or exceeding 15 V resulted in poor DSSC performance. This behavior was due to poor electron transfer within the rGO thin films caused by poor uniformity. These results revealed that DSSC constructed using 15 V rGO thin film exhibited high efficiency (η = 1.5211%) attributed to its higher surface uniformity than other samples. The addition of natural lemon juice (pH ~ 2.3) to the electrolyte accelerated the deposition and strengthened the adhesion of rGO thin film onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2
) with various morphologies has been successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method
C for 10 h using titanium butoxide (TBOT) as a precursor, deionized (DI) water and hydrochloric acid (HCl) on
a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. The influences of HCl volume on structural and morphological properties
have been studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),
respectively. The result showed that several morphologies such as microsphere, microrods, nanorods and nanoflowers
were obtained by varying the volume of hydrochloric acid. The crystallinity of titanium dioxide enhanced with the
increasing of hydrochloric acid volume.
We present an electrochemical long period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor for electroactive species with an optically transparent electrode. The sensor was fabricated by coating indium tin oxide onto the surface of LPFG using a polygonal barrel-sputtering method. LPFG was produced by an electric arc-induced technique. The sensing is based on change in the detection of electron density on the electrode surface during potential application and its reduction by electrochemical redox of analytes. Four typical electroactive species of methylene blue, hexaammineruthenium(III), ferrocyanide, and ferrocenedimethanol were used to investigate the sensor performance. The concentrations of analytes were determined by the modulation of the potential as the change in transmittance around the resonance band of LPFG. The sensitivity of the sensor, particularly to methylene blue, was high, and the sensor responded to a wide concentration range of 0.001 mM to 1 mM.
Herein, we report the synthesis of SnO, Cu₂O and SnO-Cu₂O mixed oxide thin films on fluorinedoped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (AACVD) process using [Cu (dmae)₂(H₂O)] and [Sn (dmae) (OAc)]₂ as molecular precursors for SnO and Cu₂O, respectively at 400 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern can be ascribed to the tetragonal phase of SnO crystals with space group P4 and cubic phase of Cu₂O crystals with space group Pn- 3m/nmm, respectively. The surface morphology characteristics of SnO, Cu₂O and SnO-Cu₂Omixed oxide have been investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) which revealed that the SnO was grown homogeneously in cubical shape while Cu₂O possess nano balls shaped morphologies. The UV band gap values of SnO-Cu₂O mixed oxide thin film was found to be 2.6 eV appropriate for photoelectrochemical (PEC) applications. The synthesized material was proposed for PEC applications and has shown enhanced catalytic performance in the presence of light.
Herein we reported the effect of doping and addition of surfactant on SnO2 nanostructures for enhanced photocatalytic activity. Pristine SnO2, Zn-SnO2 and SDS-(Zn-SnO2) was prepared via simple co-precipitation method and the product was annealed at 600 °C to obtain a clear phase. The structural, optical, vibrational, morphological characteristics of the synthesized SnO2, Zn-SnO2 and SDS-(Zn-SnO2) product were investigated. SnO2, Zn-SnO2 and SDS-(Zn-SnO2) possess crystallite size of 20 nm, 19 nm and 18 nm correspondingly with tetragonal structure and high purity. The metal oxygen vibrations were present in FT-IR spectra. The obtained bandgap energies of SnO2, Zn-SnO2 and SDS-(Zn-SnO2) were 3.58 eV, 3.51 eV and 2.81 eV due to the effect of dopant and surfactant. This narrowing of bandgap helped in the photocatalytic activity. The morphology of the pristine sample showed poor growth of nanostructures with high level of agglomeration which was effectively reduced for other two samples. Product photocatalytic action was tested beneath visible light of 300 W. SDS-(Zn-SnO2) nanostructure efficiency showed 90% degradation of RhB dye which is 2.5 times higher than pristine sample. Narrow bandgap, crystallite size, better growth of nanostructures paved the way for SDS-(Zn-SnO2) to degrade the toxic pollutant. The superior performance and individuality of SDS-(Zn-SnO2) will makes it a potential competitor on reducing toxic pollutants from wastewater in future research.
An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ~5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures.
A gas sensor array was developed in a 10 × 10 mm(2) space using Screen Printing and Pulse Laser Ablation Deposition (PLAD) techniques. Heater, electrode, and an insulator interlayer were printed using the screen printing method on an alumina substrate, while tin oxide and platinum films, as sensing and catalyst layers, were deposited on the electrode at room temperature using the PLAD method, respectively. To ablate SnO(2) and Pt targets, depositions were achieved by using a 1,064 nm Nd-YAG laser, with a power of 0.7 J/s, at different deposition times of 2, 5 and 10 min, in an atmosphere containing 0.04 mbar (4 kPa) of O(2). A range of spectroscopic diffraction and real space imaging techniques, SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM were used in order to characterize the surface morphology, structure, and composition of the films. Measurement on the array shows sensitivity to some solvent and wood smoke can be achieved with short response and recovery times.