• 1 The Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia;
  • 2 Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 3 The Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia
  • 4 Division of Infectious Diseases, Brown University Alpert Medical School, Rhode Island, USA
  • 5 Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
  • 6 Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong, China
  • 7 Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; HIV-NAT/Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 8 Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia
  • 9 Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 10 Hospital Sungai Buloh, Sungai Buloh, Malaysia
  • 11 Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Manila, Philippines
  • 12 Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kota Bharu, Malaysia
  • 13 TREAT Asia, amfAR - The Foundation for AIDS Research, Bangkok, Thailand
J Int AIDS Soc, 2014;17:19053.
PMID: 25141905 DOI: 10.7448/IAS.17.1.19053


First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure often results from the development of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs). Three patterns, including thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), 69 Insertion (69Ins) and the Q151M complex, are associated with resistance to multiple-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and may compromise treatment options for second-line ART.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.