Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 128 in total

  1. Chen H
    Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi, 1996;26(1):43-9.
    PMID: 11613284
    Among the issues of medical exchanges, medicaments are more often encountered than medical issues, based on ancient Chinese literatures, early in the Han-Jin Dynasties, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei had exchanges with China, also in Sui-Tang Dynasties. In the Song-Yuan Dynasties, ancient Singapore and the Philippines also incorporated in exchanges of medicament and goods. In the Ming-Qing dynasties, these 6 Asian countries had even more close contact with China, especially in trades and medical exchanges among the masses, carried out in a large scale thus, promoting the advent and development of TCM in Asiana Regions.
  2. Aklilu E, Zunita Z, Hassan L, Chen HC
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):483-92.
    PMID: 21399590
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known to cause nosocomial infections and is now becoming an emerging problem in veterinary medicine. The objective of the study was to determine the presence of MRSA in 100 cats and dogs sampled between November 2007 and April 2008 at the University Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia. MRSA was detected in 8% of pets sampled. Ten percent (5/50) and 6% (3/50) of the isolates were from dogs and cats, respectively. All MRSA isolates possessed the mecA gene and were found to be resistant to at least three antimicrobials with a minimum of Oxacillin MIC of 8 μg/mL. One isolate (CT04) had an extremely high MIC of >256 μg/mL. The MLST type ST59 found in this study have been reported earlier from Singapore and other countries as a strain from animal and community-associated MRSA respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed five pulsotypes. Two isolates from cats (CT27 and CT33) and three isolates from dogs (DG16, DG20, and DG49) were respectively assigned to pulsotypes B and D. The study suggests that cats and dogs in Malaysia are potential reservoirs for MRSA.
  3. Chen H, Lin H, Lin Z, Chen J, Chen W
    BMC Ophthalmol, 2016 May 01;16(1):47.
    PMID: 27138378 DOI: 10.1186/s12886-016-0221-5
    BACKGROUND: Ocular biometry is important for preoperative assessment in cataract and anterior segment surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate normative ocular biometric parameters and their associations in an older Chinese population.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study. From 2013 to 2014, we recruited inhabitants aged 50 years or older in Guangzhou, China. Among 1,117 participants in the study, data from 1,015 phakic right eyes were used for analyses. Ocular parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature (K) were measured using an IOL Master.

    RESULTS: The mean AL, ACD, and K were 23.48 mm [95 % confidence interval (CI), 23.40-23.55], 3.03 mm (CI, 3.01-3.05), and 44.20 mm (CI, 44.11-44.29), respectively. A mean reduction in ACD with age was observed (P = 0.002) in male subjects but not in female subjects (P = 0.558). Male subjects had significantly longer ALs (23.68 mm versus 23.23 mm, P 

  4. Shamsul BS, Tan KK, Chen HC, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Tissue Cell, 2014 Apr;46(2):152-8.
    PMID: 24630213 DOI: 10.1016/j.tice.2014.02.001
    Autogenous bone graft is the gold standard for fusion procedure. However, pain at donor site and inconsistent outcome have left a surgeon to venture into some other technique for spinal fusion. The objective of this study was to determine whether osteogenesis induced bone marrow stem cells with the combination of ceramics granules (HA or TCP/HA), and fibrin could serve as an alternative to generate spinal fusion. The sheep's bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were aspirated form iliac crest and cultured for several passages until confluence. BMSCs were trypsinized and seeded on hydroxyapatite scaffold (HA) and tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA) for further osteogenic differentiation in the osteogenic medium one week before implantation. Six adult sheep underwent three-level, bilateral, posterolateral intertransverse process fusions at L1-L6. Three fusion sites in each animal were assigned to three treatments: (a) HA constructs group/L1-L2, (b) TCP/HA constructs group/L2-L3, and (c) autogenous bone graft group/L5-L6. The spinal fusion segments were evaluated using radiography, manual palpation, histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 12 weeks post implantation. The TCP/HA constructs achieved superior lumbar intertransverse fusion compared to HA construct but autogenous bone graft still produced the best fusion among all.
  5. Naser E, Mackey S, Arthur D, Klainin-Yobas P, Chen H, Creedy DK
    Midwifery, 2012 Dec;28(6):e865-71.
    PMID: 22079015 DOI: 10.1016/j.midw.2011.10.003
    to explore the traditional birthing practices of Singaporean women.
  6. Mohd Heikal MY, Aminuddin BS, Jeevanan J, Chen HC, Sharifah SH, Ruszymah BH
    Cells Tissues Organs (Print), 2010;192(5):292-302.
    PMID: 20616535 DOI: 10.1159/000318675
    The objective of this study was to regenerate the tracheal epithelium using autologous nasal respiratory epithelial cells in a sheep model. Respiratory epithelium and fibroblast cells were harvested from nasal turbinates and cultured for 1 week. After confluence, respiratory epithelium and fibroblast cells were suspended in autologous fibrin polymerized separately to form a tissue-engineered respiratory epithelial construct (TEREC). A 3 × 2 cm² tracheal mucosal defect was created, and implanted with TEREC and titanium mesh as a temporary scaffold. The control groups were divided into 2 groups: polymerized autologous fibrin devoid of cells (group 1), and no construct implanted (group 2). All sheep were euthanized at 4 weeks of implantation. Gross observation of the trachea showed minimal luminal stenosis formation in the experimental group compared to the control groups. Macroscopic evaluation revealed significant mucosal fibrosis in control group 1 (71.8%) as compared to the experimental group (7%). Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed the presence of minimal overgrowth of fibrous connective tissue covered by respiratory epithelium. A positive red fluorescence staining of PKH26 on engineered tissue 4 weeks after implantation confirmed the presence of cultured nasal respiratory epithelial cells intercalated with native tracheal epithelial cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of short microvilli representing immature cilia on the surface of the epithelium. Our study showed that TEREC was a good replacement for a tracheal mucosal defect and was able to promote natural regenesis of the tracheal epithelium with minimal fibrosis. This study highlighted a new technique in the treatment of tracheal stenosis.
  7. Wang J, Vijaykrishna D, Duan L, Bahl J, Zhang JX, Webster RG, et al.
    J. Virol., 2008 Apr;82(7):3405-14.
    PMID: 18216109 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02468-07
    The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus to Southeast Asian countries triggered the first major outbreak and transmission wave in late 2003, accelerating the pandemic threat to the world. Due to the lack of influenza surveillance prior to these outbreaks, the genetic diversity and the transmission pathways of H5N1 viruses from this period remain undefined. To determine the possible source of the wave 1 H5N1 viruses, we recently conducted further sequencing and analysis of samples collected in live-poultry markets from Guangdong, Hunan, and Yunnan in southern China from 2001 to 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of 73 H5N1 isolates from this period revealed a greater genetic diversity in southern China than previously reported. Moreover, results show that eight viruses isolated from Yunnan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to the clade 1 virus sublineage from Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia, while two viruses from Hunan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to viruses from Indonesia (clade 2.1). Further phylogenetic analyses of the six internal genes showed that all 10 of those viruses maintained similar phylogenetic relationships as the surface genes. The 10 progenitor viruses were genotype Z and shared high similarity (>/=99%) with their corresponding descendant viruses in most gene segments. These results suggest a direct transmission link for H5N1 viruses between Yunnan and Vietnam and also between Hunan and Indonesia during 2002 and 2003. Poultry trade may be responsible for virus introduction to Vietnam, while the transmission route from Hunan to Indonesia remains unclear.
  8. Munirah S, Samsudin OC, Chen HC, Salmah SH, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    J Bone Joint Surg Br, 2007 Aug;89(8):1099-109.
    PMID: 17785753
    Ovine articular chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage biopsy and culture expanded in vitro. Approximately 30 million cells per ml of cultured chondrocytes were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form a three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in the lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted with either an autologous 'chondrocyte-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blanks (AF) as controls. Animals were killed after 12 weeks. The gross appearance of the treated defects was inspected and photographed. The repaired tissues were studied histologically and by scanning electron microscopy analysis. All defects were assessed using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. Those treated with ACFC, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly-normal appearance. On the basis of the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale, ACFC implantation significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF. Using scanning electron microscopy, ACFC and ACI showed characteristic organisation of chondrocytes and matrices, which were relatively similar to the surrounding adjacent cartilage. Implantation of ACFC resulted in superior hyaline-like cartilage regeneration when compared with ACI. If this result is applicable to humans, a better outcome would be obtained than by using conventional ACI.
  9. Li MW, Lin RQ, Chen HH, Sani RA, Song HQ, Zhu XQ
    Mol. Cell. Probes, 2007 Oct-Dec;21(5-6):349-54.
    PMID: 17532185
    Based on the sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxocara malaysiensis and Toxascaris leonina, specific forward primers were designed in the ITS-1 or ITS-2 for each of the four ascaridoid species of dogs and cats. These primers were used individually together with a conserved primer in the large subunit of rDNA to amplify partial ITS-1 and/or ITS-2 of rDNA from 107 DNA samples from ascaridoids from dogs and cats in China, Australia, Malaysia, England and the Netherlands. This approach allowed their specific identification, with no amplicons being amplified from heterogeneous DNA samples, and sequencing confirmed the identity of the sequences amplified. The minimum amounts of DNA detectable using the PCR assays were 0.13-0.54ng. These PCR assays should provide useful tools for the diagnosis and molecular epidemiological investigations of toxocariasis in humans and animals.
  10. Alfaqeh H, Norhamdan MY, Chua KH, Chen HC, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:37-8.
    PMID: 19024972
    This study was to determine if autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured in chondrogenic medium could repair surgically induced osteoarthritis. Sheep BMSCs were cultured in medium containing 5ng/ml TGFbeta3 + 50ng/ml IGF-1 for three weeks. The cultured cells were then suspended at density of 2x10(6) cell/ml and injected intraarticularly into the osteoarthritic knee joint. After six weeks, the distal head of the femur and the proximal tibial plateau were removed and stained with H&E. The results indicated that knee joints treated with autologous BMSCs cultured in chondrogenic medium showed clear evidence of articular cartilage regeneration in comparison with other groups.
  11. Munirah S, Samsudin OC, Chen HC, Salmah SH, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:35-6.
    PMID: 19024971
    Chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage biopsy and were cultivated in vitro. Approximately 30 million of cultured chondrocytes per ml were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted either with the autologous 'chondrocytes-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blank (AF). Sheep were euthanized after 12 weeks. The gross morphology of all defects treated with ACFC implantation, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly normal appearance according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. ACFC significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF in accordance with the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale. The relative sulphated glycosaminoglycans content (%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ACFC when compared to control groups; ACI vs. fibrin only vs. untreated (blank). Results showed that ACFC implantation exhibited superior cartilage-like tissue regeneration compared to ACI. If the result is applicable to the human, it possibly will improve the existing treatment approaches for cartilage restoration in orthopaedic surgery.
  12. Heikal MY, Aminuddin BS, Jeevanan J, Chen HC, Sharifah S, Ruszymah BH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:34.
    PMID: 19024970
    Normal tracheal mucociliary clearance is the key to maintaining the health and defense of respiratory airway. Therefore the present of cilia and mucous blanket are important for tracheal epithelium to function effectively. In the present study, we prepared a tissue engineered respiratory epithelium construct (TEREC) made of autologous respiratory epithelium cells, fibroblast and fibrin from sheep owns blood which replaced a created tracheal mucosal defect. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed encouraging result where immature cilia were present on the surface of TEREC. This result indicates that engineered respiratory epithelium was able to function as normal tissue.
  13. Ude CC, Chen HC, Norhamdan MY, Azizi BM, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BHI
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2017 Sep;18(3):355-367.
    PMID: 28667462 DOI: 10.1007/s10561-017-9638-1
    In our quest to standardize our formula for a clinical trial, transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-β3) alone and in combination with bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) were evaluated for their effectiveness in cartilage differentiation. Bone Marrow Stem Cells (BMSCs) and Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) were induced to chondrogenic lineage using two different media. Native chondrocytes served as positive control. ADSCs and BMSCs proved multipotency by tri-lineage differentiations. ADSC has significantly higher growth kinetics compare to Chondrocyte only p ≤ 0.05. Using TGF-β3 alone, BMSC revealed higher expressions for hyaline cartilage genes compare to ADSCs. Chondrocyte has significantly higher early chondrogenic markers expression to ADSCs and BMSCs, while BMSCs was only higher to ADSC at chondroadherin, p ≤ 0.0001. On mature chondrogenic markers, chondrocytes were significantly higher to ADSCs and BMSCs for aggrecan, collagen IX, sry (sex determining region y)-box9, collagen II and fibromodullin; and only to ADSC for collagen XI. BMSC was higher to ADSC for aggrecan and collagen IX, p ≤ 0.0001. The combination of TGF-β3 + BMP-6 revealed increased gene expressions on both BMSCs and ADSCs for early and mature chondrogenic markers, but no significance difference. For dedifferentiation markers, ADSC was significantly higher to chondrocyte for collagen I. Glycosaminoglycan evaluations with both formulas revealed that chondrocytes were significantly higher to ADSCs and BMSCs, but none was significant to each other, p ≤ 0.0001. Combination of 10 ng TGF-β3 with 10 ng of BMP-6 enhanced chondrogenic potentials of BMSCs and ADSCs compare to TGF-β3 alone. This could be the ideal cocktail for either cell's chondrogenic induction.
  14. Ude CC, Shamsul BS, Ng MH, Chen HC, Norhamdan MY, Aminuddin BS, et al.
    Tissue Cell, 2012 Jun;44(3):156-63.
    PMID: 22402173 DOI: 10.1016/j.tice.2012.02.001
    Tracking of transplanted cells has become an important procedure in cell therapy. We studied the in vitro dye retention, survival and in vivo tracking of stem cells with PKH26 dye. Sheep BMSCs and ADSCs were labeled with 2, 4 and 8 μmol of PKH26 and monitored for six passages. Labeled BMSCs and ADSCs acquired mean cumulative population doubling of 12.7±0.4 and 14.6±0.5; unlabeled samples had 13.8±0.5 and 15.4±0.6 respectively. Upon staining with 2, 4 and 8 μmol PKH26, BMSCs had retentions of 40.0±5.8, 60.0±2.9 and 95.0±2.9%, while ADSCs had 92.0±1.2, 95.0±1.2 and 98.0±1.2%. ADSCs retentions were significantly higher at 2 and 4 μmol. On dye retention comparison at 8 μmol and 4 μmol for BMSCs and ADSCs; ADSCs were significantly higher at passages 2 and 3. The viability of BMSCs reduced from 94.0±1.2% to 90.0±0.6% and ADSCs from 94.0±1.2% to 52.0±1.2% (p<0.05) after 24h. BMSCs had significant up regulation of the cartilage genes for both the labeled and the unlabeled samples compared to ADSCs (p<0.05). PKH26 fluorescence was detected on the resected portions of the regenerated neo-cartilage. The recommended concentration of PKH26 for ADSCs is 2 μmol and BMSCs is 8 μmol, and they can be tracked up to 49 days.
  15. Ng C, Chen H, Goh SG, Haller L, Wu Z, Charles FR, et al.
    Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2018 Oct;135:475-480.
    PMID: 30301062 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.07.055
    Poor microbial water quality jeopardizes the health and safety of food produced by aquaculture farms. Three fish farms and transect sites in Singapore were assessed for microbial water quality and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Of the 33 multidrug resistant E. coli isolated from surface waters of the Johor Straits, 81.8% were ESBL producers. The relative abundance of sul1, qnrA and intI1 genes were higher in sediments than surface waters. Among the surface water samples, higher concentrations (10-1-101) of beta-lactamases (blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX-M) were detected in the transect sites. This study highlights a potential antimicrobial resistance transmission chain from environmental waters, to animal carriers and humans.
  16. Feng X, Guo N, Chen H, Wang H, Yue L, Chen X, et al.
    Dalton Trans, 2017 Oct 24;46(41):14192-14200.
    PMID: 28990615 DOI: 10.1039/c7dt02974h
    A series of coordination polymers {[Ln(aobtc)(H2O)4]·Hbipy·H2O}n (H4aobtc = azoxybenzene-2,2',3,3'-tetracarboxylic acid, bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine, and Ln = Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3), Tb(4), Dy(5), Er(6)) have been synthesized and characterized systematically. The cationic Hbipy(+) guest incorporated polymers are isostructural sets, featuring a one-dimensional (1D) zigzag double chain edifice composed of binuclear clusters [Ln2(H4aobtc)2], with the Hbipy(+) guest being located on two sides. These 1D chains are further interlinked into a 2D layer structure, and further extended into a 3D framework through hydrogen bonding interactions. The luminescence emission spectra of polymers 2 and 3 are based on the H4aobtc acid ligands, while 1 and 4 display the characteristic f-f transitions of Ln(iii) ions. Magnetic measurements revealed the presence of ferromagnetic behavior in polymer 3. The magnetic behaviors of 4 and 6 are ascribed to the depopulation of the Stark levels and/or weak antiferromagnetic interactions within MOFs at lower temperature. Slow relaxation is observed through the alternating-current susceptibility measurements for 5 at lower temperature, and the coexistence of weak ferromagnetism corresponding to the spin-canting-like behavior.
  17. Patel S, Murphy D, Haralambieva E, Abdulla ZA, Wong KK, Chen H, et al.
    Biomark Insights, 2014;9:77-84.
    PMID: 25232277 DOI: 10.4137/BMI.S16553
    FAS-associated protein with death domain (FADD) is a major adaptor protein involved in extrinsic apoptosis, embryogenesis, and lymphocyte homeostasis. Although abnormalities of the FADD/death receptor apoptotic pathways have been established in tumorigenesis, fewer studies have analyzed the expression and role of phosphorylated FADD (pFADD). Our identification of FADD as a lymphoma-associated autoantigen in T-cell lymphoma patients raises the possibility that pFADD, with its correlation with cell cycle, may possess role(s) in human T-cell lymphoma development. This immunohistochemical study investigated pFADD protein expression in a range of normal tissues and lymphomas, particularly T-cell lymphomas that require improved therapies. Whereas pFADD was expressed only in scattered normal T cells, it was detected at high levels in T-cell lymphomas (eg, 84% anaplastic large cell lymphoma and 65% peripheral T cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified). The increased expression of pFADD supports further study of its clinical relevance and role in lymphomagenesis, highlighting phosphorylation of FADD as a potential therapeutic target.
  18. Wong KK, Gascoyne DM, Brown PJ, Soilleux EJ, Snell C, Chen H, et al.
    Leukemia, 2014 Feb;28(2):362-72.
    PMID: 23884370 DOI: 10.1038/leu.2013.224
    We previously identified autoantibodies to the endocytic-associated protein Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (HIP1R) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. HIP1R regulates internalization of cell surface receptors via endocytosis, a process relevant to many therapeutic strategies including CD20 targeting with rituximab. In this study, we characterized HIP1R expression patterns, investigated a mechanism of transcriptional regulation and its clinical relevance in DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotherapy (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone, R-CHOP). HIP1R was preferentially expressed in germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL (P<0.0001) and inversely correlated with the activated B-cell-like DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) associated transcription factor, Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1). HIP1R was confirmed as a direct FOXP1 target gene in ABC-DLBCL by FOXP1-targeted silencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Lower HIP1R protein expression (≤ 10% tumoral positivity) significantly correlated with inferior overall survival (OS, P=0.0003) and progression-free survival (PFS, P=0.0148) in R-CHOP-treated DLBCL patients (n=157). Reciprocal expression with ≥ 70% FOXP1 positivity defined FOXP1(hi)/HIP1R(lo) patients with particularly poor outcome (OS, P=0.0001; PFS, P=0.0016). In an independent R-CHOP-treated DLBCL (n=233) microarray data set, patients with transcript expression in lower quartile HIP1R and FOXP1(hi)/HIP1R(lo) subgroups exhibited worse OS, P=0.0044 and P=0.0004, respectively. HIP1R repression by FOXP1 is strongly associated with poor outcome, thus further understanding of FOXP1-HIP1R and/or endocytic signaling pathways might give rise to novel therapeutic options for DLBCL.
  19. Smith GJ, Fan XH, Wang J, Li KS, Qin K, Zhang JX, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2006 Nov 7;103(45):16936-41.
    PMID: 17075062
    The development of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses in poultry in Eurasia accompanied with the increase in human infection in 2006 suggests that the virus has not been effectively contained and that the pandemic threat persists. Updated virological and epidemiological findings from our market surveillance in southern China demonstrate that H5N1 influenza viruses continued to be panzootic in different types of poultry. Genetic and antigenic analyses revealed the emergence and predominance of a previously uncharacterized H5N1 virus sublineage (Fujian-like) in poultry since late 2005. Viruses from this sublineage gradually replaced those multiple regional distinct sublineages and caused recent human infection in China. These viruses have already transmitted to Hong Kong, Laos, Malaysia, and Thailand, resulting in a new transmission and outbreak wave in Southeast Asia. Serological studies suggest that H5N1 seroconversion in market poultry is low and that vaccination may have facilitated the selection of the Fujian-like sublineage. The predominance of this virus over a large geographical region within a short period directly challenges current disease control measures.
  20. Shimizu H, Utama A, Yoshii K, Yoshida H, Yoneyama T, Sinniah M, et al.
    Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 1999 Feb;52(1):12-5.
    PMID: 10808253
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), is sometimes associated with severe central nervous system diseases. In 1997, in Malaysia and Japan, and in 1998 in Taiwan, there were HFMD epidemics involving sudden deaths among young children, and EV71 was isolated from the HFMD patients, including the fatal cases. The nucleotide sequences of each EV71 isolate were determined and compared by phylogenetical analysis. EV71 strains from previously reported epidemics belonged to genotype A-1, while those from recent epidemics could be divided into two genotypes, A-2 and B. In Malaysia, genotype A-2 was more prevalent, while in Japan and Taiwan, B genotype was more prevalent. Two isolates from fatal cases in Malaysia and one isolate from a fatal case in Japan were genotype A-2. However, all isolates from three fatal cases in Taiwan belonged to genotype B. The severity of the HFMD did not link directly to certain genotypes of EV71.
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