Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 92 in total

  1. Rajaratanam DD, Ariffin H, Hassan MA, Nik Abd Rahman NMA, Nishida H
    PLoS One, 2018;13(6):e0199742.
    PMID: 29944726 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199742
    In order to clarify the in vitro cytotoxicity effect of superheated steam (SHS) treated poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) for biomaterial applications, SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoester samples: P(HB-co-6%-HHx) and P(HB-co-11%-HHx) with low and high percentages of unsaturated chain ends were evaluated for their cytotoxicity effects toward the growth of mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3. From the results obtained after 24 and 48 h of the growth test, the SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoesters were found to be nontoxic to the growth of mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cell line with cell viability percentages of more than 95%. In order to serve as a potential resorbable medical suture, PHBHHx oligoesters were blended with poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with a weight ratio of PHBHHx oligoester/PLLA = 20:80 (wt/wt) to improve mechanical properties of PHBHHx oligoesters. The PHBHHx oligoesters/PLLA blend films were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, and surface wetting properties. Thermal properties of the blend films suggested a good compatibility between PHBHHx oligoesters and PLLA components. Mechanical properties of the blend films were determined to be close enough to a desirable strength range of medical sutures. Moreover, contact angle range of 65 < θ < 70° for the blend samples could provide desirable cell adhesion when used as biomaterials. Therefore, the blend of SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoesters and PLLA would be an ideal choice to be used as biomedical materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: NIH 3T3 Cells
  2. Amin, Z.M., Koh, S.P., Tan, C.P., Yeap, S.K., Hamid, N.S.A., Long, K.
    To study the wound healing efficacy of breadfruit starch hydrolysate, an in vitro wound scratch assay was conducted, in which the migration rate of wounded NIH 3T3 fibroblasts was determined. Wounds treated with lower dextrose equivalent (DE), (DE 10-14) starch hydrolysate were found capable to improve the wound healing of NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell with the percentage of wound closure improvement of 77%, respectively when compared with higher DE range (DE 15-19 and DE 20-24). The findings obtained in the BrdU uptake and MTT viability assays confirmed the wound healing properties of breadfruit starch hydrolysate as the starch hydrolysate-treated wounded NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were able to proliferate well and no cytotoxicity was observed. Together, these findings indicated that the newly developed breadfruit starch hydrolysate performed better than commercial (COM) starch hydrolysate of the same DE ranges. In conclusion, breadfruit starch hydrolysate had better functional properties than did starch hydrolysates derived from other sources and that they could play a beneficial role in wound healing applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: NIH 3T3 Cells
  3. Nordin ML, Abdul Kadir A, Zakaria ZA, Othman F, Abdullah R, Abdullah MN
    PMID: 28400849 DOI: 10.1155/2017/9368079
    This study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis effect of A. crispa extract and its solvent partition (ethyl acetate and aqueous extract) against Mus musculus mammary carcinoma cell line (4T1). The normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH3T3) was used as comparison for selective cytotoxicity properties. The cytotoxicity evaluation was assessed using MTT assay. AO/PI dual fluorescent staining assay and Annexin V-FITC were used for apoptosis analysis. Results showed that 80% methanol extract from leaves showed most promising antimammary cancer agent with IC50 value of 42.26 ± 1.82 μg/mL and selective index (SI) value of 10.22. Ethyl acetate was cytotoxic for both cancer and normal cell while aqueous extract exhibited poor cytotoxic effect. 4T1 cells labelled with AO/PI and Annexin V-FITC and treated with 80% methanol extract demonstrated that the extract induces apoptosis to 4T1 mammary cancer cells. In conclusion, 80% methanol extract of A. crispa was selectively cytotoxic towards 4T1 cells but less cytotoxic towards NIH3T3 cells and induced the cancerous cells into apoptotic stage as early as 6 hours.
    Matched MeSH terms: NIH 3T3 Cells
  4. Saifullah B, Buskaran K, Shaikh RB, Barahuie F, Fakurazi S, Mohd Moklas MA, et al.
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2018 Oct 11;8(10).
    PMID: 30314340 DOI: 10.3390/nano8100820
    The treatment of cancer through chemotherapy is limited by its toxicity to healthy tissues and organs, and its inability to target the cancer site. In this study, we have designed an anticancer nanocomposite delivery system for protocatechuic acid (PCA) using graphene oxide⁻polyethylene glycol as the nanocarrier, and coated with folic acid (GO⁻PEG⁻PCA⁻FA) for targeting the cancer cells. The designed anticancer delivery system was found to show much better anticancer activity than the free drug PCA against liver cancer HEP-G2 cells and human colon cancer HT-29 cells; at same time, it was found to be less toxic to normal fibroblast 3T3 cells. The folate-coated anticancer delivery system was found to show better activity then the free drug and the uncoated anticancer delivery system. The in vitro release of the PCA was found to be sustained in human physiological pHs, i.e., blood pH 7.4 and intracellular lysosomal pH 4.8. These in vitro findings are highly encouraging for further in vivo evaluation studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: 3T3 Cells
  5. Izadiyan Z, Shameli K, Miyake M, Teow SY, Peh SC, Mohamad SE, et al.
    PMID: 30606561 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.11.008
    Core-shell Fe3O4/Au nanostructures were constructed using an advanced method of two-step synthesis from Juglans regia (walnut) green husk extract. Several complementary methods were applied to investigate structural and magnetic properties of the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), electron diffraction, optical, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used for nanoparticle characterizations. As shown by HR-TEM, the mean diameter of core-shell Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles synthesized using co-precipitation method was 6.08 ± 1.06 nm. This study shows that the physical and structural properties of core-shell Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles possess intrinsic properties of gold and magnetite. VSM revealed that the core-shell Fe3O4/Au have high saturation magnetization and low coercivity due to the magnetic properties. The core-shell nanoparticles show the inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of 235 μg/ml against a colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. When tested against non-cancer cells, IC50 was not achieved even up to 500 μg/ml. This study highlights the magnetic properties and anticancer action of core-shell Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles. This compound can be ideal candidate for cancer treatment and other biomedical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: NIH 3T3 Cells
  6. Ali AM, Mackeen MM, Hamid M, Aun QB, Zauyah Y, Azimahtol HL, et al.
    Planta Med, 1997 Feb;63(1):81-3.
    PMID: 9063100
    The cytotoxicity of goniothalamin was found to be strong towards both cancerous (HGC-27, MCF-7, PANC-1, HeLa), and non-cancerous (3T3) cell lines, especially in cases of dividing cells. Drug exposure studies indicated that the cytotoxic action of goniothalamin was time- and dose-dependent. At the ultrastructural level, goniothalamin-induced cytotoxicity revealed a necrotic mode of cell death towards MCF-7 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: 3T3 Cells
  7. Chu WL, Lim YW, Radhakrishnan AK, Lim PE
    PMID: 20858231 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-53
    Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: 3T3 Cells/drug effects
  8. Shi M, Ling K, Yong KW, Li Y, Feng S, Zhang X, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015 Dec 14;5:17928.
    PMID: 26655688 DOI: 10.1038/srep17928
    Cryopreservation is the most promising way for long-term storage of biological samples e.g., single cells and cellular structures. Among various cryopreservation methods, vitrification is advantageous by employing high cooling rate to avoid the formation of harmful ice crystals in cells. Most existing vitrification methods adopt direct contact of cells with liquid nitrogen to obtain high cooling rates, which however causes the potential contamination and difficult cell collection. To address these limitations, we developed a non-contact vitrification device based on an ultra-thin freezing film to achieve high cooling/warming rate and avoid direct contact between cells and liquid nitrogen. A high-throughput cell printer was employed to rapidly generate uniform cell-laden microdroplets into the device, where the microdroplets were hung on one side of the film and then vitrified by pouring the liquid nitrogen onto the other side via boiling heat transfer. Through theoretical and experimental studies on vitrification processes, we demonstrated that our device offers a high cooling/warming rate for vitrification of the NIH 3T3 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with maintained cell viability and differentiation potential. This non-contact vitrification device provides a novel and effective way to cryopreserve cells at high throughput and avoid the contamination and collection problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: NIH 3T3 Cells
  9. Kamba AS, Ismail M, Ibrahim TA, Zakaria ZA
    PMID: 25392577
    BACKGROUND: Currently, there has been extensive research interest for inorganic nanocrystals such as calcium phosphate, iron oxide, silicone, carbon nanotube and layered double hydroxide as a drug delivery system especially in cancer therapy. However, toxicological screening of such particles is paramount importance before use as delivery carrier. In this study we examine the biocompatibility of CaCO3 nanocrystal on NIH 3T3 cell line.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Transmission and field emission scanning electron microscopy (TEM and FESEM) were used for the characterisation of CaCO3 nanocrystals. Cytotoxicity and genotoxic effect of calcium carbonate nanocrystals in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH 3T3 cell line using various bioassays including MTT, and Neutral red/Trypan blue double-staining assays. LDH, BrdU and reactive oxygen species were used for toxicity analysis. Cellular morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal fluorescence microscope.

    RESULTS: The outcome of the analyses revealed a clear rod-shaped aragonite polymorph of calcium carbonate nanocrystal. The analysed cytotoxic and genotoxicity of CaCO3 nanocrystal on NIH 3T3 cells using different bioassays revealed no significance differences as compared to control. A slight decrease in cell viability was noticed when the cells were exposed to higher concentrations of 200 to 400 µg/ml, while increase in ROS generation and LDH released at 200 and 400 µg/ml was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study has shown that CaCO3 nanocrystal is biocompatible and non toxic to NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. The analysed results offer a promising potential of CaCO3 nanocrystal for the development of intracellular drugs, genes and other macromolecule delivery systems.

    Matched MeSH terms: 3T3 Cells
  10. Phan CW, Lee GS, Macreadie IG, Malek SN, Pamela D, Sabaratnam V
    Nat Prod Commun, 2013 Dec;8(12):1763-5.
    PMID: 24555294
    Different solvent extracts of Pleurotus giganteus fruiting bodies were tested for antifungal activities against Candida species responsible for human infections. The lipids extracted from the ethyl acetate fraction significantly inhibited the growth of all the Candida species tested. Analysis by GC/MS revealed lipid components such as fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, ergosterol, and ergosterol derivatives. The sample with high amounts of fatty acid methyl esters was the most effective antifungal agent. The samples were not cytotoxic to a mammalian cell line, mouse embryonic fibroblasts BALB/c 3T3 clone A31. To our knowledge, this is the first report of antifungal activity of the lipid components of Pleurotus giganteus against Candida species.
    Matched MeSH terms: BALB 3T3 Cells
  11. Alabsi AM, Bakar SA, Ali R, Omar AR, Bejo MH, Ideris A, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(12):8645-60.
    PMID: 22272097 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12128645
    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is used as an antineoplastic agent in clinical tumor therapy. It has prompted much interest as an anticancer agent because it can replicate up to 10,000 times better in human cancer cells than in most normal cells. This study was carried out to determine the oncolytic potential of NDV strain AF2240 and V4-UPM on WEHI-3B leukemia cell line. Results from MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the CD(50) values for both strains were 2 and 8 HAU for AF2240 and V4-UPM, respectively. In addition, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and trypan blue dye exclusion assays showed inhibition in cell proliferation after different periods. Increase in the cellular level of caspase-3 and detection of DNA laddering using agarose gel electrophoresis on treated cells with NDV confirmed that the mode of cell death was apoptosis. In addition, flow-cytometry analysis of cellular DNA content showed that the virus caused an increase in the sub-G1 region (apoptosis peaks). In conclusion, NDV strains AF2240 and V4-UPM caused cytolytic effects against WEHI-3B leukemic cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: 3T3 Cells
  12. Choudhary MI, Ismail M, Shaari K, Abbaskhan A, Sattar SA, Lajis NH, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2010 Apr 23;73(4):541-7.
    PMID: 20356064 DOI: 10.1021/np900551u
    Phytochemical and cytotoxicity investigations on organic solvent extracts of the aerial parts of Tinospora crispa have led to the isolation of 15 cis-clerodane-type furanoditerpenoids. Of these, nine compounds (1-9) were found to be new. Spectroscopic assignments of a previously reported compound, borapetoside A (13), were revised on the basis of HMQC and HMBC correlations. No discernible activity was observed when compounds 10-13 were subjected to evaluation in cytotoxicity assays against human prostate cancer (PC-3) and the normal mouse fibroblast (3T3) cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: 3T3 Cells
  13. How CW, Rasedee A, Abbasalipourkabir R
    IEEE Trans Nanobioscience, 2013 Jun;12(2):72-8.
    PMID: 23268387 DOI: 10.1109/TNB.2012.2232937
    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) composed of solid and liquid lipids, and surfactants are potentially good colloidal drug carriers. Before NLC can be used as drug carriers, the cytotoxicity of their components must be ascertained. The cytotoxicity of solid lipids (trilaurin, palmitin, docosanoid acid, and hydrogenated palm oil [HPO]) and surfactants (Polysorbate 20, 80, and 85) were determined on BALB/c 3T3 cells. The HPO and Polysorbate 80 were least cytotoxic and used with olive oil in the formulation of NLC. The particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, specific surface area, and crystallinity index of the NLC were 61.14 nm, 0.461, -25.4 mV, and 49.07 m(2) and 27.12% respectively, while the melting point was 4.3 °C lower than of HPO. Unlike in serum-free, NLC incubated in fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium did not show particle growth, suggesting that serum proteins in medium inhibit nanoparticles aggregation. The study also showed that NLC was less toxic to BALB/c 3T3 cells than Polysorbate 80. Thus, NLC with olive oil, HPO, and Polysorbate 80 as components are potentially good drug carriers with minimal cytotoxicity on normal cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: BALB 3T3 Cells
  14. Tajudin TJ, Mat N, Siti-Aishah AB, Yusran AA, Alwi A, Ali AM
    PMID: 23227094 DOI: 10.1155/2012/127373
    Methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora whole fruit was assayed for cytotoxicity against the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and the normal mouse fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell lines by using the MTT assay. The CD(50) of the extract for 72 hours was 0.9 μg/mL whereas the value for the cytotoxic drug vincristine was 0.2 μg/mL. The viability of the NIH/3T3 cells was at 80.0% when treated at 15.0 μg/mL. The extract inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation with dose dependence. AO/PI staining of HL-60 cells treated with the extract revealed that majority of cells were in the apoptotic cell death mode. Flow cytometry analysis of HL-60 cells treated at CD(50) of the extract showed that the early apoptotic cells were 31.0, 26.3 and 19.9% at 24, 48, and 72 hours treatment, respectively. The percentage of late apoptotic cells was increased from 62.0 at 24 hours to 64.1 and 70.2 at 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Meanwhile, percent of necrotic cells were 4.9, 6.6, and 8.5 at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. This study has shown that the methanolic extract of C. cauliflora whole fruit was cytotoxic towards HL-60 cells and induced the cells into apoptotic cell death mode, but less cytotoxic towards NIH/3T3 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: NIH 3T3 Cells
  15. Setyawati MI, Kutty RV, Leong DT
    Small, 2016 Oct;12(40):5601-5611.
    PMID: 27571230 DOI: 10.1002/smll.201601669
    Targeted drug delivery is one of the key challenges in cancer nanomedicine. Stoichiometric and spatial control over the antibodies placement on the nanomedicine vehicle holds a pivotal role to overcome this key challenge. Here, a DNA tetrahedral is designed with available conjugation sites on its vertices, allowing to bind one, two, or three cetuximab antibodies per DNA nanostructure. This stoichiometrically definable cetuximab conjugated DNA nanostructure shows enhanced targeting on the breast cancer cells, which results with higher overall killing efficacy of the cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: NIH 3T3 Cells
  16. Taher M, Amiroudine MZAM, Jaffri JM, Amri MS, Susanti D, Abd Hamid S, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2017 Jul;30(4):1335-1339.
    PMID: 29039334
    A new naturally occurring dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan named isocubebinic ether has been isolated from Knema patentinervia. The structure was established by spectroscopic methods, which include Ultraviolet, Infrared, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass Spectrometry. The compound showed activity in the stimulation of glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: 3T3 Cells
  17. Liew PS, Chen Q, Ng AWR, Chew YC, Ravin NV, Sim EUH, et al.
    Anal Biochem, 2019 10 15;583:113361.
    PMID: 31306622 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2019.113361
    Phage N15 protelomerase (TelN) cleaves double-stranded circular DNA containing a telomerase-occupancy-site (tos) and rejoins the resulting linear-ends to form closed-hairpin-telomeres in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Continued TelN expression is essential to support resolution of the linear structure. In mammalian cells, no enzyme with TelN-like activities has been found. In this work, we show that phage TelN, expressed transiently and stably in human and mouse cells, recapitulates its native activities in these exogenous environments. We found TelN to accurately resolve tos-DNA in vitro and in vivo within human and mouse cells into linear DNA-containing terminal telomeres that are resistant to RecBCD degradation, a hallmark of protelomerase processing. In stable cells, TelN activity was detectable for at least 60 days, which suggests the possibility of limited silencing of its expression. Correspondingly, linear plasmid containing a 100 kb human β-globin gene expressed for at least 120 h in non-β-globin-expressing mouse cells with TelN presence. Our results demonstrate TelN is able to cut and heal DNA as hairpin-telomeres within mammalian cells, providing a tool for creating novel structures by DNA resolution in these hosts. The TelN protelomerase may be useful for exploring novel technologies for genome interrogation and chromosome engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: NIH 3T3 Cells
  18. Ismail NA, Amin KAM, Majid FAA, Razali MH
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Oct;103:109770.
    PMID: 31349525 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.109770
    In this work, the potential of titanium dioxide nanoparticles incorporated gellan gum (GG + TiO2-NPs) biofilm as wound dressing material was investigated. The GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm was prepared via evaporative casting technique and was characterized using FTIR, XRD, and SEM to study their physiochemical properties. The mechanical properties, swelling and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of biofilm was determined to comply with an ideal wound dressing material. In vitro and in vivo wound healing studies was carried out to evaluate the performance of GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm. In vitro wound healing was studied on 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cells for cell viability, cell proliferation, and scratch assay. The acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were used to evaluate the viability of cell and cell proliferation. Cell migration assay was analyzed using Essen BioScience IncuCyteTM Zoom system. In vivo wound healing via open excision wounds model on Sprague Dawley rat was studied within 14 days. The FT-IR spectra of GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm show main bands assigned to OH stretching, OH deformation, and TiO stretching modes. XRD pattern of GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm suggesting that TiO2-NPs was successfully incorporated in biofilm and well distributed on the surface as proved by SEM analysis. The GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm shows higher mechanical strength and swelling (3.76 ± 0.11 MPa and 1061 ± 6%) as compared to pure GG film (3.32 ± 0.08 Mpa and 902 ± 6%), respectively. GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm shows good antibacterial properties as 9 ± 0.25 mm and 11 ± 0.06 mm exhibition zone was observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria, respectively. While no exhibition zone was obtained for pure GG biofilm. GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm also demonstrated better cell-to-cell interaction properties, as it's promoted cell proliferation and cell migration to accelerate open excision wound healing on Sprague Dawley rat. The wound treated with GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm was healed within 14 days, on the other hand, the wound is still can be seen when it was treated with GG. However, GG and GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm show no cytotoxicity effects on mouse fibroblast cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: 3T3 Cells
  19. Shazali NAH, Zaidi NE, Ariffin H, Abdullah LC, Ghaemi F, Abdullah JM, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Oct 04;12(19).
    PMID: 31590332 DOI: 10.3390/ma12193251
    The aim was to isolate cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from commercialized oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose nanofibre (CNF) through sulphuric acid hydrolysis and explore its safeness as a potential nanocarrier. Successful extraction of CNC was confirmed through a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transmission infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry analysis. For subsequent cellular uptake study, the spherical CNC was covalently tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), resulting in negative charged FITC-CNC nanospheres with a dispersity (Ð) of 0.371. MTT assay revealed low degree cytotoxicity for both CNC and FITC-CNC against C6 rat glioma and NIH3T3 normal fibroblasts up to 50 µg/mL. FITC conjugation had no contribution to the particle's toxicity. Through confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), synthesized FITC-CNC manifested negligible cellular accumulation, indicating a poor non-selective adsorptive endocytosis into studied cells. Overall, an untargeted CNC-based nanosphere with less cytotoxicity that posed poor selectivity against normal and cancerous cells was successfully synthesized. It can be considered safe and suitable to be developed into targeted nanocarrier.
    Matched MeSH terms: NIH 3T3 Cells
  20. Habib O, Mohd Sakri R, Ghazalli N, Chau DM, Ling KH, Abdullah S
    PLoS One, 2020;15(12):e0244386.
    PMID: 33347482 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244386
    CpG-free pDNA was reported to facilitate sustained transgene expression with minimal inflammation in vivo as compared to CpG-containing pDNA. However, the expression potential and impact of CpG-free pDNA in in vitro model have never been described. Hence, in this study, we analyzed the transgene expression profiles of CpG-free pDNA in vitro to determine the influence of CpG depletion from the transgene. We found that in contrast to the published in vivo studies, CpG-free pDNA expressed a significantly lower level of luciferase than CpG-rich pDNA in several human cell lines. By comparing novel CpG-free pDNA carrying CpG-free GFP (pZGFP: 0 CpG) to CpG-rich GFP (pRGFP: 60 CpGs), we further showed that the discrepancy was not influenced by external factors such as gene transfer agent, cell species, cell type, and cytotoxicity. Moreover, pZGFP exhibited reduced expression despite having equal gene dosage as pRGFP. Analysis of mRNA distribution revealed that the mRNA export of pZGFP and pRGFP was similar; however, the steady state mRNA level of pZGFP was significantly lower. Upon further investigation, we found that the CpG-free transgene in non-integrating CpG-free pDNA backbone acquired increased nucleosome enrichment as compared with CpG-rich transgene, which may explain the observed reduced level of steady state mRNA. Our findings suggest that nucleosome enrichment could regulate non-integrating CpG-free pDNA expression and has implications on pDNA design.
    Matched MeSH terms: NIH 3T3 Cells
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