Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 345 in total

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  1. Liow TS, Azian H, Shoba P, Md Shajahan MY
    Family Physician, 1994;6:7-8.
    The range of teaspoon volume was from 2.42 to 7.71 mls with the majority below 5mls. The assumption that the volume of a teaspoon is exactly 5 mls is not true. From this wide range, 2.42 to 7.71 mls, there can be underdosaging by 51.6% or overdosaging by 64.2%. Thus if Paracetamol (250mg/5ml) was prescribed, the actual dose may vary from 121.0 mg to 385.5 mg. This is especially of significance for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (eg. Digoxin, Theophylline). The use of teaspoons in drug dosaging of liquid medication is therefore not accurate. The use of the plastic cup in Banting District Hospital is also not accurate especially for 5 mls. As the volume dispensed increases, the accuracy also improves. To overcome this problem, it may be wise to use the 'pharmacy spoon' or a syinge. The 'pharmacy spoon' is a good substitute for a teaspoon in the paediatrics age group. The syringe is probably better as it ensures not only accuracy but also that all of the medication administered goes in as it is less likely to spill out when the child struggles. And for children who can take tablets, it is better to give medication in tablet form. Though we have not done a study on tablespoons, we feel a similar problem also exists with the use of tablespoons. Limitations of this study are 2 types. First is in pouring of the syrup Paracetamol into the teaspoons. Second, the level of the liquid was inconsistent, ie sometimes over the brim, at other times just at the brim.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  2. Lim SM, Pang ZW, Tan HY, Shaikh M, Adinarayana G, Garg S
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2015;41(11):1847-55.
    PMID: 25721984 DOI: 10.3109/03639045.2015.1014818
    Poor biopharmaceutical properties and toxicities associated with the intravenous formulation of docetaxel (DTX) necessitate the exploration of an alternate oral route of delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  3. Wong YF, Ng HT, Leung KY, Chan KY, Chan SY, Loy CC
    J Biomed Inform, 2017 Oct;74:130-136.
    PMID: 28923366 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2017.09.005
    OBJECTIVE: Oral pills, including tablets and capsules, are one of the most popular pharmaceutical dosage forms available. Compared to other dosage forms, such as liquid and injections, oral pills are very stable and are easy to be administered. However, it is not uncommon for pills to be misidentified, be it within the healthcare institutes or after the pills were dispensed to the patients. Our objective is to develop groundwork for automatic pill identification and verification using Deep Convolutional Network (DCN) that surpasses the existing methods.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A DCN model was developed using pill images captured with mobile phones under unconstraint environments. The performance of the DCN model was compared to two baseline methods of hand-crafted features.

    RESULTS: The DCN model outperforms the baseline methods. The mean accuracy rate of DCN at Top-1 return was 95.35%, whereas the mean accuracy rates of the two baseline methods were 89.00% and 70.65%, respectively. The mean accuracy rates of DCN for Top-5 and Top-10 returns, i.e., 98.75% and 99.55%, were also consistently higher than those of the baseline methods.

    DISCUSSION: The images used in this study were captured at various angles and under different level of illumination. DCN model achieved high accuracy despite the suboptimal image quality.

    CONCLUSION: The superior performance of DCN underscores the potential of Deep Learning model in the application of pill identification and verification.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  4. Nikbakht E, Jamaluddin R, Redzwan SM, Khalesi S
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 2018 Jun;88(3-4):199-208.
    PMID: 31056010 DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000513
    Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) is a toxic compound commonly found in some crops with an adverse health effect on human and animals. Some beneficial microorganisms (or probiotics) such as lactic acid bacteria have shown the ability to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins and its intestinal absorption. However, the dose and duration of aflatoxins exposure and probiotic treatment can influence the ability of probiotics to remove aflatoxins. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain (LcS) induction in an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. Experimentally, Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: AFB1 only (n = 9); AFB1 treated with LcS (n = 9); and control (no AFB1 exposure) (n = 6) groups. The blood AFB1 level of rats treated with LcS was slightly lower than the untreated AFB1 induced rats (11.12 ± 0.71 vs 10.93 ± 0.69 ng g-1). Also, LcS treatment slightly moderated the liver and kidney biomarkers in AFB1 induced rats. However, a trend for a significant difference was only observed in ALT of AFB1 induced rats treated with LcS compared to their counterparts (126.11 ± 36.90 vs 157.36 ± 15.46, p = 0.06). Rats' body weight decreased in all animals force-fed with AFB1 with no significant difference between LcS treatment compared to the counterpart. In conclusion, this experiment indicated that probiotic LsC was able to slightly ameliorate the adverse effect of an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. However, future studies with longer probiotics treatment or higher probiotics dose is required to confirm these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  5. Dubey SK, Parab S, Dabholkar N, Agrawal M, Singhvi G, Alexander A, et al.
    Drug Discov Today, 2021 Jan 11.
    PMID: 33444788 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2021.01.001
    Peptides and proteins have emerged as potential therapeutic agents and, in the search for the best treatment regimen, the oral route has been extensively evaluated because of its non-invasive and safe nature. The physicochemical properties of peptides and proteins along with the hurdles in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), such as degrading enzymes and permeation barriers, are challenges to their delivery. To address these challenges, several conventional and novel approaches, such as nanocarriers, site-specific and stimuli specific delivery, are being used. In this review, we discuss the challenges to the oral delivery of peptides and the approaches used to tackle these challenges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  6. Pettit JHS
    Trop Doct, 1986 Jul;16(3):105-12.
    PMID: 3765093 DOI: 10.1177/004947558601600305
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  7. Azman SEN, Abd Razak FS, Kamal WHBW, Zheng GK, Ming LC, Uddin AH, et al.
    Int J Pharm Compd, 2020 11 21;24(6):509-514.
    PMID: 33217741
    Orally disintegrating tablets are a solid dosage form that will disintegrate rapidly within 3 minutes upon contact with saliva. Fillers or diluents are excipients that are used to make up the volume of orally disintegrating tablets, and some might act as a disintegrant or binder that will affect the physical properties of orally disintegrating tablets. The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate physical properties of orally disintegrating tablets containing Annona muricata leaves extract by a freeze-drying method using different fillers at different concentrations. In this study, fifteen formulations of orally disintegrating tablets were prepared by a freeze-drying method with different fillers such as starch, lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, StarLac, and CombiLac at 5%, 10%, and 15%. The orally disintegrating tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, and disintegration time test. The optimum formulation was chosen and incorporated with Annona muricata leaves extract. The results obtained in this work indicated that Formulation 3, with 15% starch, was the most optimum formulation due to the shortest disintegration time (21.08 seconds ± 4.24 seconds), and all the physical tests were within the acceptable range. The orally disintegrating tablets containing Annona muricata leaves extract possessed antioxidant activity and stable at least for 3 months under 60°C and 75% relative humidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  8. Yam MF, Ahmad M, Por LY, Ang LF, Basir R, Asmawi MZ
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(7):9603-12.
    PMID: 23012561
    The stepping forces of normal and Freund Complete Adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritic rats were studied in vivo using a proposed novel analgesic meter. An infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a data acquisition system were incorporated into the analgesic meter to determine and measure the weight of loads on the right hind paw before and after induction of arthritis by FCA injection into the paw cavity. FCA injection resulted in a significant reduction in the stepping force of the affected hind paw. The stepping force decreased to the minimum level on day 4 after the injection and then gradually increased up to day 25. Oral administration of prednisolone significantly increased the stepping forces of FCA-induced arthritic rats on days 14 and 21. These results suggest that the novel device is an effective tool for measuring the arthritic pain in in vivo studies even though walking is a dynamic condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  9. Liew NC, Sim KH, Ng SC, Suhail A, Premchandran N
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):278-80; quiz 281.
    PMID: 22111463 MyJurnal
    Venous thromboembolism is a rising concern in Asia especially among patients after surgery where this complication is readily preventable. Despite the availability of several treatment options, the acceptance of prophylaxis and usage of these methods remain low. A possible explanation to this behavior is the limitations attached to the available treatment options: narrow therapeutic window of warfarin and parenteral administration of low molecular weight as well as unfractionated heparins. Newer agents have been researched and introduced to overcome these limitations in the hope of improving the adaptation towards post surgical thromboprophylaxis. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are two such new agents that are promising in view of efficacy and ease of administration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  10. Nagendrababu V, Pulikkotil SJ, Veettil SK, Teerawattanapong N, Setzer FC
    J Endod, 2018 Jun;44(6):914-922.e2.
    PMID: 29709297 DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.02.017
    INTRODUCTION: Successful anesthesia with an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is imperative for treating patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular teeth. This systematic review assessed the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as oral premedications on the success of IANBs in irreversible pulpitis.

    METHODS: Three databases were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published up until September 2017. Retrieved RCTs were evaluated using the revised Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The primary efficacy outcome of interest was the success rate of IANB anesthesia. Meta-analytic estimates (risk ratio [RR] with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) performed using a random effects model and publication bias determined using funnel plot analysis were assessed. Random errors were evaluated with trial sequential analyses, and the quality of evidence was appraised using a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.

    RESULTS: Thirteen RCTs (N = 1034) were included. Eight studies had low risk of bias. Statistical analysis of good-quality RCTs showed a significant beneficial effect of any NSAID in increasing the anesthetic success of IANBs compared with placebo (RR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.55-2.38). Subgroup analyses showed a similar beneficial effect for ibuprofen, diclofenac, and ketorolac (RR = 1.83 [95% CI, 1.43-2.35], RR = 2.56 [95% CI, 1.46-4.50], and RR = 2.07 [95% CI, 1.47-2.90], respectively). Dose-dependent ibuprofen >400 mg/d (RR = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.39-2.45) was shown to be effective; however, ibuprofen ≤400 mg/d showed no association (RR = 1.78; 95% CI, 0.90-3.55). TSA confirmed conclusive evidence for a beneficial effect of NSAIDs for IANB premedication. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach did not reveal any concerns regarding the quality of the results.

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral premedication with NSAIDs and ibuprofen (>400 mg/d) increased the anesthetic success of IANBs in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  11. Tan CS, Billa N, Roberts CJ, Scurr DJ
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2014 Dec 19;4(4):905-916.
    PMID: 28344257 DOI: 10.3390/nano4040905
    An amphotericin B-containing (AmB) solid lipid nanoparticulate drug delivery system intended for oral administration, comprised of bee's wax and theobroma oil as lipid components was formulated with the aim to ascertain the location of AmB within the lipid matrix: (a) a homogenous matrix; (b) a drug-enriched shell; or (c) a drug enriched core. Both the drug-loaded and drug-free nanoparticles were spherical with AmB contributing to an increase in both the z-average diameter (169 ± 1 to 222 ± 2 nm) and zeta potential (40.8 ± 0.9 to 50.3 ± 1.0 mV) of the nanoparticles. A maximum encapsulation efficiency of 21.4% ± 3.0%, corresponding to 10.7 ± 0.4 mg encapsulated AmB within the lipid matrix was observed. Surface analysis and electron microscopic imaging indicated that AmB was dispersed uniformly within the lipid matrix (option (a) above) and, therefore, this is the most suitable of the three models with regard to modeling the propensity for uptake by epithelia and release of AmB in lymph.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  12. Aziz ZABA, Ahmad A, Mohd-Setapar SH, Hassan H, Lokhat D, Kamal MA, et al.
    Curr Drug Metab, 2017;18(1):16-29.
    PMID: 27654898 DOI: 10.2174/1389200217666160921143616
    In clinical studies, drugs with hydrophobic characteristic usually reflect low bioavailability, poor drug absorption, and inability to achieve the therapeutic concentration in blood. The production of poor solubility drugs, in abundance, by pharmaceutical industries calls for an urgent need to find the alternatives for resolving the above mentioned shortcomings. Poor water solubility drugs loaded with polymeric micelle seem to be the best alternative to enhance drugs solubility and bioavailability. Polymeric micelle, formed by self-assembled of amphiphilic block copolymers in aqueous environment, functioned as solubilizing agent for hydrophobic drug. This review discusses the fundamentals of polymeric micelle as drug carrier through representative literature, and demonstrates some applications in various clinical trials. The structure, characteristic, and formation of polymeric micelle have been discussed firstly. Next, this manuscript focuses on the potential of polymeric micelles as drug vehicle in oral, transdermal routes, and anti-cancer agent. Several results from previous studies have been reproduced in this review in order to prove the efficacy of the micelles in delivering hydrophobic drugs. Lastly, future strategies to broaden the application of polymeric micelles in pharmaceutical industries have been highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  13. Alasmary FAS, Awaad AS, Alafeefy AM, El-Meligy RM, Alqasoumi SI
    Saudi Pharm J, 2018 Jan;26(1):138-143.
    PMID: 29379346 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.09.011
    Two novel quinazoline derivatives named as; 3-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-2-p-tolyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (5) and 2-p-Tolyl-3-[3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzylidene-amino]-3H-quinazolin-4-one (6) in addition to one acetamide derivative named as 2-(2-Hydroxycarbonylphenylamino)-N-(4-aminosulphonylphenyl) 11 were synthesized, and evaluated for their anti-ulcerogenic & Anti-Ulcerative colitis activities. All of the three compounds showed curative activity against acetic acid induced ulcer model at a dose of 50 mg/kg, they produced 65%, 85% & 57.74% curative ratio for compounds 5, 6 & 11 respectively. The effect of the tested compounds 5, 6 & 11 at dose 50 mg/kg were significantly (P oral administration of this compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  14. Barkia I, Ketata Bouaziz H, Sellami Boudawara T, Aleya L, Gargouri AF, Saari N
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jun;27(16):19087-19094.
    PMID: 30612348 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-4007-6
    Protein hydrolysates and bioactive peptides from various protein sources have demonstrated their effectiveness for the prevention of illness and the improvement of symptoms from several diseases. In particular, the use of microalgae to generate bioactive peptides has received a growing interest because of their potential to be cultivated on non-arable land and high nutritional value. However, scant research is available on the toxicity of peptide-based preparations. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of microalgal protein hydrolysates (MPH) from one marine species of microalgae (Bellerochea malleus) to determine the feasibility of their use for functional food applications. Results showed that the oral administration of MPH at three doses (D1, 100 mg kg-1 BW; D2, 400 mg kg-1 BW; and D3, 2000 mg kg-1 BW) to male Wistar rats did not induce any adverse effects or mortality up to13 days of treatment. Data analysis of relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters did not show any significant differences between control and treated groups at the three doses investigated. Data from histopathological observations did not reveal any signs of major toxicity at the doses D1 and D2. However, mild signs of inflammation and necrosis were observed in the kidney of rats fed MPH at D3. All together, these results reveal the overall safety of MPH and provide new evidence for advocating their use for functional food or nutraceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  15. Abdullah HR, Ang AL, Froessler B, Hofmann A, Jang JH, Kim YW, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2020 Jun;61(6):287-296.
    PMID: 31044255 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2019037
    Preoperative anaemia is common in the Asia-Pacific. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a risk factor that can be addressed under patient blood management (PBM) Pillar 1, leading to reduced morbidity and mortality. We examined PBM implementation under four different healthcare systems, identified challenges and proposed several measures: (a) Test for anaemia once patients are scheduled for surgery. (b) Inform patients about risks of preoperative anaemia and benefits of treatment. (c) Treat IDA and replenish iron stores before surgery, using intravenous iron when oral treatment is ineffective, not tolerated or when rapid iron replenishment is needed; transfusion should not be the default management. (d) Harness support from multiple medical disciplines and relevant bodies to promote PBM implementation. (e) Demonstrate better outcomes and cost savings from reduced mortality and morbidity. Although PBM implementation may seem complex and daunting, it is feasible to start small. Implementing PBM Pillar 1, particularly in preoperative patients, is a sensible first step regardless of the healthcare setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  16. Heidarpour F, Mohammadabadi MR, Zaidul IS, Maherani B, Saari N, Hamid AA, et al.
    Pharmazie, 2011 May;66(5):319-24.
    PMID: 21699064
    The oral route is considered the most patient-convenient means of drug administration. In recent years there has been a tendency to employ smart carrier systems that enable controlled or timed release of a bioactive material, thereby providing a better dosing pattern and minimizing side effects. Nano-encapsulation systems (nanocarriers) offer important advantages over conventional drug delivery techniques. Nanocarriers can protect the drug from chemical/enzymatic degradation and enhance bioavailability. Prebiotics are ideal ingredients for the nano-encapsulation and oral drug delivery due to their natural ability to protect the encapsulated compound in the upper gasterointestinal (GI) tract. Here the potential of prebiotics for oral delivery of drugs and other bioactives is reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral*
  17. Leong WC, Cheong BM
    Med J Malaysia, 2017 10;72(5):314-315.
    PMID: 29197890 MyJurnal
    Diesel is commonly used as fuel for engines and is distilled from petroleum. Diesel has toxic potential and can affect multiple organs. Exposure can occur after ingestion, inhalation or through the dermal route. The practice of siphoning diesel using a rubber tubing and the mouth is common in rural communities. This can lead to accidental ingestion and aspiration. Here we report a case of a patient who accidentally ingested diesel during siphoning, which caused extensive erosion of the oral cavity and oesophagus leading to pneumomediastinum and severe chemical lung injury. The patient responded well initially to steroids and supportive care but required prolonged hospitalisation. He developed complications of nosocomial infection and succumbed 23 days after admission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral*
  18. Xian TH, Parasuraman S, Sinniah K, Ravichandran M, Prabhakaran G
    Vaccine, 2019 01 29;37(5):711-720.
    PMID: 30630696 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.12.027
    The repeated dose toxicity of a prototype cold chain-free, live, attenuated oral cholera vaccine containing 5 × 106 CFU/mL of the VCUSM14P strain was evaluated in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (single dose administered daily for 30 days) to ascertain its safety for clinical use. Repeated dose toxicity studies for cholera vaccines in the literature have administered 2 or 3 fixed doses at 7, 14, 21 or 69 day intervals. The present study reports an evaluation of 30 repeated doses of cholera vaccine administered at three different concentrations (Group II (1.25 × 106 CFU), Group III (2.5 × 106 CFU) and Group IV (5 × 106 CFU)) in SD rats. The liquid vaccine was administered orally to the rats with the respective dose every day, and normal saline was administered to the control group (Group I). No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the body weights and biochemical parameters of the rats after 15 and 30 repeated doses compared to those of the control group. However, compared to those of Group I, a significant increase (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral*
  19. Ismail Z, Halim SZ, Abdullah NR, Afzan A, Abdul Rashid BA, Jantan I
    PMID: 25530788 DOI: 10.1155/2014/741470
    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  20. Lokman FE, Gu HF, Wan Mohamud WN, Yusoff MM, Chia KL, Ostenson CG
    PMID: 24319481 DOI: 10.1155/2013/727602
    Aims. To evaluate the antidiabetic properties of borapetol B known as compound 1 (C1) isolated from Tinospora crispa in normoglycemic control Wistar (W) and spontaneously type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Methods. The effect of C1 on blood glucose and plasma insulin was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. The effect of C1 on insulin secretion was assessed by batch incubation and perifusion experiments using isolated pancreatic islets. Results. An acute oral administration of C1 improved blood glucose levels in treated versus placebo groups with areas under glucose curves 0-120 min being 72 ± 17 versus 344 ± 10 mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 492 ± 63 versus 862 ± 55 mmol/L (P < 0.01) in W and GK rats, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were increased by 2-fold in treated W and GK rats versus placebo group at 30 min (P < 0.05). C1 dose-dependently increased insulin secretion from W and GK isolated islets at 3.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose. The perifusions of isolated islets indicated that C1 did not cause leakage of insulin by damaging islet beta cells (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study provides evidence that borapetol B (C1) has antidiabetic properties mainly due to its stimulation of insulin release.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
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