Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 272 in total

  1. Liow TS, Azian H, Shoba P, Md Shajahan MY
    Family Physician, 1994;6:7-8.
    The range of teaspoon volume was from 2.42 to 7.71 mls with the majority below 5mls. The assumption that the volume of a teaspoon is exactly 5 mls is not true. From this wide range, 2.42 to 7.71 mls, there can be underdosaging by 51.6% or overdosaging by 64.2%. Thus if Paracetamol (250mg/5ml) was prescribed, the actual dose may vary from 121.0 mg to 385.5 mg. This is especially of significance for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (eg. Digoxin, Theophylline). The use of teaspoons in drug dosaging of liquid medication is therefore not accurate. The use of the plastic cup in Banting District Hospital is also not accurate especially for 5 mls. As the volume dispensed increases, the accuracy also improves. To overcome this problem, it may be wise to use the 'pharmacy spoon' or a syinge. The 'pharmacy spoon' is a good substitute for a teaspoon in the paediatrics age group. The syringe is probably better as it ensures not only accuracy but also that all of the medication administered goes in as it is less likely to spill out when the child struggles. And for children who can take tablets, it is better to give medication in tablet form. Though we have not done a study on tablespoons, we feel a similar problem also exists with the use of tablespoons. Limitations of this study are 2 types. First is in pouring of the syrup Paracetamol into the teaspoons. Second, the level of the liquid was inconsistent, ie sometimes over the brim, at other times just at the brim.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  2. Wong YF, Ng HT, Leung KY, Chan KY, Chan SY, Loy CC
    J Biomed Inform, 2017 Oct;74:130-136.
    PMID: 28923366 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2017.09.005
    OBJECTIVE: Oral pills, including tablets and capsules, are one of the most popular pharmaceutical dosage forms available. Compared to other dosage forms, such as liquid and injections, oral pills are very stable and are easy to be administered. However, it is not uncommon for pills to be misidentified, be it within the healthcare institutes or after the pills were dispensed to the patients. Our objective is to develop groundwork for automatic pill identification and verification using Deep Convolutional Network (DCN) that surpasses the existing methods.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A DCN model was developed using pill images captured with mobile phones under unconstraint environments. The performance of the DCN model was compared to two baseline methods of hand-crafted features.

    RESULTS: The DCN model outperforms the baseline methods. The mean accuracy rate of DCN at Top-1 return was 95.35%, whereas the mean accuracy rates of the two baseline methods were 89.00% and 70.65%, respectively. The mean accuracy rates of DCN for Top-5 and Top-10 returns, i.e., 98.75% and 99.55%, were also consistently higher than those of the baseline methods.

    DISCUSSION: The images used in this study were captured at various angles and under different level of illumination. DCN model achieved high accuracy despite the suboptimal image quality.

    CONCLUSION: The superior performance of DCN underscores the potential of Deep Learning model in the application of pill identification and verification.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  3. Nikbakht E, Jamaluddin R, Redzwan SM, Khalesi S
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 2018 Jun;88(3-4):199-208.
    PMID: 31056010 DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000513
    Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) is a toxic compound commonly found in some crops with an adverse health effect on human and animals. Some beneficial microorganisms (or probiotics) such as lactic acid bacteria have shown the ability to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins and its intestinal absorption. However, the dose and duration of aflatoxins exposure and probiotic treatment can influence the ability of probiotics to remove aflatoxins. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain (LcS) induction in an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. Experimentally, Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: AFB1 only (n = 9); AFB1 treated with LcS (n = 9); and control (no AFB1 exposure) (n = 6) groups. The blood AFB1 level of rats treated with LcS was slightly lower than the untreated AFB1 induced rats (11.12 ± 0.71 vs 10.93 ± 0.69 ng g-1). Also, LcS treatment slightly moderated the liver and kidney biomarkers in AFB1 induced rats. However, a trend for a significant difference was only observed in ALT of AFB1 induced rats treated with LcS compared to their counterparts (126.11 ± 36.90 vs 157.36 ± 15.46, p = 0.06). Rats' body weight decreased in all animals force-fed with AFB1 with no significant difference between LcS treatment compared to the counterpart. In conclusion, this experiment indicated that probiotic LsC was able to slightly ameliorate the adverse effect of an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. However, future studies with longer probiotics treatment or higher probiotics dose is required to confirm these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  4. Pettit JHS
    Trop Doct, 1986 Jul;16(3):105-12.
    PMID: 3765093 DOI: 10.1177/004947558601600305
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  5. Liew NC, Sim KH, Ng SC, Suhail A, Premchandran N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):278-80; quiz 281.
    PMID: 22111463 MyJurnal
    Venous thromboembolism is a rising concern in Asia especially among patients after surgery where this complication is readily preventable. Despite the availability of several treatment options, the acceptance of prophylaxis and usage of these methods remain low. A possible explanation to this behavior is the limitations attached to the available treatment options: narrow therapeutic window of warfarin and parenteral administration of low molecular weight as well as unfractionated heparins. Newer agents have been researched and introduced to overcome these limitations in the hope of improving the adaptation towards post surgical thromboprophylaxis. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are two such new agents that are promising in view of efficacy and ease of administration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  6. Nagendrababu V, Pulikkotil SJ, Veettil SK, Teerawattanapong N, Setzer FC
    J Endod, 2018 Jun;44(6):914-922.e2.
    PMID: 29709297 DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2018.02.017
    INTRODUCTION: Successful anesthesia with an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is imperative for treating patients with irreversible pulpitis in mandibular teeth. This systematic review assessed the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as oral premedications on the success of IANBs in irreversible pulpitis.

    METHODS: Three databases were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published up until September 2017. Retrieved RCTs were evaluated using the revised Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The primary efficacy outcome of interest was the success rate of IANB anesthesia. Meta-analytic estimates (risk ratio [RR] with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) performed using a random effects model and publication bias determined using funnel plot analysis were assessed. Random errors were evaluated with trial sequential analyses, and the quality of evidence was appraised using a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.

    RESULTS: Thirteen RCTs (N = 1034) were included. Eight studies had low risk of bias. Statistical analysis of good-quality RCTs showed a significant beneficial effect of any NSAID in increasing the anesthetic success of IANBs compared with placebo (RR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.55-2.38). Subgroup analyses showed a similar beneficial effect for ibuprofen, diclofenac, and ketorolac (RR = 1.83 [95% CI, 1.43-2.35], RR = 2.56 [95% CI, 1.46-4.50], and RR = 2.07 [95% CI, 1.47-2.90], respectively). Dose-dependent ibuprofen >400 mg/d (RR = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.39-2.45) was shown to be effective; however, ibuprofen ≤400 mg/d showed no association (RR = 1.78; 95% CI, 0.90-3.55). TSA confirmed conclusive evidence for a beneficial effect of NSAIDs for IANB premedication. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach did not reveal any concerns regarding the quality of the results.

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral premedication with NSAIDs and ibuprofen (>400 mg/d) increased the anesthetic success of IANBs in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  7. Abdullah HR, Ang AL, Froessler B, Hofmann A, Jang JH, Kim YW, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2019 May 02.
    PMID: 31044255 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2019037
    Preoperative anaemia is common in the Asia-Pacific. Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a risk factor that can be addressed under patient blood management (PBM) Pillar 1, leading to reduced morbidity and mortality. We examined PBM implementation under four different healthcare systems, identified challenges and proposed several measures. (a) Test for anaemia once patients are scheduled for surgery. (b) Inform patients about risks of preoperative anaemia and benefits of treatment. (c) Treat IDA and replenish iron stores before surgery, using intravenous iron when oral treatment is ineffective, not tolerated or rapid iron replenishment is needed; transfusion should not be the default management. (d) Harness support from multiple medical disciplines and relevant bodies to promote PBM implementation. (e) Demonstrate better outcomes and cost savings from reduced mortality and morbidity. Although PBM implementation may seem complex and daunting, it is feasible to start small. Implementing PBM Pillar 1, particularly in preoperative patients, is a sensible first step regardless of the healthcare setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  8. Heidarpour F, Mohammadabadi MR, Zaidul IS, Maherani B, Saari N, Hamid AA, et al.
    Pharmazie, 2011 May;66(5):319-24.
    PMID: 21699064
    The oral route is considered the most patient-convenient means of drug administration. In recent years there has been a tendency to employ smart carrier systems that enable controlled or timed release of a bioactive material, thereby providing a better dosing pattern and minimizing side effects. Nano-encapsulation systems (nanocarriers) offer important advantages over conventional drug delivery techniques. Nanocarriers can protect the drug from chemical/enzymatic degradation and enhance bioavailability. Prebiotics are ideal ingredients for the nano-encapsulation and oral drug delivery due to their natural ability to protect the encapsulated compound in the upper gasterointestinal (GI) tract. Here the potential of prebiotics for oral delivery of drugs and other bioactives is reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral*
  9. Cohen A, Jeyaindran S, Kim JY, Park K, Sompradeekul S, Tambunan KL, et al.
    Thromb. Res., 2015 Aug;136(2):196-207.
    PMID: 26139085 DOI: 10.1016/j.thromres.2015.05.024
    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the principal preventable cause of in-hospital deaths. Prevalence of PE in Asians is uncertain but undoubtedly underestimated. Asians and Caucasians have similar non-genetic risk factors for PE, and there is mounting evidence that PE affects Asians much more commonly than previously supposed; incidence, especially among high-risk patients, may approach that in Caucasians. Furthermore, PE incidence in Asia is increasing, due to both increased ascertainment, and also population ageing and growing numbers of patients with predisposing risk factors. Despite being warranted, thromboprophylaxis for high-risk patients is not routine in Pacific Asian countries/regions. There also appears to be scope to implement venous thromboembolism (VTE) management guidelines more assiduously. Anticoagulants, primarily heparins and warfarin, have been the mainstays of VTE management for years; however, these agents have limitations that complicate routine use. The complexity of current guidelines has been another barrier to applying evidence-based recommendations in everyday practice. Updated management approaches have considerable potential to improve outcomes. New oral anticoagulants that are easier to administer, require no, or much less, monitoring or dose-adjustment and have a favourable risk/benefit profile compared with conventional modalities, may offer an alternative with the potential to simplify VTE management. However, more information is required on practical management and the occurrence and treatment of bleeding complications. Increasing recognition of the burden of PE and new therapeutic modalities are altering the VTE management landscape in Pacific Asia. Consequently, there is a need to further raise awareness and bridge gaps between the latest evidence and clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  10. Wong TW
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2011 Dec;63(12):1497-512.
    PMID: 22060280 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01347.x
    Use of alginate graft copolymers in oral drug delivery reduces dosage form manufacture complexity with reference to mixing or coating processes. It is deemed to give constant or approximately steady weight ratio of alginate to covalently attached co-excipient in copolymers, thereby leading to controllable matrix processing and drug release. This review describes various grafting approaches and their outcome on oral drug release behaviour of alginate graft copolymeric matrices. It examines drug release modulation mechanism of alginate graft copolymers against that of co-excipients in non-grafted formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  11. Yeong CH, Blackshaw PE, Ng KH, Abdullah BJ, Blaauw M, Dansereau RJ, et al.
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2011 Sep;69(9):1181-4.
    PMID: 21550260 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.04.017
    Neutron activation of Sm-152 offers a method of radiolabeling for the in vivo study of oral dose formulations by gamma scintigraphy. Reproducibility measurements are needed to ensure the robustness of clinical studies. 204 enteric-coated guaifenesin core tablets (10mg of Sm(2)O(3)) were irradiated by thermal neutrons to achieve 1 MBq at 48 h. Administered activities were 0.86±0.03 MBq. Good reproducibility (CV=3.5%) was observed over 24 weeks ensuring that volunteer doses were within the dose reference level of 0.8 mSv.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  12. Jamaludin A, Mohamad M, Navaratnam V, Selliah K, Tan SC, Wernsdorfer WH, et al.
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1988 Feb;25(2):261-3.
    PMID: 3358888
    The hydrochloride, sulphate and ethylcarbonate salts of quinine were given in single oral doses (600 mg base equivalent) to nine healthy male subjects according to a cross-over design. No statistically significant differences were noted in the plasma drug concentration-time profiles although inter- and intra-subject variation in AUC, Cmax and tmax values was appreciable. The ethylcarbonate salt may be preferred for use in paediatric patients because of its neutral taste.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  13. Ang LT, Frith KM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1977 Mar;31(3):226-8.
    PMID: 904516
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  14. Mahmood, A.A., Sidik, K., Fouad, H.M.
    ASM Science Journal, 2007;1(1):1-6.
    Ocimum basilicum seed extracts were found to possess significant anti-ulcer activity against ethanol-induced ulceration in experimental animal models. Three groups of adult male rats were used, with each group consisting of six rats. Oral administration of absolute ethanol to rats pre-treated with 10% Tween 20® (Group 1) produced extensive haemorrhagic lesions of the gastric mucosa. Rats orally pre-treated with O. basilicum extract suspended in 10% Tween 20® (Group 2) or cimetidine in 10% Tween 20® (Group 3), 30 min before oral administration of absolute alcohol had significantly reduced (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  15. Adawiyah J, Gill P, Roshidah B
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(3):130-133.
    PMID: 25606204 MyJurnal
    Antibiotic resistant P. acnes have influenced acne therapy worldwide resulting in increased use of topical and systemic retinoids. Judicious use of oral antibiotic is important for effective therapeutic outcome. To determine the response and side effects of oral antibiotic treatment in acne vulgaris. To determine the type of antibiotic used, therapy duration and the types of concomitant topical therapy. Retrospective analysis of the therapeutic response to oral antibiotics therapy in acne vulgaris in the Dermatology Department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur. New cases of acne vulgaris from 2005 to 2009 were randomly selected. The clinical notes of 250 patients treated with oral antibiotics were reviewed. About 60% of patients achieved good to excellent response to therapy while satisfactory response was seen in 26%. Only 8% patients experienced minor side effects. Doxycycline was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic, followed by tetracycline and erythromycin ethylsuccinate. The prescribing pattern was consistent over the years. The mean duration of treatment is four to five months. Oral antibiotic was augmented with topical therapy in 98.8% of patients. Good to excellent therapeutic response was achieved in the majority of patients and results observed have remained stable over the last five years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  16. Teh, C.C., Khoo, Z.Y., Khursiah, F., Rao, N.K., Chin, J.H.
    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different storage conditions of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) juice on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in various organs of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The effect of oral administration of star fruit on serum lipid profiles was also examined in this study. A total of 15 female rats were assigned into three groups with five animals per group (n=5). The first group served as control group and given only distilled water (vehicle) while the other two groups were given different star fruit preparations, i.e. freshly prepared star fruit juice and after 3 hours storage, respectively. From the results obtained, a significant decrease in the hepatic acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in rats treated with star fruit juice. In conclusion, the star fruit juice at different storage conditions is selectively targeted on the acetylcholinesterase activity in rat liver but not in kidney and heart.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  17. Al-Faqeh, H.H., Muhammad, B.Y., Nafie, E.M., Khorshid, A.
    We attempted to investigate possible hepatoprotective effect of Eurycoma longifolia jack (ELJ) using carbon tetrachloride-induced (CC14) acute hepatotoxicity model in rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by oral administration of 4.0mg/kg of CCI4 in corn oil (1:1) once to one experimental group of 5 rats and, in three other similar groups, challenged doses (300, 750 and 1500 mg/kg respectively) of ELJ were given one day before and one hour after 4.0 mg/kg CC14 and then once daily for three consecutive days. Three other groups of 5 rats each serving as controls were administered with distilled water, corn oil and ELJ (750mg/kg) only respectively. Rats were sacrificed on day three (corn oil & CC14 treated groups) and on day 4 (Distilled water, ELJ alone and CC14 with graded doses of ELJ treated groups) and samples of blood and liver tissue were taken for biochemical (serum) and histopathological examinations to assess hepatoprotection of ELJ against CC14-induced hepatotoxicity. In the low (300mg/kg) and medium (750 mg/kg) dose ELJ treated groups, CCI4 induced moderate inflammation, fatty acid change and necrosis of hepatocytes while in the high (1500mg/kg) dose ELJ, CC14 induced severe inflammation, fatty acid change and necrosis of hepatocytes. Biochemical measurements of ALT and ALP shows a moderate and insignificant reduction of serum levels in the low dose ELJ group but a more significant reduction in the medium and high dose ELJ groups when compared with the CC14 only group. The increase in serum total bilirubin caused by CC14 was non-significantly reduced by all the doses of ELJ. Animals treated with CC14 alone and in groups treated with both CC14 and graded doses of ELJ had a reduction in body weight, food and water intake but in ELJ (750mg/kg) only treated group, no such reduction in body weight, food and water intake was observed. This observation suggest that ELJ administered alone did not cause any toxic effect to the liver but in combination with CCI4, appeared to synergize the CC14-induced hepatotoxicity which increases as the dose of ELJ is increased. The anorexic, hypodypsic and reduced body weight evident in the CC14 alone and in ELJ plus CC14 treated groups but not in animals treated with ELJ alone, suggests that ELJ alone does not induce anorexia, hypodypsia or loss of weight. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that ELJ is not hepatotoxic when given alone and appeared to have some degree of protective effects in rats against CC14-induced hepatotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  18. Fung SY, Lee SS, Tan NH, Pailoor J
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Jul 12;206:236-244.
    PMID: 28587826 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.05.037
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora is one of the most renowned traditional Chinese medicine used as tonic, renal, respiratory and reproductive health, promote longevity and overall improvement in quality of life. Natural production of O. sinensis is limited due to its extreme specificity in host range and confined geographic distribution. Therefore, cultivation of the fungus was developed to meet high demand for commercialization as nutraceutical. O. sinensis fruiting body has recently been successfully cultivated in large scale using rice based solid medium, providing wider source options for consumers and scientific researchers.

    AIMS OF THE STUDY: The present study aims to establish safety profile for the consumption of cultivated fruiting body of O. sinensis (FBOS) by 28-days sub-acute toxicity study in Sprague Dawley rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were orally administered with cultivated FBOS at three graded doses (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg), once daily for 28 consecutive days. Control group received distilled water. General observations (gross behavioral changes and toxic symptoms) and body weight of each animal were monitored daily. Haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological analysis were carried out at the end of the experiment (Day 29).

    RESULTS: No behavioral changes, toxic symptoms or death was observed in rats throughout the dosing period. Cultivated FBOS treatment up to 1000mg/kg did not cause any adverse effect on the growth of the animals. Results from haematology and serum biochemistry revealed no toxic effect following cultivated FBOS treatment at three graded doses for 28 days. In addition, no treatment related histopathological changes were noted in heart, spleen, kidney, lung and liver of the animals.

    CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that oral administration of cultivated FBOS for 28 days, at dosage up to 1000mg/kg did not pose toxicological concern in rats. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose of cultivated FBOS in 28-days subacute toxicity study is higher than 1000mg/kg.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  19. Chellappan DK, Yenese Y, Wei CC, Chellian J, Gupta G
    PMID: 29431061 DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2017020182
    Oral delivery of insulin is one of the most promising and anticipated areas in the treatment of diabetes, primarily because it may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetics who receive insulin regularly. Several problems have been reported regarding the subcutaneous delivery of insulin, ranging from cardiovascular complications to weight gain. One of the approaches to overcoming these issues is to administer insulin through the oral route. However, there are several challenges in developing an oral route for insulin delivery; insulin has extremely poor bioavailability and a low diffusion rate through the mucus layer. A wide range of oral insulin delivery techniques have recently been researched, ranging from nanoparticles to liposomes, self-emulsifying systems, and hydrogels. These techniques have shown promising potential in the oral delivery of insulin. This review considers the current literature on the advances and challenges in the development of oral insulin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  20. Leong YH, Isa ASM, Mohamed Mahmood M, Moey CEJ, Utar Z, Soon YI, et al.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2018 Jun;95:280-288.
    PMID: 29567329 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.03.011
    This study aimed to investigate the oral acute and subacute toxicity of Poly [3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate], P(3HB-co-4HB) in the form of nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute oral administration of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was performed as a single dose up to 2000 mg/kg in six female rats for 14 days. Subacute toxicity study via oral administration for 28 days at doses of 0 (control), 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg in rats (10 rats in each group, female:male = 1:1) was conducted. The estimated lethal dose (LD50) of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was >2000 mg/kg. No mortality, unusual changes in behaviour, adverse clinical signs, abnormal changes in body weights or food consumption were observed on all animals treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles during 14 days of the acute toxicity study. In the subacute test, there was no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical biochemistry, urinalysis, macroscopic findings, organ weights as well as histopathological examination were observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
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