Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 383 in total

  1. Liow TS, Azian H, Shoba P, Md Shajahan MY
    Family Physician, 1994;6:7-8.
    The range of teaspoon volume was from 2.42 to 7.71 mls with the majority below 5mls. The assumption that the volume of a teaspoon is exactly 5 mls is not true. From this wide range, 2.42 to 7.71 mls, there can be underdosaging by 51.6% or overdosaging by 64.2%. Thus if Paracetamol (250mg/5ml) was prescribed, the actual dose may vary from 121.0 mg to 385.5 mg. This is especially of significance for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (eg. Digoxin, Theophylline). The use of teaspoons in drug dosaging of liquid medication is therefore not accurate. The use of the plastic cup in Banting District Hospital is also not accurate especially for 5 mls. As the volume dispensed increases, the accuracy also improves. To overcome this problem, it may be wise to use the 'pharmacy spoon' or a syinge. The 'pharmacy spoon' is a good substitute for a teaspoon in the paediatrics age group. The syringe is probably better as it ensures not only accuracy but also that all of the medication administered goes in as it is less likely to spill out when the child struggles. And for children who can take tablets, it is better to give medication in tablet form. Though we have not done a study on tablespoons, we feel a similar problem also exists with the use of tablespoons. Limitations of this study are 2 types. First is in pouring of the syrup Paracetamol into the teaspoons. Second, the level of the liquid was inconsistent, ie sometimes over the brim, at other times just at the brim.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  2. Lim SM, Pang ZW, Tan HY, Shaikh M, Adinarayana G, Garg S
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2015;41(11):1847-55.
    PMID: 25721984 DOI: 10.3109/03639045.2015.1014818
    Poor biopharmaceutical properties and toxicities associated with the intravenous formulation of docetaxel (DTX) necessitate the exploration of an alternate oral route of delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  3. Nikbakht E, Jamaluddin R, Redzwan SM, Khalesi S
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 2018 Jun;88(3-4):199-208.
    PMID: 31056010 DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000513
    Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) is a toxic compound commonly found in some crops with an adverse health effect on human and animals. Some beneficial microorganisms (or probiotics) such as lactic acid bacteria have shown the ability to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins and its intestinal absorption. However, the dose and duration of aflatoxins exposure and probiotic treatment can influence the ability of probiotics to remove aflatoxins. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain (LcS) induction in an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. Experimentally, Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: AFB1 only (n = 9); AFB1 treated with LcS (n = 9); and control (no AFB1 exposure) (n = 6) groups. The blood AFB1 level of rats treated with LcS was slightly lower than the untreated AFB1 induced rats (11.12 ± 0.71 vs 10.93 ± 0.69 ng g-1). Also, LcS treatment slightly moderated the liver and kidney biomarkers in AFB1 induced rats. However, a trend for a significant difference was only observed in ALT of AFB1 induced rats treated with LcS compared to their counterparts (126.11 ± 36.90 vs 157.36 ± 15.46, p = 0.06). Rats' body weight decreased in all animals force-fed with AFB1 with no significant difference between LcS treatment compared to the counterpart. In conclusion, this experiment indicated that probiotic LsC was able to slightly ameliorate the adverse effect of an acute exposure to AFB1 in rats. However, future studies with longer probiotics treatment or higher probiotics dose is required to confirm these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  4. Wong YF, Ng HT, Leung KY, Chan KY, Chan SY, Loy CC
    J Biomed Inform, 2017 Oct;74:130-136.
    PMID: 28923366 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2017.09.005
    OBJECTIVE: Oral pills, including tablets and capsules, are one of the most popular pharmaceutical dosage forms available. Compared to other dosage forms, such as liquid and injections, oral pills are very stable and are easy to be administered. However, it is not uncommon for pills to be misidentified, be it within the healthcare institutes or after the pills were dispensed to the patients. Our objective is to develop groundwork for automatic pill identification and verification using Deep Convolutional Network (DCN) that surpasses the existing methods.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A DCN model was developed using pill images captured with mobile phones under unconstraint environments. The performance of the DCN model was compared to two baseline methods of hand-crafted features.

    RESULTS: The DCN model outperforms the baseline methods. The mean accuracy rate of DCN at Top-1 return was 95.35%, whereas the mean accuracy rates of the two baseline methods were 89.00% and 70.65%, respectively. The mean accuracy rates of DCN for Top-5 and Top-10 returns, i.e., 98.75% and 99.55%, were also consistently higher than those of the baseline methods.

    DISCUSSION: The images used in this study were captured at various angles and under different level of illumination. DCN model achieved high accuracy despite the suboptimal image quality.

    CONCLUSION: The superior performance of DCN underscores the potential of Deep Learning model in the application of pill identification and verification.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  5. Azman SEN, Abd Razak FS, Kamal WHBW, Zheng GK, Ming LC, Uddin AH, et al.
    Int J Pharm Compd, 2020 11 21;24(6):509-514.
    PMID: 33217741
    Orally disintegrating tablets are a solid dosage form that will disintegrate rapidly within 3 minutes upon contact with saliva. Fillers or diluents are excipients that are used to make up the volume of orally disintegrating tablets, and some might act as a disintegrant or binder that will affect the physical properties of orally disintegrating tablets. The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate physical properties of orally disintegrating tablets containing Annona muricata leaves extract by a freeze-drying method using different fillers at different concentrations. In this study, fifteen formulations of orally disintegrating tablets were prepared by a freeze-drying method with different fillers such as starch, lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, StarLac, and CombiLac at 5%, 10%, and 15%. The orally disintegrating tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, and disintegration time test. The optimum formulation was chosen and incorporated with Annona muricata leaves extract. The results obtained in this work indicated that Formulation 3, with 15% starch, was the most optimum formulation due to the shortest disintegration time (21.08 seconds ± 4.24 seconds), and all the physical tests were within the acceptable range. The orally disintegrating tablets containing Annona muricata leaves extract possessed antioxidant activity and stable at least for 3 months under 60°C and 75% relative humidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  6. Pettit JHS
    Trop Doct, 1986 Jul;16(3):105-12.
    PMID: 3765093 DOI: 10.1177/004947558601600305
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  7. Anjani QK, Sabri AHB, Hamid KA, Moreno-Castellanos N, Li H, Donnelly RF
    Carbohydr Polym, 2023 Nov 15;320:121194.
    PMID: 37659788 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2023.121194
    Carvedilol, a β-blocker prescribed for chronic heart failure, suffers from poor bioavailability and rapid first pass metabolism when administered orally. Herein, we present the development of tip microarray patches (MAPs) composed of ternary cyclodextrin (CD) complexes of carvedilol for transdermal delivery. The ternary complex with hydroxypropyl γ-cyclodextrin (HPγCD) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) reduced the crystallinity of carvedilol, as evidenced by DSC, XRD, NMR, and SEM analysis. MAPs were fabricated using a two-step process with the ternary complex as the needle layer. The resulting MAPs were capable of breaching ex vivo neonatal porcine skin to a depth ≈600 μm with minimal impact to needle height. Upon insertion, the needle dissolved within 2 h, leading to the transdermal delivery of carvedilol. The MAPs displayed minimal toxicity and acceptable biocompatibility in cell assays. In rats, MAPs achieved significantly higher AUC levels of carvedilol than oral administration, with a delayed Tmax and sustained plasma levels over several days. These findings suggest that the carvedilol-loaded dissolving MAPs have the potential to revolutionise the treatment of chronic heart failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  8. Yam MF, Ahmad M, Por LY, Ang LF, Basir R, Asmawi MZ
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(7):9603-12.
    PMID: 23012561
    The stepping forces of normal and Freund Complete Adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritic rats were studied in vivo using a proposed novel analgesic meter. An infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a data acquisition system were incorporated into the analgesic meter to determine and measure the weight of loads on the right hind paw before and after induction of arthritis by FCA injection into the paw cavity. FCA injection resulted in a significant reduction in the stepping force of the affected hind paw. The stepping force decreased to the minimum level on day 4 after the injection and then gradually increased up to day 25. Oral administration of prednisolone significantly increased the stepping forces of FCA-induced arthritic rats on days 14 and 21. These results suggest that the novel device is an effective tool for measuring the arthritic pain in in vivo studies even though walking is a dynamic condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  9. Liew NC, Sim KH, Ng SC, Suhail A, Premchandran N
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):278-80; quiz 281.
    PMID: 22111463 MyJurnal
    Venous thromboembolism is a rising concern in Asia especially among patients after surgery where this complication is readily preventable. Despite the availability of several treatment options, the acceptance of prophylaxis and usage of these methods remain low. A possible explanation to this behavior is the limitations attached to the available treatment options: narrow therapeutic window of warfarin and parenteral administration of low molecular weight as well as unfractionated heparins. Newer agents have been researched and introduced to overcome these limitations in the hope of improving the adaptation towards post surgical thromboprophylaxis. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are two such new agents that are promising in view of efficacy and ease of administration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  10. Pandey M, Choudhury H, Fern JLC, Kee ATK, Kou J, Jing JLJ, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2020 08;10(4):986-1001.
    PMID: 32207070 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-020-00737-0
    The involvement of recent technologies, such as nanotechnology and three-dimensional printing (3DP), in drug delivery has become the utmost importance for effective and safe delivery of potent therapeutics, and thus, recent advancement for oral drug delivery through 3DP technology has been expanded. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) in 3DP technology allows the manufacturing of drug formulation with the desired release rate and pattern. Currently, the most applicable 3DP technologies in the oral drug delivery system are inkjet printing method, fused deposition method, nozzle-based extrusion system, and stereolithographic 3DP. In 2015, the first 3D-printed tablet was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and since then, it has opened up more opportunities in the discovery of formulation for the development of an oral drug delivery system. 3DP allows the production of an oral drug delivery device that enables tailor-made formulation with customizable size, shape, and release rate. Despite the advantages offered by 3DP technology in the drug delivery system, there are challenges in terms of drug stability, safety as well as applicability in the clinical sector. Nonetheless, 3DP has immense potential in the development of drug delivery devices for future personalized medicine. This article will give the recent advancement along with the challenges of 3DP techniques for the development of oral drug delivery. Graphical abstract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  11. Tan CS, Billa N, Roberts CJ, Scurr DJ
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2014 Dec 19;4(4):905-916.
    PMID: 28344257 DOI: 10.3390/nano4040905
    An amphotericin B-containing (AmB) solid lipid nanoparticulate drug delivery system intended for oral administration, comprised of bee's wax and theobroma oil as lipid components was formulated with the aim to ascertain the location of AmB within the lipid matrix: (a) a homogenous matrix; (b) a drug-enriched shell; or (c) a drug enriched core. Both the drug-loaded and drug-free nanoparticles were spherical with AmB contributing to an increase in both the z-average diameter (169 ± 1 to 222 ± 2 nm) and zeta potential (40.8 ± 0.9 to 50.3 ± 1.0 mV) of the nanoparticles. A maximum encapsulation efficiency of 21.4% ± 3.0%, corresponding to 10.7 ± 0.4 mg encapsulated AmB within the lipid matrix was observed. Surface analysis and electron microscopic imaging indicated that AmB was dispersed uniformly within the lipid matrix (option (a) above) and, therefore, this is the most suitable of the three models with regard to modeling the propensity for uptake by epithelia and release of AmB in lymph.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  12. Almurisi SH, Doolaanea AA, Akkawi ME, Chatterjee B, Ahmed Saeed Aljapairai K, Islam Sarker MZ
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2020 Aug;46(8):1373-1383.
    PMID: 32619118 DOI: 10.1080/03639045.2020.1791165
    OBJECTIVE: Paracetamol is a common antipyretic and analgesic medicine used in childhood illness by parents and physicians worldwide. Paracetamol has a bitter taste that is considered as a significant barrier for drug administration. This study aimed to develop an oral dosage form that is palatable and easy to swallow by pediatric patients as well as to overcome the shortcomings of liquid formulations.

    METHODS: The paracetamol was encapsulated in beads, which were prepared mainly from alginate and chitosan through electrospray technique. The paracetamol beads were sprinkled on the instant jelly prepared from glycine, ι-carrageenan and calcium lactate gluconate. The paracetamol instant jelly characteristics, in terms of physical appearance, texture, rheology, in vitro drug release and palatability were assessed on a human volunteer.

    RESULTS: The paracetamol instant jelly was easily reconstituted in 20 mL of water within 2 min to form jelly with acceptable consistency and texture. The jelly must be ingested within 30 min after reconstitution to avoid the bitter taste. The palatability assessment carried out on 12 human subjects established the similar palatability and texture of the paracetamol instant jelly dosage comparable to the commercial paracetamol suspension and was found to be even better in overcoming the aftertaste of paracetamol.

    CONCLUSION: Such findings indicate that paracetamol instant jelly will compensate for the use of sweetening and flavoring agents as well as develop pediatric dosage forms with limited undesired excipients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  13. Azmi NHS, Ming LC, Uddin ABMH, Sarker ZI, Bin LK
    Int J Pharm Compd, 2022 1 27;26(1):80-87.
    PMID: 35081048
    Oral drug delivery has been recognized as the most desirable drug administration method among other drug delivery routes due to its ease of administration, long shelf life, and low cost. Orally disintegrating tablets disintegrate within seconds in the mouth without the need of water for swallowing. This unique feature of orally disintegrating tablets is favorable to special populations such as geriatric and pediatric patients. Formulation optimization is significant to obtain the optimal combination of tablet constituents, as the tablet composition is influential on dosage-form characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of fillers and percentage on the physical properties of orally disintegrating tablets by using amlodipine as the model drug. Blank orally disintegrating tablets containing different fillers, namely, Sorbolac 400, Granulac 200, and CombiLac with different percentages, were prepared using the wet granulation method and were evaluated based on weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, and disintegration time. Formulation 5 that consists of 25% Granulac 200 showed the optimal result among all formulations with the fastest disintegration time (96.17 s Å} 18.40) and sufficient tablet hardness (4.59 kg Å} 0.70). Hence, formulation 5 was selected as the optimal formulation and incorporated with amlodipine. From this study, it can be concluded that excipients have an essential role in determining the physical properties of orally disintegrating tablets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  14. Aziz ZABA, Ahmad A, Mohd-Setapar SH, Hassan H, Lokhat D, Kamal MA, et al.
    Curr Drug Metab, 2017;18(1):16-29.
    PMID: 27654898 DOI: 10.2174/1389200217666160921143616
    In clinical studies, drugs with hydrophobic characteristic usually reflect low bioavailability, poor drug absorption, and inability to achieve the therapeutic concentration in blood. The production of poor solubility drugs, in abundance, by pharmaceutical industries calls for an urgent need to find the alternatives for resolving the above mentioned shortcomings. Poor water solubility drugs loaded with polymeric micelle seem to be the best alternative to enhance drugs solubility and bioavailability. Polymeric micelle, formed by self-assembled of amphiphilic block copolymers in aqueous environment, functioned as solubilizing agent for hydrophobic drug. This review discusses the fundamentals of polymeric micelle as drug carrier through representative literature, and demonstrates some applications in various clinical trials. The structure, characteristic, and formation of polymeric micelle have been discussed firstly. Next, this manuscript focuses on the potential of polymeric micelles as drug vehicle in oral, transdermal routes, and anti-cancer agent. Several results from previous studies have been reproduced in this review in order to prove the efficacy of the micelles in delivering hydrophobic drugs. Lastly, future strategies to broaden the application of polymeric micelles in pharmaceutical industries have been highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  15. Bashir MA, Khan A, Shah SI, Ullah M, Khuda F, Abbas M, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2023;17:261-272.
    PMID: 36726738 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S377686
    BACKGROUND: Self-emulsifying drug-delivery systems (SEDDSs) are designed to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. This study aimed at formulating and characterization of SEDDS-based tablets for simvastatin using castor and olive oils as solvents and Tween 60 as surfactant.

    METHODS: The liquids were adsorbed on microcrystalline cellulose, and all developed formulations were compressed using 10.5 mm shallow concave round punches.

    RESULTS: The resulting tablets were evaluated for different quality-control parameters at pre- and postcompression levels. Simvastatin showed better solubility in a mixture of oils and Tween 60 (10:1). All the developed formulations showed lower self-emulsification time (˂200 seconds) and higher cloud point (˃60°C). They were free of physical defects and had drug content within the acceptable range (98.5%-101%). The crushing strength of all formulations was in the range of 58-96 N, and the results of the friability test were within the range of USP (≤1). Disintegration time was within the official limits (NMT 15 min), and complete drug release was achieved within 30 min.

    CONCLUSION: Using commonly available excipients and machinery, SEDDS-based tablets with better dissolution profile and bioavailability can be prepared by direct compression. These S-SEDDSs could be a better alternative to conventional tablets of simvastatin.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  16. Al-Japairai K, Hamed Almurisi S, Almonem Doolaanea A, Mahmood S, Alheibshy F, Alobaida A, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2023 Feb 05;632:122571.
    PMID: 36587776 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.122571
    Taste refers to those sensations perceived through taste buds on the tongue and oral cavity. The unpleasant taste of drugs leads to the refusal of taking the medicine in the paediatric population. It is widely known that a pharmaceutical product's general acceptability is the result of numerous contributing components such as swallowability, palatability (taste, flavour, texture, and mouthfeel), appearance, ease of administration, and patient characteristics. Multiparticulate as a dosage form is a platform technology for overcoming paediatrics' incapacity to swallow monolithic dosage forms, masking many medications' inherent nasty taste, and overcoming the obstacles of manufacturing a commercially taste masked dosage form. This review will discuss the considerations that must be taken into account to prepare taste masked multiparticulate dosage forms in the best way for paediatric use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  17. Kow CS, Ramachandram DS, Hasan SS
    Med Clin (Barc), 2022 Nov 11;159(9):e61.
    PMID: 35933189 DOI: 10.1016/j.medcli.2022.05.016
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  18. Barkia I, Ketata Bouaziz H, Sellami Boudawara T, Aleya L, Gargouri AF, Saari N
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jun;27(16):19087-19094.
    PMID: 30612348 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-4007-6
    Protein hydrolysates and bioactive peptides from various protein sources have demonstrated their effectiveness for the prevention of illness and the improvement of symptoms from several diseases. In particular, the use of microalgae to generate bioactive peptides has received a growing interest because of their potential to be cultivated on non-arable land and high nutritional value. However, scant research is available on the toxicity of peptide-based preparations. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of microalgal protein hydrolysates (MPH) from one marine species of microalgae (Bellerochea malleus) to determine the feasibility of their use for functional food applications. Results showed that the oral administration of MPH at three doses (D1, 100 mg kg-1 BW; D2, 400 mg kg-1 BW; and D3, 2000 mg kg-1 BW) to male Wistar rats did not induce any adverse effects or mortality up to13 days of treatment. Data analysis of relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters did not show any significant differences between control and treated groups at the three doses investigated. Data from histopathological observations did not reveal any signs of major toxicity at the doses D1 and D2. However, mild signs of inflammation and necrosis were observed in the kidney of rats fed MPH at D3. All together, these results reveal the overall safety of MPH and provide new evidence for advocating their use for functional food or nutraceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  19. Chellathurai MS, Yong CL, Sofian ZM, Sahudin S, Hasim NBM, Mahmood S
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2023 Jul 15;243:125125.
    PMID: 37263321 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.125125
    Chitosan is an abundant natural cationic polysaccharide with excellent biodegradability, bioadhesion, and biocompatibility. Chitosan is extensively researched for various particulate oral insulin drug delivery systems. Oral insulin is economically efficient and more convenient than injections, with greater patient compliance. Electrostatic ionic interaction between cationic chitosan and anionic polymer or insulin leads to the formation of spontaneously self-assembled nanoparticles. This simple technique attracted many researchers as it can be carried out quickly in mild conditions without harmful solvents, such as surfactants or chemical cross-linkers that might degrade the insulin structure. The formulated chitosan nanoparticles help to protect the core insulin from enzymatic degradation in the digestive system and improve paracellular intestinal uptake from the enterocytes due to mucoadhesion and reversible tight junction opening. Moreover, functionalized chitosan nanoparticles create newer avenues for targeted and prolonged delivery. This review focuses on modified chitosan-insulin nanoparticles and their implications on oral insulin delivery. Dependent variables and their optimal concentration ranges used in self-assembly techniques for chitosan-insulin nanoparticular synthesis are summarized. This review provides a comprehensive guide to fine-tune the essential factors to formulate stable insulin-chitosan nanoparticles using mild ionic interactions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  20. Khan AA, Akhtar S, Yadav Y, Atiya A, Alelwani W, Bannunah AM, et al.
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2023;20(10):1474-1486.
    PMID: 35980056 DOI: 10.2174/1567201819666220817111054
    BACKGROUND: The antiretroviral protease inhibitor drug, lopinavir (LPV), is used to treat HIV-1 infection. LPV is known to have limited oral bioavailability, which may be attributed to its poor aqueous solubility, low efficacy and high first-pass metabolism. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) for LPV have been developed and optimised to counter the current issues.

    METHODS: The titration method was used to prepare LPV-loaded SNEDDS (LPV-SNEDDS). Six different pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the nanoemulsifying region. The developed formulations were chosen in terms of globule size < 100 nm, dispersity ≤ 0.5, dispersibility (Grade A) and% transmittance > 85. Heating-cooling cycle, freeze-thaw cycle, and centrifugation studies were performed to confirm the stability of the developed SNEDDS.

    RESULTS: The final LPV-SNEDDS (L-14) droplet size was 58.18 ± 0.62 nm, with polydispersity index, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency (EE%) values of 0.326 ± 0.005, -22.08 ± 1.2 mV, and 98.93 ± 1.18%, respectively. According to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis, the droplets in the optimised formulation were < 60 nm in size. The selected SNEDDS released nearly 99% of the LPV within 30 min, which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the LPV-suspension in methylcellulose (0.5% w/v). It indicates the potential use of SNEDDS to enhance the solubility of LPV, which eventually could help improve the oral bioavailability of LPV. The Caco-2 cellular uptake study showed a significantly (p < 0.05) higher LPV uptake from the SNEEDS (LPV-SNEDDS-L-14) than the free LPV (LPV-suspension).

    CONCLUSION: The LPV-SNEDDS could be a potential carrier for LPV oral delivery.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
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