AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to compile the preclinical and clinical studies that had been done on EGCG to investigate its protective effect on cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in order to provide a systematic guidance for future research.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research papers related to EGCG were obtained from the major scientific databases, for example, Science direct, PubMed, NCBI, Springer and Google scholar, from 1995 to 2017.
RESULTS: EGCG was found to exhibit a wide range of therapeutic properties including anti-atherosclerosis, anti-cardiac hypertrophy, anti-myocardial infarction, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. These therapeutic effects are mainly associated with the inhibition of LDL cholesterol (anti-atherosclerosis), inhibition of NF-κB (anti-cardiac hypertrophy), inhibition of MPO activity (anti-myocardial infarction), reduction in plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin level (anti-diabetes), reduction of inflammatory markers (anti-inflammatory) and the inhibition of ROS generation (antioxidant).
CONCLUSION: EGCG shows different biological activities and in this review, a compilation of how this bioactive molecule plays its role in treating cardiovascular and metabolic diseases was discussed.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity as well as the preliminary mechanism of S. ferruginea parasitizing on Tecoma stans.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-inflammatory capability of freeze-dried stem aqueous extract was assessed via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism was deciphered through reverse transcriptase and real time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR and qPCR) for inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-1β, and TNF-α mRNA expression.
RESULTS: The results exhibited that aqueous extract of freeze-dried S. ferruginea stem sample concentration-dependently inhibited IL-1β protein production along with the down regulation of iNOS and IL-1β mRNA expression. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the protein release of IL-6 and IL-10 in a concentration-dependent manner. However, it slightly reduced TNF-α at higher sample concentration (250 μg/mL) without affecting the mRNA expression levels of COX-2 and TNF-α.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that S. ferruginea parasitizing on Tecoma stans exerted anti-inflammatory capability attributed to inhibition of iNOS and IL-1β mRNA expression, NO creation, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α protein production, indicating this plant might be a useful plant-derived candidate against inflammation.