A new era of metal-based drugs started in the 1960s, heralded by the discovery of potent platinum-based complexes, commencing with cisplatin [(H₃N)₂PtCl₂], which are effective anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. While clinical applications of gold-based drugs largely relate to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, attention has turned to the investigation of the efficacy of gold(I) and gold(III) compounds for anti-cancer applications. This review article provides an account of the latest research conducted during the last decade or so on the development of gold compounds and their potential activities against several cancers as well as a summary of possible mechanisms of action/biological targets. The promising activities and increasing knowledge of gold-based drug metabolism ensures that continued efforts will be made to develop gold-based anti-cancer agents.
The evaluation of crude drugs of natural origin as sources of new effective anticancer agents continues to be important due to the lack of effective anticancer drugs currently used in practice which are generally accompanied with adverse effects at different levels of severity. The aim of this concise review is to gather existing literature on anticancer potential of extracts and compounds isolated from Celastraceae species. This review covers six genera (Maytenus, Tripterygium, Hippocratea, Gymnosporia, Celastrus and Austroplenckia) belonging to this family and their 33 isolates. Studies carried out by using different cell lines have shown remarkable indication of anticancer activity, however, only a restricted number of studies have been reported using in vivo tumor models. Some of the compounds, such as triptolide, celastrol and demethylzeylasteral from T. wilfordii, have been extensively studied on their mechanisms of action due to their potent activity on various cancer cell lines. Such promising lead compounds should generate considerable interest among scientists to improve their therapeutic potential with fewer side effects by molecular modification.
Nanoprecipitation is a simple and increasingly trending method for nanoparticles preparation. The self-assembly feature of poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) amphiphilic copolymer into a nanoparticle and its versatile structure makes nanoprecipitation one of the best methods for its preparation. The aim of this study is to review currently available literature for standard preparation of PEG-PLGA nanoparticles using nanoprecipitation technique in order to draw conclusive evidenceto draw conclusive evidence that can guide researchers during formulation development. To achieve this, three databases (Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed) were searched using relevant keywords and the extracted articles were reviewed based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extraction and narrative analysis of the obtained literature was performed when appropriate, along with our laboratory observations to support those claims wherever necessary. As a result of this analysis, reports that matched our criteria conformed to the general facts about nanoprecipitation techniques such as simplicity in procedure, low surfactants requirement, narrow size distribution, and low resulting concentrations. However, these reports showed interesting advantages for using PEG-PLGA as they are frequently reported to be freeze-dried and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with low hydrophobicity were reported to successfully be encapsulated in the particles.
Amounting scientific evidences have revealed the antitumor, antimetastatic, antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, chemopreventive and neo-adjuvant efficacy of Prophetic Medicine in various in vitro, in vivo and clinical cancer models. Prophetic Medicine includes plants, dietary materials or spices that were used as remedy recipes and nutrition by the great Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) to treat various ailments. Prophetic medicine is the total authentic Hadith narrated by the Prophet (PBUH) in relation to medicine, whether Qur'anic verses or honourable Prophetic Hadith. The ability of functional foods from Prophetic Medicine to modulate various signalling pathways and multidrug resistance conferring proteins with low side-effects exemplify their great potential as neo-adjuvants and/or chemotherapeutics. The present review aims to provide the collective in vitro, in vivo, clinical and epidemiology information of Prophetic Medicines, and their bioactive constituents and molecular mechanisms as potential functional foods for the management of cancer.
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are a class of naturally occurring steroid-like compounds, and members of this class have been in clinical use for more than 1500 years. They have been used in folk medicine as arrow poisons, abortifacients, heart tonics, emetics, and diuretics as well as in other applications. The major use of CGs today is based on their ability to inhibit the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme, and they are regarded as an effective treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, increasing evidence has indicated the potential cytotoxic effects of CGs against various types of cancer. In this review, we highlight some of the structural features of this class of natural products that are crucial for their efficacy, some methods of isolating these compounds from natural resources, and the structural elucidation tools that have been used. We also describe their physicochemical properties and several modern biotechnological approaches for preparing CGs that do not require plant sources.
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) ink was synthesized from metal chloride precursors, sulfur, and oleylamine (OLA), as a ligand by a simple and low-cost hot-injection method. Thin films of CZTS were then prepared by spin coating, followed by thermal annealing. The effects of the fabrication parameters, such as ink concentration, spinning rate, and thermal treatment temperatures on the morphology and structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films were investigated. As expected, very thin films, for which the level of transmittance and band-gap values increase, can be obtained either by reducing the concentration of the inks or by increasing the rate of spinning. Moreover, the thermal treatment affects the phase formation and crystallinity of the film, as well as the electrical conductivity, which decreases at a higher temperature.
Reprogramming of energy metabolism is pivotal to cancer, so mitochondria are potential targets for anticancer therapy. A prior study has demonstrated the anti-proliferative activity of a new class of mitochondria-targeting rosamines. This present study describes in vitro cytotoxicity of second-generation rosamine analogs, their mode of action, and their in vivo efficacies in a tumor allografted mouse model. Here, we showed that these compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity (average IC50<0.5 µM), inhibited Complex II and ATP synthase activities of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway and induced loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. A NCI-60 cell lines screen further indicated that rosamine analogs 4 and 5 exhibited potent antiproliferative effects with Log10GI50 = -7 (GI50 = 0.1 µM) and were more effective against a colorectal cancer sub-panel than other cell lines. Preliminary in vivo studies on 4T1 murine breast cancer-bearing female BALB/c mice indicated that treatment with analog 5 in a single dosing of 5 mg/kg or a schedule dosing of 3 mg/kg once every 2 days for 6 times (q2d×6) exhibited only minimal induction of tumor growth delay. Our results suggest that rosamine analogs may be further developed as mitochondrial targeting agents. Without a doubt proper strategies need to be devised to enhance tumor uptake of rosamines, i.e. by integration to carrier molecules for better therapeutic outcome.
The antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass) extracts were investigated. The extracts were isolated by solvent maceration method and thereafter subjected to antiproliferative activity test on five different cancer cells: human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), breast carcinoma (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3 and COAV), and a normal liver cell line (WRL 68). The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed a concentration dependent trend. A maximum percentage inhibition of 45% and an IC50 of 278 μg/mL were observed when aqueous extract was evaluated. In contrast, 48.3% and IC50 of 258.9 μg/mL were observed when 50% ethanolic extract was evaluated. Both extracts at concentration of 50 to 800 μg/mL showed appreciative metal chelating activity with IC50 value of 172.2 ± 31 μg/mL to 456.5 ± 30 μg/mL. Depending on extraction solvent content, extract obtained from 50% ethanolic solvent proved to be more potent on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 68 μg/mL). On the other hand, 90% ethanolic extract showed a moderate potency on the ovarian cancer (COAV) and MCF-7 cells having an IC50 of 104.6 μg/mL each. These results suggested antiproliferative efficacy of C. citratus ethanolic extract against human cancer cell lines.
Motivated by the success and exhaustive research on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based drug delivery, graphene, a two-dimensional; honey-comb crystal lattice has emerged as the rising star in recent years. Graphene is a flat monolayer of carbon atoms that holds many promising properties such as unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable electronic properties, and most intriguingly higher planar surface and superlative mechanical strength, which are attractive in biotechnological applications. Delivery of anti-cancer drugs using graphene and its derivatives has sparked major interest in this emerging field. The anti-cancer therapies often pose a limitation of insolubility, administration problems and cell penetration ability. In addition, systemic toxicity caused by lack of selective targeting towards cancer cells and inefficient distribution limits its clinical applications. Graphene nanocomposite is a promising tool to address these drawbacks. This review will focus on various synthesis and functionalization of graphene and graphene oxide for providing better solubility and targeted drug delivery at cancer cells. A more advanced and 'smart' graphene hybrid nanostructures that have several functionalities such as stimulus-response mediated delivery, imaging at release sites as well as transfection into cancer cells are also presented. A brief description on the challenges and perspectives for future research in this field is also discussed.
The leaves of Cinnamomum iners (Reinw. ex Blume-Lauraceae) have been refluxed successively with chloroform and alcohol to get chloroform extract and alcoholic extract. Both the extracts have been assayed for cytotoxicity against human colorectal tumour cells. The chloroform extract exhibited significant cytotoxicity with IC(50) 31 µg mL(-1) (p 200 µg mL(-1). The chloroform extract has been further proceeded for chemical analysis by GC-TOFMS and 178 components were identified including acids, amines, amides, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, benzene derivatives, bicyclic compounds, terpenes, hydrocarbons, naphthalene derivatives, furan derivatives, azulenes, etc. Nine components representing 51.73% of the total chloroform extract were detected as major components. Caryophyllene (14.41%) and Eicosanoic acid ethyl ester (12.17%) are the most prominent components of the chloroform extract. β-Caryophyllene (14.41%) as most abundant compound supports potent cytotoxicity as shown by chloroform extract.
An easy and efficient strategy to prepare betulinic acid esters with various anhydrides was used by the enzymatic synthesis method. It involves lipase-catalyzed acylation of betulinic acid with anhydrides as acylating agents in organic solvent. Lipase from Candida antarctica immobilized on an acrylic resin (Novozym 435) was employed as a biocatalyst. Several 3-O-acyl-betulinic acid derivatives were successfully obtained by this procedure. The anticancer activity of betulinic acid and its 3-O-acylated derivatives were then evaluated in vitro against human lung carcinoma (A549) and human ovarian (CAOV3) cancer cell lines. 3-O-glutaryl-betulinic acid, 3-O-acetyl-betulinic acid, and 3-O-succinyl-betulinic acid showed IC(50)<10 microg/ml against A549 cancer cell line tested and showed better cytotoxicity than betulinic acid. In an ovarian cancer cell line, all betulinic acid derivatives prepared showed weaker cytotoxicity than betulinic acid.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cellular activity of novel spiroisoxazoline type compounds against normal and cancer cell lines from lung tissue (Hs888Lu), neuron-phenotypic cells (SH-SY5Y), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), human histiocytic lymphoma (U937), lung cancer (A549), and leukaemia (HL-60). Our bioassay program revealed that the spiroisoxazoline type compounds show cytotoxicity only in lymphoma cell lines, which is in contrast with the pyrrolidine precursor of these spiroisoxazoline compounds, where significant cytotoxicity is seen in all normal and cancer cell lines. These data suggest a tumour-specific mechanism of action. In addition these data also show that spiroisoxazoline compounds are non-toxic in the human neuronphenotypic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, and furthermore that they might protect cells from neurodegenerative disease.
Nitrogen mustard alkylating agents are important cancer drugs. Much interest has been focused on redirecting their covalent adducts from the N7 atoms of guanine in the major groove of DNA to the N3 atoms of adenine in the minor groove by attaching mustard groups to AT-selective minor groove binding ligands. Here we describe the use of electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to study the structure of the DNA complexes of two minor groove binding polybenzamide mustards, alkamin and alkamini; the former is a bis-half-mustard in which reactive groups are disposed at each end of the ligand, and the latter is its monofunctional analog. Alkamin is potently cytotoxic and active in experimental mouse tumor models, whereas alkamini is not. We have studied their interaction with the DNA dodecamer d(CGCGAATTCGCG)(2), designated A2T2, and we provide a detailed analysis of the observed DNA-ligand adduct ions and their fragmentation products. We find that alkamini alkylates A2T2 at guanine G4 and adenines A5 and A6 in a manner consistent with covalent attack on purine N3 atoms from the minor groove of the AT tract. Alkamin also forms monofunctional adducts at G4 and both adenines in which the second mustard arm is hydrolyzed but, in addition, forms a variety of interstrand cross-links between adenines A5/A6 and A5'/A6', an interstrand cross-link between G4 and A6', and an intrastrand cross-link between G4 and A6. We conclude that the marked cytotoxicity of alkamin and its experimental antitumor activity could be the consequence of its ability to cross-link cellular DNA at AT tract sequences.
Hematologic malignancies constitute about 9% of all new cases of cancers as reported via the GLOBOCAN series by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2008. So far, the conventional therapeutic and surgical approaches to cancer therapy have not been able to curtail the rising incidence of cancers, including hematological malignancies, worldwide. The last decade has witnessed great research interest in biological activities of phenolic compounds that include anticancer, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, among other things. A large number of anticancer agents combat cancer through cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and differentiation, as well as through inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, or a combination of two or more of these mechanisms. Various phenolic compounds from different sources have been reported to be promising anticancer agents by acting through one of these mechanisms. Honey, which has a long history of human consumption both for medicinal and nutritional uses, contains a variety of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins and tannins. This paper presents a review on the molecular mechanisms of the anti-leukemic activity of various phenolic compounds on cell cycle, cell growth and proliferation and apoptosis, and it advocates that more studies should be conducted to determine the potential role of honey in both chemoprevention and chemotherapy in leukemia.
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Several classes of drugs are available to treat different types of cancer. Currently, researchers are paying significant attention to the development of drugs at the nanoscale level to increase their target specificity and to reduce their concentrations. Nanotechnology is a promising and growing field with multiple subdisciplines, such as nanostructures, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles. These materials have gained prominence in science due to their size, shape, and potential efficacy. Nanomedicine is an important field involving the use of various types of nanoparticles to treat cancer and cancerous cells. Synthesis of nanoparticles targeting biological pathways has become tremendously prominent due to the higher efficacy and fewer side effects of nanodrugs compared to other commercial cancer drugs. In this review, different medicinal plants and their active compounds, as well as green-synthesized metallic nanoparticles from medicinal plants, are discussed in relation to their anticancer activities.
A Montana soil actinomycete, Streptomyces anulatus, produced (1 x 10(-2)% yield) a new cancer cell growth inhibitory cyclooctadepsipeptide named montanastatin (1) accompanied by the potent anticancer antibiotic valinomycin (2) in very high (5.1%) yields. Valinomycin but not montanastatin inhibited growth of a number of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Interpretation of high-field (500 MHz) NMR and high-resolution FAB mass spectral data allowed assignment of the structure cyclo-(D-Val-L-Lac-L-Val-D-Hiv) to montanastatin. Valinomycin (2) was also isolated from actinomycetes cultured from a tree branch and animal feces collected in Malaysia. Streptomyces exfoliatus, isolated from the tree branch, was found to contain valinomycin in 1.6% yield, while the fecal isolate, S. anulatus, gave valinomycin in 0.9% yield.
Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau leaves are widely used by cancer patients and the leaf extracts possess cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects on several human cancer cell lines. However, the effect of C. nutans leaf extract on human melanoma, which is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer and one of the most common cancers diagnosed in both sexes worldwide, is unknown. There is also limited information on whether the bioactivity of extracts differs between C. nutans leaves grown in different geographical locations with varying environmental conditions.
Griseofulvin (1) is an important antifungal agent that has recently received attention due to its antiproliferative activity in mammalian cancer cells. Comprehensive SAR studies have led to the identification of 2'-benzyloxy griseofulvin 2, a more potent analogue with low micromolar anticancer potency in vitro. Analogue 2 was also shown to retard tumor growth through inhibition of centrosomal clustering in murine xenograft models of colon cancer and multiple myeloma. However, similar to griseofulvin, compound 2 exhibited poor metabolic stability and aqueous solubility. In order to improve the poor pharmacokinetic properties, 11 griseofulvin analogues were synthesized and evaluated for biological activity and physiological stabilities including SGF, plasma, and metabolic stability. Finally, the most promising compounds were investigated in respect to thermodynamic solubility and formulation studies. The 2'-benzylamine analogue 10 proved to be the most promising compound with low μM in vitro anticancer potency, a 200-fold increase in PBS solubility over compound 2, and with improved metabolic stability. Furthermore, this analogue proved compatible with formulations suitable for both oral and intravenous administration. Finally, 2'-benzylamine analogue 10 was confirmed to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest in vitro.
Binding studies between a multi-targeted anticancer drug, sunitinib (SU) and human serum albumin (HSA) were made using fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking analysis. Both fluorescence quenching data and UV-vis absorption results suggested formation of SU-HSA complex. Moderate binding affinity between SU and HSA was evident from the value of the binding constant (3.04×104M-1), obtained at 298K. Involvement of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds as the leading intermolecular forces in the formation of SU-HSA complex was predicted from the thermodynamic data of the binding reaction. These results were in good agreement with the molecular docking analysis. Microenvironmental perturbations around Tyr and Trp residues as well as secondary and tertiary structural changes in HSA upon SU binding were evident from the three-dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism results. SU binding to HSA also improved the thermal stability of the protein. Competitive displacement results and molecular docking analysis revealed the binding locus of SU to HSA in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I). The influence of a few common ions on the binding constant of SU-HSA complex was also noticed.
The cluster-determinant 44 (CD44) receptor has a high affinity for hyaluronic acid (HA) binding and is a desirable receptor for active targeting based on its overexpression in cancer cells compared with normal body cells. The nanocarrier affinity can be increased by conjugating drug-loaded carriers with HA, allowing enhanced cancer cell uptake via the HA-CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. In this review, we discuss recent advances in HA-based nanocarriers and micelles for cancer therapy. In vitro and in vivo experiments have repeatedly indicated HA-based nanocarriers to be a target-specific drug and gene delivery platform with great promise for future applications in clinical cancer therapy.