Seven flavonoid compounds have been isolated from the aerial parts of tiger's betel (Piper porphyrophyllum), which were identified as 5,7-dimethoxyflavone, 4',5,7-trimethoxy-flavone, 3',4',5,7-tetramethoxyflavone, 4'-hydroxy-3',5,7-trimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3',4',7-trimethoxyflavone, 4',5-dihydroxy-3',7-dimethoxyflavone and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone. The identification of all compounds was achieved by physical properties and spectroscopically. These data were also confirmed by comparison with previously reported spectral data. Flavonoid compounds with high content in P. porphyrophyllum can probably be used as a chemical marker for this Piper species.
Fifteen prenylated or geranylated flavanones and flavanonols were isolated from the leaf extracts of different Glycosmis species collected in Thailand and Malaysia. All structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially 1D and 2D NMR. Six compounds were described for the first time and two were only known so far as synthetic products. The chemotaxonomic significance of flavanoid accumulation within the genus Glycosmis is highlighted.
With the rapid development of ionic liquid analogues, termed 'deep eutectic solvents' (DESs), and their application in a wide range of chemical and biochemical processes in the past decade, the extraction of bioactive compounds has attracted significant interest. Recently, numerous studies have explored the extraction of bioactive compounds using DESs from diverse groups of natural sources, including animal and plant sources. This review summarizes the-state-of-the-art effort dedicated to the application of DESs in the extraction of bioactive compounds. The aim of this review also was to introduce conventional and recently-developed extraction techniques, with emphasis on the use of DESs as potential extractants for various bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acid, flavonoids, tanshinone, keratin, tocols, terpenoids, carrageenans, xanthones, isoflavones, α-mangostin, genistin, apigenin, and others. In the near future, DESs are expected to be used extensively for the extraction of bioactive compounds from various sources.
Telfairia occidentalis possesses high antioxidant activity. However, the antioxidant components of the plant have not yet been identified. This study was undertaken to identify the phenolics in the leaf of the plant. Extract and fractions of the leaf of the plant were analysed using the HPLC and GCMS. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid (22.19μg/mg), catechin (29.17μg/mg), caffeic acid (9.17μg/mg), ferulic acid (0.94μg/mg), sinapic acid (1.91 μg/mg) and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (43.86 μg/mg) in the aqueous extract. Phenolics fraction contained gallic acid (0.88 μg/mg), catechin (2.70μg/mg), caffeic acid (7.92μg/mg), ferulic acid (2.72μg/mg), benzoic acid (6.36μg/mg), p-coumaric acid (1.48μg/mg), quercetin (12.00μg/mg). Only caffeic acid (2.50μg/mg), ferulic acid (0.44μg/mg) and quercetin (8.50μg/mg) were detected in the flavonoid fraction. While GCMS analysis showed the presence of methylparaben; ethylparaben; benzoic acid; 4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-3,5,6-trimethyl-, methyl ester; 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy; phenol, 5-methoxy-2-(methoxymethyl)-; phenol, 5-methoxy-2, 3- dimethyl; and phenol, 2-(2-benzothiazolyl)-. This study is the first to reveal the identity of some phenolics components of the leaf of Telfairia occidentalis.
The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. The flavonoids, kaempferol, and catechin were most abundant, followed by myricetin and naringenin. The mean moisture content, total sugar content, and color characteristics of the honey samples were 18.36 ± 0.95%, 67.40 ± 5.63 g/100 g, and 129.27 ± 34.66 mm Pfund, respectively. The mean total phenolic acids, total flavonoid content, and proline content were 199.20 ± 135.23, 46.73 ± 34.16, and 556.40 ± 376.86 mg/kg, respectively, while the mean FRAP values and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 327.30 ± 231.87 μM Fe (II)/100 g and 36.95 ± 20.53%, respectively. Among the different types of honey, kalijira exhibited the highest phenolics and antioxidant properties. Overall, our study confirms that all the investigated honey samples are good sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids with good antioxidant properties.
Baeckea frutescens or locally known as Cucur atap is used as antibacterial, antidysentery, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In Malaysia and Indonesia, they are used as an ingredient of the traditional medicine given to mothers during confinement. A three-steps infra-red (IR) macro-fingerprinting method combining conventional IR spectra, and the secondary derivative spectra with two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) have been proved to be effective methods to examine a complicated mixture such as herbal medicines. This study investigated the feasibility of employing multi-steps IR spectroscopy in order to study the main constituents of B. frutescens and its different extracts (extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. The structural information of the samples indicated that B. frutescens and its extracts contain a large amount of flavonoids, since some characteristic absorption peaks of flavonoids, such as ∼1600cm(-1), ∼1500cm(-1), ∼1450cm(-1), and ∼1270cm(-1) can be observed. The macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information of main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.
Successive extraction of the dried leaves of Melastoma malabathricum, followed by purification using repeated chromatographic techniques, yielded six compounds, including two amides, auranamide and patriscabratine, a triterpene, alpha-amyrin, and three flavonoids, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol-3-O-(2'',6''-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)-beta-glucoside. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means and also by direct comparison of their spectroscopic data with respective published data. These three phenolic constituents were found to be active as free radical scavengers, with quercetin being the strongest radical scavenger, having an IC(50) value of 0.69 microM in the UV method. Quercitrin and kaempferol-3-O-(2'',6''-di-O-p-trans-coumaroyl)-beta-glucoside showed moderate radical scavenging, with IC(50) values of 74.1 and 108.8 microM, respectively.
A new resveratrol trimer, malaysianol A (1), five known resveratrol oligomers: laevifonol (2), ampelopsin E (3), α-viniferin (4), ε-viniferin (5), diptoindonesin A (6), and bergenin (7) have been isolated from the acetone extract of the stem bark of Dryobalanops aromatica by combination of vacuum and radial chromatography techniques. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic evidence and comparison with the published data. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was tested against several cell lines in which compound 4 was found to inhibit strongly the growth of HL-60 cell line.
Five prenylflavonoids and two prenylchalcones from Artocarpus lowii King, A. scortechinii King and A. teysmanii Miq., and acetylated derivatives of cycloheterophyllin and artonin E were investigated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood by using an electrical impedance method. Among the tested compounds, only cycloheterophyllin inhibited AA-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) value of 100.9 microM. It also showed strong inhibition against ADP-induced aggregation, with an IC(50) value of 57.1 microM. Isobavachalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3'-prenyldihydrochalcone, cycloartobiloxanthone, artonin E and artonin E triacetate showed selective inhibition against ADP-induced aggregation, with IC(50) values ranging from 55.3 to 192.0 microM, but did not show such effect against other inducers.
Five flavonoids, 5-hydroxy-(6:7,3':4')-di(2,2-dimethylpyrano)flavone 1, carpachromene 2, cycloartocarpesin 3, norartocarpetin 4 and 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 5, along with three triterpenes, friedelin 6, lupeol 7 and 13-sitosterol 8 were isolated for the first time from the leaves of Artocarpus fulvicortex F.M. Jarrett. The structures of these compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison of these with those reported in the literature.
Two new biflavonoids, pyranoamentoflavone 7-methyl ether (1) and pyranoamentoflavone 4'-methyl ether (2), have been isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum venulosum. The structures of these two new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data.
Four complex flavanones, kurziflavolactones A , B , C , and D  and a complex chalcone 6 with an unprecedented carbon side chain on the flavanone or chalcone A ring have been isolated from a Malaysian plant, Cryptocarya kurzii (Lauraceae). Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, especially 2D nmr experiments. Compounds 3 and 6 showed slight cytotoxicity against KB cells, with IC50 values of 4 and 15 micrograms/ml, respectively. A biosynthetic pathway for the formation of these compounds is suggested.
A large phytochemical survey of the flora of the Malaysian Peninsula and Sabah is described, covering the systematic search for alkaloids, and partly, for saponins and flavonoids. Details of some chemical studies are reported. This emphasizes the great interest of such a study.
A new flavonoid, dihydroglychalcone-A, was isolated from the leaves extract of Glycosmis chlorosperma in addition to two known sulphur-containing amides, dambullin and gerambullin. The structure of the new compound was assigned as 2'-hydroxy-4,6'-dimethoxy-3',4'-(2",2"-dimethylpyrano)dihydrochalcone. The extract of the leaves was also found to exhibit antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.
Clinacanthus nutans is widely grown in tropical Asia and locally known "belalai gajah" or Sabah snake grass. It has been used as a natural product to treat skin rashes, snake bites, lesion caused by herpes, diabetes, fever, and cancer. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to determine the maximum yield and time of exhaustive flavonoids extraction using Peleg's model and to evaluate potential of antiproliferative activity on human lung cancer cell (A549). The extraction process was carried out on fresh and dried leaves at 28 to 30°C with liquid-to-solid ratio of 10 mL/g for 72 hrs. The extracts were collected intermittently analysed using mathematical Peleg's model and RP-HPLC. The highest amount of flavonoids was used to evaluate the inhibitory concentration (IC50) via 2D cell culture of A549. Based on the results obtained, the predicted maximum extract density was observed at 29.20 ± 14.54 hrs of extraction (texhaustive). However, the exhaustive time of extraction to acquire maximum flavonoids content exhibited approximately 10 hrs earlier. Therefore, 18 hrs of extraction time was chosen to acquire high content of flavonoids. The best antiproliferative effect (IC50) on A549 cell line was observed at 138.82 ± 0.60 µg/mL. In conclusion, the flavonoids content in Clinacanthus nutans water extract possesses potential antiproliferative properties against A549, suggesting an alternative approach for cancer treatment.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.