Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

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  1. Loh KE, Chin YS, Safinar Ismail I, Tan HY
    Phytochem Anal, 2022 Jan;33(1):12-22.
    PMID: 34000756 DOI: 10.1002/pca.3057
    INTRODUCTION: Hyperuricemia is the key risk factor for gout, in which the elevated uric acid is attributed to the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid by xanthine oxidase (XO). Adverse effects of the current treatments lead to an urgent need for safer and more effective alternative from natural resources.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the metabolite profile of Chrysanthemum morifolium flower fraction with that of its detannified fraction in relation to XO inhibitory activity using a rapid and effective metabolomics approach.

    METHODS: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR)-based metabolomics approach coupled with multivariate data analysis was utilised to characterise the XO inhibitors related to the antioxidant properties, total phenolic, and total flavonoid contents of the C. morifolium dried flowers.

    RESULTS: The highest XO inhibitory activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content with strong positive correlation between them were observed in the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction. Detannified EtOAc showed higher XO inhibitory activity than non-detannified EtOAc fraction. A total of 17 metabolites were tentatively identified, of which three namely kaempferol, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and apigenin, could be suggested to be responsible for the strong XO inhibitory activity. Additive interaction between 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and apigenin (or kaempferol) in XO inhibition was demonstrated in the interaction assay conducted.

    CONCLUSION: Chrysanthemum morifolium dried flower-part could be further explored as a natural XO inhibitor for its anti-hyperuricemic potential. Metabolomics approach served as an effective classification of plant metabolites responsible for XO inhibitory activity, and demonstrated that multiple active compounds can work additively in giving combined inhibitory effects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry
  2. Moniruzzaman M, Chowdhury MA, Rahman MA, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:359890.
    PMID: 24982869 DOI: 10.1155/2014/359890
    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry
  3. Chong FC, Gwee XF
    Nat Prod Res, 2015;29(15):1485-7.
    PMID: 25836369 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1027892
    The ultrasonic extraction (UE) method of anthocyanin from Clitoria ternatea flowers using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed in this study. By using RSM, the objective is to optimise the extraction yield of anthocyanin from C. ternatea which is influenced by various factors, including the extraction temperature, time, ratio of solvent to solid and ultrasonic power. The empirical model was investigated by performing first-level optimisation in a two-level factorial design with Design Expert 7 software. In comparison with the conventional solvent extraction, UE showed a 246.48% better extraction yield and produced an anthocyanin extract with a radical scavenging activity of 68.48% at the optimised factors of 50°C, 150 min, 15 mL/g and 240 W.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
  4. Wee SL, Tan SB, Jürgens A
    Phytochemistry, 2018 Sep;153:120-128.
    PMID: 29906658 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.06.005
    The plants of the enigmatic genus Rafflesia are well known for their gigantic flowers and their floral features such as pungent floral scent and vivid dark color, which mimics the food/brood sites of carrion. However, information on the pollination biology of this plant group remains limited and mostly anecdotal. In the present paper, we studied the floral volatiles of R. cantleyi Solms-Laubach and their role in pollinator attraction. To achieve these aims, the floral scent was collected in situ in the field using a dynamic headspace method followed by chemical analysis via GC-MS. The olfactory preferences of pollinators to the identified chemical compounds, were tested singly and in blends, in flight tunnel bioassays and compared with responses to headspace floral extracts. In addition, flower-visiting calliphorid flies and the local carrion fly community were sampled and identified. Five species of calliphorid flies (subfamilies of Chrysomyinae and Calliphorinae), all females, were found on the flowers, whereas nine species were found in the traps that were baited with tainted meat in the surrounding habitat. However, only flower visitors of one blow fly species, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, were observed to carry R. cantleyi pollen after visiting male flowers. The floral volatiles emitted by male flowers in full bloom were dominated by two sulphur-containing compounds, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). These were accompanied by other minor compounds such as benzenoids (4), monoterpenoids (4), trace amounts of aliphatic compounds (1), and sesquiterpenes (1). In flight-tunnel bioassays, a female-specific positive response of C. chani flies to individual DMDS, DMTS, and a blend of DMDS and DMTS was evident. Our findings suggest that R. cantleyi biochemically mimics carrion and that relative ratio of oligosulfides in the floral scent play a key role in sex-biased pollinator specialization, attracting only female C. chani carrion flies to the flowers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
  5. Ng WJ, Ken KW, Kumar RV, Gunasagaran H, Chandramogan V, Lee YY
    PMID: 25435614
    BACKGROUND: Different researches on therapeutic effects of honey have been conducted in different regions; however the study on the potential antibacterial activity of Malaysian honey is still limited. In this study, antibacterial activities of different monofloral honey samples were tested against several common human pathogenic bacteria.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The well-diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) techniques were employed to investigate the putative antibacterial activity of Malaysian monofloral honey from Koompassia excelsa (Becc.) Taub (Tualang), Melaleuca cajuputi Powell (Gelam) and Durio zibethinus Murr. (Durian). Honey samples were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6518 and ATCC25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228, Enterococcus faecium LMG16192, Enterococcus faecalis LMG16216 and ATCC29212, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC14028 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC13883.

    RESULTS: Marked variations were observed in the antibacterial activity of these honey samples. Durian honey failed to produce substantial antibacterial activity, whereas Tualang and Gelam honey showed a spectrum of antibacterial activity with their growth inhibitory effects against all of the tested bacterial species including vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).

    CONCLUSION: Present findings suggested Gelam honey possesses highest antibacterial effect among the tested Malaysian honey samples.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
  6. Hasanudin K, Hashim P, Mustafa S
    Molecules, 2012 Aug 13;17(8):9697-715.
    PMID: 22890173 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17089697
    Corn silk (Stigma maydis) is an important herb used traditionally by the Chinese, and Native Americans to treat many diseases. It is also used as traditional medicine in many parts of the world such as Turkey, United States and France. Its potential antioxidant and healthcare applications as diuretic agent, in hyperglycemia reduction, as anti-depressant and anti-fatigue use have been claimed in several reports. Other uses of corn silk include teas and supplements to treat urinary related problems. The potential use is very much related to its properties and mechanism of action of its plant's bioactive constituents such as flavonoids and terpenoids. As such, this review will cover the research findings on the potential applications of corn silk in healthcare which include its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. In addition, the botanical description and its toxicological studies are also included.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
  7. Wong KC, Hag Ali DM, Boey PL
    Nat Prod Res, 2012;26(7):609-18.
    PMID: 21834640 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2010.538395
    The aqueous methanolic extracts of Melastoma malabathricum L. exhibited antibacterial activity when assayed against seven microorganisms by the agar diffusion method. Solvent fractionation afforded active chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions from the leaves and the flowers, respectively. A phytochemical study resulted in the identification of ursolic acid (1), 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (2), asiatic acid (3), β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and the glycolipid glycerol 1,2-dilinolenyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyanoside (5) from the chloroform fraction. Kaempferol (6), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), kaempferol 3-O-(2″,6″-di-O-E-p-coumaryl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (10), quercetin (11) and ellagic acid (12) were found in the ethyl acetate fraction. The structures of these compounds were determined by chemical and spectral analyses. Compounds 1-4, the flavonols (6 and 11) and ellagic acid (12) were found to be active against some of the tested microorganisms, while the kaempferol 3-O-glycosides (7-9) did not show any activity, indicating the role of the free 3-OH for antibacterial activity. Addition of p-coumaryl groups results in mild activity for 10 against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Compounds 2-5, 7 and 9-12 are reported for the first time from M. malabathricum. Compound 10 is rare, being reported only once before from a plant, without assignment of the double bond geometry in the p-coumaryl moiety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry
  8. Mahmood A, Omar MN, Ngah N
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Nov;5(11):882-6.
    PMID: 23146802 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60164-3
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of Musa x paradisiaca (M. x paradisiaca) flower extracts in promoting milk production of lactating rats and its effects on growth of the suckling pups.

    METHODS: Galactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with petroleum ether, ethanol or water extracts of the flower. Lactating rats (n = 5) of Spraque Dawley with six pups each were administered with the extracts in the amount of 500 mg/kg body weight, while the control rats were given an equivalent amount of distilled water. The rats were daily administered via oral feeding starting from Day 5 until Day 14 and the performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS by means of ANOVA at 0.05 and was expressed as their mean?standard deviation. The rates of pups' growth were measured as the weight gain along the experimental period.

    RESULTS: The rats treated with aqueous extract produced higher milk than control and ethanol groups. Aqueous extract was identified to increase milk production by 25%, while petroleum ether extract by 18%. The mean of yields produced by the rats during suckling period for aqueous, petroleum ether, ethanol and control were 4.62±2.45, 4.37±1.93, 3.65±1.89 and 3.69±1.79, respectively. Growth rates of pups for the rats treated with control, aqueous, ethanol extract and petroleum ether were (1.85±0.49), (1.78±0.56), (1.65±0.46) and (1.56±0.42) g/pup, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the potential of M. x paradisiaca flower to enhance milk production of nursing mothers which could be exploited for commercialization of the isolated extract.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry
  9. Khazaei S, Abdul Hamid R, Mohd Esa N, Ramachandran V, Aalam GT, Etemad A, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Feb 10;17(1):104.
    PMID: 28187719 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1594-6
    BACKGROUND: Liver cancer is a high incidence and fatal disease, the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide that is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. The number of deaths from liver cancer has not declined even following various therapies. Plant secondary metabolites and their semi-synthetic derivatives play a principal role in anti-cancer drug therapy, since they are effective in the treatment of specific characteristics while also reducing side effects. Allium atroviolaceum, a plant of the genus Allium has been used in folk medicine to protect against several diseases. However, cytotoxicity and the anti-proliferative effect of Allium atroviolaceum remain unclear. This work aims to investigate the anticancer properties of Allium atroviolaceum and the mechanism of action.

    METHODS: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of flower of Allium atroviolaceum, methanol extract at a dose range from 100 to 3.12 μg/ml was assessed against the HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cell line, and also on normal 3T3 cells, by monitoring proliferation using the MTT assay method. A microscopy study was undertaken to observe morphological changes of HepG2 cells after treatment and cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were studied using flow cytometry. The apoptosis mechanism of action was assessed by the level of caspase-3 activity and expression of apoptosis related genes, Bcl-2, Cdk1 and p53. The combination effect of the methanolic extract with doxorubicin was also investigated by determination of a combination index.

    RESULTS: The results demonstrated growth inhibition of cells in both dose- and time-dependent manners, while no cytotoxic effect on normal cell 3T3 was found. The results revealed the occurrence of apoptosis, illustrated by sub-G0 cell cycle arrest, the change in morphological feature and annexin-V and propidium iodide staining, which is correlated with Bcl-2 downregulation and caspase-3 activity, but p53-independent. In addition, a combination of Allium atroviolaceum and doxorubicin led to a significant synergistic effect.

    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that Allium atroviolaceum flower extract has potential as a potent cytotoxic agent against HepG2 cell lines, as it has commendable anti-proliferative activities against human hepatocarcinoma and it can be considered as an effective adjuvant therapeutic agent after the clinical trials.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
  10. Zengin G, Mahomoodally MF, Sinan KI, Picot-Allain MCN, Yildiztugay E, Cziáky Z, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2020 07;133:109129.
    PMID: 32466933 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109129
    The Crocus and Cyclamen genus have been reported to possess diverse biological properties. In the present investigation, two geophytes from these genus, namely Crocus pallasi and Cyclamen cilicium have been studied. The in vitro antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects of the methanol extracts of Crocus pallasii and Cyclamen cilicium aerial and underground parts were investigated. Antioxidant abilities of the extracts were investigated via different antioxidant assays (metal chelating, radical quenching (ABTS and DPPH), reducing power (CUPRAC and FRAP) and phosphomolybdenum). Cholinesterases, amylase, tyrosinase, and glucosidase were used as target enzymes for detecting enzyme inhibitory abilities of the samples. Regarding the cytotoxic abilities, breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7) and prostate cancer cell lines (DU-145) were used. The flowers extracts of Crocus pallasii and C. cilicium possessed the highest flavonoid content. The highest phenolic content was recorded from C. cilicium root extract (47.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract). Cyclamen cilicium root extract showed significantly (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry
  11. Torey A, Sasidharan S, Latha LY, Sudhakaran S, Ramanathan S
    Pharm Biol, 2010 Oct;48(10):1119-23.
    PMID: 20738154 DOI: 10.3109/13880200903490505
    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Ixora coccinea L. (Rubiaceae) flower, leaf and stem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry
  12. Baharara J, Namvar F, Ramezani T, Hosseini N, Mohamad R
    Molecules, 2014 Apr 15;19(4):4624-34.
    PMID: 24739926 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19044624
    Silver nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties which have attracted intensive research interest because of their important medical applications. In this study silver nanoparticles (Ab.Ag-NPs) were synthesized for biomedical applications using a completely green biosynthetic method using Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract. The structure and properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS). The UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 460 nm, which indicates the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The average particle diameter as determined by TEM was found to be 12±2 nm. The zeta potential analysis indicated that Ab.Ag-NPs have good stability EDX analysis also exhibits presentation of silver element. As angiogenesis is an important phenomenon and as growth factors imbalance in this process causes the acceleration of several diseases including cancer, the anti-angiogenic properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were evaluated using the rat aortic ring model. The results showed that Ab.Ag-NPs (200 μg/mL) lead to a 50% reduction in the length and number of vessel-like structures. The synthesized silver nanoparticles from the Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract, which do not involve any harmful chemicals were well-dispersed and stabilized through this green method and showed potential therapeutic benefits against angiogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
  13. Sumathy V, Zakaria Z, Chen Y, Latha LY, Jothy SL, Vijayarathna S, et al.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2013 Jun;17(12):1648-54.
    PMID: 23832733
    Cassia (C.) surattensis Burm. f. (Leguminosae), a medicinal herb native to tropical equatorial Asia, was commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of methanolic flower extract of C. surattensis against Aspergillus (A.) niger.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
  14. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A, Ashkani S
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 Sep 23;15:335.
    PMID: 26399961 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0838-6
    BACKGROUND: Etlingera elatior is a well-known herb in Malaysia with various pharmaceutical properties.

    METHODS: E. elatior flowers grown in three different locations of Malaysia (Kelantan, Pahang and Johor), were investigated for differences in their content of secondary metabolites (total phenolics [TPC], total flavonoids [TFC], and total tannin content [TTC]) as well as for their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were isolated and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities. The anticancer activity of extracts was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay.

    RESULTS: When extracted with various solvents (aqueous and ethanolic), samples from the different locations yielded significantly different results for TPC, TFC, and TTC as well as antioxidant activity. Aqueous extracts of E. elatior flowers collected from Kelantan exhibited the highest values: TPC (618.9 mg/100 g DM), TFC (354.2 mg/100 g DM), TTC (129.5 mg/100 g DM), DPPH (76.4 %), and FRAP (6.88 mM of Fe (II)/g) activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 34.5 μg/mL compared with extracts of flowers collected from the other two locations. The most important phenolic compounds isolated in this study, based on concentration, were: gallic acid > caffeic acid > tannic acid > chlorogenic acid; and the most important flavonoids were: quercetin > apigenin > kaempferol > luteolin > myricetin. Extracts of flowers from Kelantan exhibited potent anticancer activity with a IC50of 173.1 and 196.2 μg/mL against the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 respectively, compared with extracts from Pahang (IC50 = 204.5 and 246.2 μg/mL) and Johor samples (IC50 = 277.1 and 296.7 μg/mL). Extracts of E. elatior flowers also showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 30 to >100 μg/mL.

    CONCLUSIONS: In general, therefore, based on the potent antioxidant and anticancer activity of flower extracts, it appears that E. elatior grown in the North-east of Malaysia (Kelantan) is a potential source of therapeutic compounds with anti-cancer activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry
  15. Alhawarri MB, Dianita R, Razak KNA, Mohamad S, Nogawa T, Wahab HA
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 29;26(9).
    PMID: 33946788 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26092594
    Despite being widely used traditionally as a general tonic, especially in South East Asia, scientific research on Cassia timoriensis, remains scarce. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the in vitro activities for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory potential, radical scavenging ability, and the anti-inflammatory properties of different extracts of C. timoriensis flowers using Ellman's assay, a DPPH assay, and an albumin denaturation assay, respectively. With the exception of the acetylcholinesterase activity, to the best of our knowledge, these activities were reported for the first time for C. timoriensis flowers. The phytochemical analysis confirmed the existence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, and steroids in the C. timoriensis flower extracts. The ethyl acetate extract possessed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (527.43 ± 5.83 mg GAE/g DW and 851.83 ± 10.08 mg QE/g DW, respectively) as compared to the other extracts. In addition, the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant (IC50 20.12 ± 0.12 and 34.48 ± 0.07 µg/mL, respectively), anti-inflammatory (92.50 ± 1.38 and 92.22 ± 1.09, respectively), and anti-AChE (IC50 6.91 ± 0.38 and 6.40 ± 0.27 µg/mL, respectively) activities. These results suggest that ethyl acetate and methanol extracts may contain bioactive compounds that can control neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, through high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-AChE activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
  16. Rengasamy N, Othman RY, Che HS, Harikrishna JA
    J Sci Food Agric, 2022 Jan 15;102(1):299-311.
    PMID: 34091912 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.11359
    BACKGROUND: Stevia rebaudiana is a high value crop due to the strong commercial demand for its metabolites (steviol glycosides) but has limited geographical cultivation range. In non-native environments with different daylength and light quality, Stevia has low germination rates and early flowering resulting in lower biomass and poor yield of the desired metabolites. In this study, artificial lighting with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to determine if different light quality within and outside of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) range can be used to improve germination rates and yields for production of steviol glycosides for the herbal supplement and food industry.

    RESULTS: Plants treated with red and blue light at an intensity of 130 μmol m-2  s-1 supplemented with 5% of UV-A light under a 16-h photoperiod produced the most desirable overall results with a high rate of germination, low percentage of early flowering, and high yields of dry leaf, stevioside and rebaudioside A, 175 days after planting.

    CONCLUSION: While red and blue light combinations are effective for plant growth, the use of supplemental non-PAR irradiation of UV-A wavelength significantly and desirably delayed flowering, enhanced germination, biomass, rebaudioside A and stevioside yields, while supplemental green light improved yield of biomass and rebaudioside A, but not stevioside. Overall, the combination of red, blue and UV-A light resulted in the best overall productivity for Stevia rebaudiana. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry
  17. Juhari NH, Martens HJ, Petersen MA
    Molecules, 2021 Oct 16;26(20).
    PMID: 34684840 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26206260
    Fresh roselle are high in moisture and deteriorate easily, which makes drying important for extending shelf-life and increasing availability. This study investigated the influence of different drying methods (oven-drying, freeze-drying, vacuum-drying, and sun-drying) on the quality of roselle calyx expressed as physicochemical properties (moisture content, water activity, soluble solids, color), volatile compounds, and microstructure. Oven-drying and freeze-drying reduced moisture content most while vacuum-drying and sun-drying were not as efficient. All drying methods except sun-drying resulted in water activities low enough to ensure safety and quality. Vacuum-drying had no impact on color of the dry calyx and only small impact on color of water extract of calyx. Drying reduced terpenes, aldehydes, and esters but increased furans. This is expected to reduce fruity, floral, spicy, and green odors and increase caramel-like aroma. Sun-drying produced more ketones, alcohols, and esters. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that freeze-drying preserved the cell structure better, and freeze-dried samples resembled fresh samples most compared to other drying techniques. The study concludes that freeze-drying should be considered as a suitable drying method, especially with respect to preservation of structure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
  18. Sumathy V, Zakaria Z, Jothy SL, Gothai S, Vijayarathna S, Yoga Latha L, et al.
    Microb Pathog, 2014 Dec;77:7-12.
    PMID: 25457794 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2014.10.004
    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised host is a major infectious disease leading to reduce the survival rate of world population. Aspergillus niger is a causative agent causing IA. Cassia surattensis plant is commonly used in rural areas to treat various types of disease. C. surattensis flower extract was evaluated against the systemic aspergillosis model in this study. Qualitative measurement of fungal burden suggested a reduction pattern in the colony forming unit (CFU) of lung, liver, spleen and kidney for the extract treated group. Galactomannan assay assessment showed a decrease of fungal load in the treatment and positive control group with galactomannan index (GMI) value of 1.27 and 0.25 on day 28 but the negative control group showed high level of galactomannan in the serum with GMI value of 3.58. Histopathology examinations of the tissues featured major architecture modifications in the tissues of negative control group. Tissue reparation and recovery from infection were detected in extract treated and positive control group. Time killing fungicidal study of A. niger revealed dependence of the concentration of C. surattensis flower extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry
  19. Baharara J, Namvar F, Ramezani T, Mousavi M, Mohamad R
    Molecules, 2015 Feb 05;20(2):2693-706.
    PMID: 25665064 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20022693
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), the most popular nanoparticles, possess unique properties. Achillea biebersteinii is a plant of the Asteraceae family rich in active antitumor components. The aim of this research was the characterization and investigation of the cytotoxic properties of Ag-NPs synthesized using A. biebersteinii flower extract, on a human breast cancer cell line. The Ag-NPs were synthesized after approximately 180 min of reaction at 40 °C, then they were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The anti-apoptosis effect of Ag-NPs on the MCF-7 cell line was investigated by MTT assay, DAPI and acridine orange staining and caspase activity. The transcriptional expression of bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, -8 and -9 were also evaluated by RT-PCR. The TEM images revealed that the Ag-NPs morphology had a different shape. The DLS indicated that the average hydrodynamic diameter of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs was around 12 nm. By UV-visible spectroscopy the strongest absorbance peak was observed at 460 nm. The FTIR results also showed interaction between the plant extract and Ag-NPs due to the similarity in the peak patterns. The EDS results showed that Ag-NPs display an absorption peak at 3 keV, indicating the presence of the element silver. The Ag-NPs caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, fragmentation in nucleic acid, inhibited the proliferation and induction of apoptosis on MCF-7 by suppressing specific cell cycle genes, and simulation programmed cell dead genes. Further investigation is required to establish the potential of this novel and promising approach in cancer therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
  20. Ali Khan MS, Mat Jais AM, Afreen A
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:185476.
    PMID: 24350249 DOI: 10.1155/2013/185476
    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect and recognize the basic mechanism of action of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. flowers. T. divaricata flower methanolic extract (TDFME) was screened for antiulcer activity versus aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulcers at three doses--125, 250, and 500 mg/kg--orally using misoprostol as a standard. Besides histopathological examination, seven parameters, that is, ulcer index, total protein, nonprotein sulphhydryls, mucin, catalase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels, were estimated. In addition to HPLC profiling, GC-MS analysis and electrospray ionization--high resolution mass spectral (ESI-HRMS) analysis of crude TDFME were carried out in an attempt to identify known phytochemicals present in the extract on the basis of m/z value. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, mucin, and nonprotein sulphhydryls, while they revealed a reduction in ulcer index, the levels of total protein, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological observations also demonstrated the protective effect. Though all the doses of TDFME exhibited gastroprotective function, higher doses were found to be more effective. Mass spectral analysis gave a few characteristic m/z values suggesting the presence of a few known indole alkaloids, while HPLC profiling highlighted the complexity of the extract. TDFME was found to exhibit its gastroprotective effect through antioxidant mechanism and by enhancing the production of gastric mucous.
    Matched MeSH terms: Flowers/chemistry*
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