Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 83 in total

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  1. Matsuura S, Kunii T, Iinuma M
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 1973 Nov;93(11):1517-9.
    PMID: 4798539
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis
  2. Alafiatayo AA, Syahida A, Mahmood M
    PMID: 25371557
    BACKGROUND: Natural products such as herbs, fruits, spices, beverages, vegetables are becoming more popular among scientific community and consumers because of their potential to arrest the effect of free radicals in human system. This study determined the total antioxidant capacity of ten selected species of Zingiberaceae (Ginger) used as spices and for medicinal purposes in Southeast Asia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol was used as the extraction solvent, 2,2 - diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) for free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Phenolic compounds were measured using Total flavonoid, Phenolic acid and Polyphenols content assay to evaluate the quality of the antioxidant capacity of the rhizomes and vitamin C as positive control.

    RESULTS: The results obtained revealed that Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale had the highest free radical scavenging capacity of 270.07mg/TE/g DW and 266.95mg/TE/g DW and FRAP assay, Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale also gave the highest ferric reducing power of 231.73mg/TE/g DW and 176.26mg/TE/g DW respectively. For Phenolic compounds, Curcuma longa and Curcuma xanthorrhiza gave the highest values of flavonoid (741.36mg/NGN/g DW and 220.53mg/NGN/g DW), phenolic acid (42.71mg/GAE/g DW and 22.03mg/GAE/g DW) and polyphenols (39.38mg/GAE/g DW and 38.01mg/GAE/g DW) respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations were found between Total antioxidant capacity and Phenolic compounds (R = 0.65 - 0.96).

    CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that extracts of Zingiberaceae (Ginger) rhizomes are a potential source of natural antioxidants and could serve as basis for future drugs and food supplements.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  3. Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Asmawi MZ, Ibraheem ZO, Yam MF
    J Med Food, 2012 Aug;15(8):678-90.
    PMID: 22846075 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2011.1973
    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lambiaceae) is an important plant in traditional folk medicine. This review is a comprehensive summary of the currently available chemical, pharmacological, and toxicological investigations as well as the traditional and therapeutic uses of this plant. Different in vitro and in vivo models have been addressed along with a survey of all phytochemicals identified in this plant, including flavonoids, terpenoids, and essential oils. Previous studies revealed that O. stamineus possesses several pharmacological activities, which are attributed to its phytochemical content. It was found that O. stamineus exhibits diuretic, hypouricemic, renal protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, and anorexic activities. In conclusion, O. stamineus has wide traditional and pharmacological uses in various pathophysiological conditions. Therefore, it is an attractive subject for further experimental and clinical investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  4. Yam MF, Mohamed EA, Ang LF, Pei L, Darwis Y, Mahmud R, et al.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2012 Aug;5(4):176-82.
    PMID: 22898066 DOI: 10.1016/j.jams.2012.05.005
    Orthosiphon stamineus extracts contain three flavonoids (3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, and eupatorin) as bioactive substances. Previous reported high performance liquid chromatography- ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) methods for the determination of these flavonoids have several disadvantages, including unsatisfactory separation times and not being well validated according to International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) standard guidelines. A rapid, specific reversed-phase HPLC method with isocratic elution of acetonitrile: isopropyl alcohol: 20mM phosphate buffer (NaH(2)PO(4)) (30:15:55, v/v) (pH 3.5) at a flow-rate of 1ml/minute, a column temperature of 25°C, and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 340 nm was developed. The method was validated and applied for quantification of different types of O stamineus extracts and fractions. The method allowed simultaneous determination of 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, and eupatorin in the concentration range of 0.03052-250 μg/ml. The limits of detection and quantification, respectively, were 0.0076 and 0.061 μg/ml for 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, 0.0153 and 0.122 μg/ml for sinensetin and 0.0305 and 0.122 μg/ml for eupatorin. The percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) values for intraday were 0.048-0.368, 0.025-0.135, and 0.05-0.476 for 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, and eupatorin, respectively, and those for intraday precision were 0.333-1.688, 0.722-1.055, and 0.548-1.819, respectively. The accuracy for intraday were 91.25%-103.38%, 94.32%-109.56%, and 92.85%-109.70% for 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, and eupatorin, respectively, and those for interday accuracy were 97.49%-103.92%, 103.58%-104.57%, and 103.9%-105.33%, respectively. The method was found to be simple, accurate and precise and is recommended for routine quality control analysis of O stamineus extract containing the three flavonoids as the principle components in the extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  5. Hossain MA, Shah MD, Gnanaraj C, Iqbal M
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Sep;4(9):717-21.
    PMID: 21967695 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60180-6
    OBJECTIVE: To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah.

    METHODS: The dry powder leaves of Tetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin - Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α, α-diphenyl- β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method.

    RESULTS: The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89 mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves of Tetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  6. Alam N, Hossain M, Khalil MI, Moniruzzaman M, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    PMID: 21854608 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-65
    Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities in methanolic extracts of W. somnifera fruits, roots and leaves (WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  7. Lee SY, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Khatib A, Ismail IS, Zawawi N, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Jan;98(1):240-252.
    PMID: 28580581 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8462
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant consumed as a vegetable and which has been used as a folk remedy for several diseases. Herein, two regression models (partial least squares, PLS; and random forest, RF) in a metabolomics approach were compared and applied to the evaluation of the relationship between phenolics and bioactivities of N. oleracea. In addition, the effects of different extraction conditions on the phenolic constituents were assessed by pattern recognition analysis.

    RESULTS: Comparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    CONCLUSION: Both PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  8. Babar ZM, Azizi WM, Ichwan SJ, Ahmed QU, Azad AK, Mawa I
    Nat Prod Res, 2019 Aug;33(15):2266-2270.
    PMID: 30037274 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1493587
    The current study provides a way of extraction for both active NSO and WSE from Nigella sativa seeds using 98% methanol. About 1 kg of ground seeds was macerated by 1:2.5 w/v (g/mL) for 72 hours. After rotary evaporation and 7 days of continuous drying and chilling at 50 and 4 °C, NSO and WSE were obtained at the same instant. Solubility tests of 24 solvents and 11 thin layer chromatographic analyses while 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay of NSO (73.66) , WSE (33.32) and NSO + WSE (78.22) against ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.28 mg/mL) was performed. WSE was found to be highly soluble in water and 5% NaOH exhibiting the same Rf value of 0.95 for EtOH:DMSO (9:1) against the honey. WSE has revealed more than twofold higher anti-oxidant activity than others. Formulation of WSE with Tualang honey may provide better targeted hydrophilic drug delivery systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  9. Lee WZ, Chang SK, Khoo HE, Sia CM, Yim HS
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2016 Oct-Dec;15(4):419-428.
    PMID: 28071019 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.2016.4.40
    Soursop is a healthy fruit. Peels form about 20% of the soursop fruit and are usually discarded as waste product. With a view to utilizing soursop peel as a source of valuable compounds, this study aimed to investigate the influence of different extraction conditions on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of soursop (Annona muricata L.) peel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  10. Tan JB, Lim YY
    Food Chem, 2015 Apr 1;172:814-22.
    PMID: 25442625 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.141
    Natural product research is an active branch of science, driven by the increased value placed on individual health and well-being. Many naturally-occurring phytochemicals in plants, fruits and vegetables have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity; often touted as being beneficial for human health. In vitro screening is a common practice in many research laboratories as a means of rapidly assessing these properties. However, the methods used by many are not necessarily optimal; a result of poor standardization, redundant assays and/or outdated methodology. This review primarily aims to give a better understanding in the selection of in vitro assays, with emphasis placed on some common assays such as the total phenolic content assay, free radical scavenging activity, disc-diffusion and broth microdilution. This includes a discussion on the reasons for choosing a particular assay, its strengths and weaknesses, ways to improve the accuracy of results and alternative assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis
  11. Saad LB, Hwi KK, Quah T
    PMID: 25371587
    BACKGROUND: There are severe adverse effects of analgesic drugs on human body. Extraction of analgesic drugs from natural products has therefore become the prime objective of the study. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the pomegranate fruit.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antinociceptive activity of ethanol pomegranate extract was examined using three models of pain: the writhing test, the hot tail flick test and the plantar test. The ethanolic extract of pomegranate was administered by oral gavages in doses of (100,150 and 200mg/kg, p.o (orally)), for all the tests and compared with aspirin (100mg/kg, p.o.) which was considered as the standard drug. Phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis of the plant species was carried out.

    RESULTS: In the writhing test, the index of pain inhibition (IPI) was 37% for ethanolic extract of pomegranate (200mg/kg, p.o.), and 59% for aspirin. In the hot tail flick test, the ethanolic extract of pomegranate (200mg/kg, p.o.), has shown significant analgesia reaching its peak at 60 min maximum possible analgesia (MPA), was 24.1% as compared with aspirin 37.5%. Hyperalgesia was successfully induced by the plantar test and the ethanol extract of pomegranate (100,150,200mg/kg, p.o.), reduced the hyperalgesia in a dose dependent manner comparable to aspirin at (100mg/kg, p.o.). HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, ellagic acid and Punicalagins A&B.

    CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that ethanol pomegranate extract has an antinociceptive effect that may be related to the presence of identified phytochemicals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis
  12. Wong YS, Sia CM, Khoo HE, Ang YK, Chang SK, Chang SK, et al.
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2014 Jul-Sep;13(3):257-65.
    PMID: 24887941
    As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  13. Adib AM, Jamaludin F, Kiong LS, Hashim N, Abdullah Z
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2014 Aug 5;96:104-10.
    PMID: 24727283 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2014.03.022
    Baeckea frutescens or locally known as Cucur atap is used as antibacterial, antidysentery, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In Malaysia and Indonesia, they are used as an ingredient of the traditional medicine given to mothers during confinement. A three-steps infra-red (IR) macro-fingerprinting method combining conventional IR spectra, and the secondary derivative spectra with two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) have been proved to be effective methods to examine a complicated mixture such as herbal medicines. This study investigated the feasibility of employing multi-steps IR spectroscopy in order to study the main constituents of B. frutescens and its different extracts (extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. The structural information of the samples indicated that B. frutescens and its extracts contain a large amount of flavonoids, since some characteristic absorption peaks of flavonoids, such as ∼1600cm(-1), ∼1500cm(-1), ∼1450cm(-1), and ∼1270cm(-1) can be observed. The macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information of main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis
  14. Sahoo MR, Dhanabal SP, Jadhav AN, Reddy V, Muguli G, Babu UV, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 May 28;154(1):17-25.
    PMID: 24732111 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.03.029
    The genus Hydnocarpus (Flacourtiaceae) includes forty species that are spread across the globe. In the Indian System of Medicine, Hydnocarpus pentandrus (Buch.-Ham.) Oken. is primarily used for treating leprosy and other skin disorders. It is known as "Chaulmoogra" and is also used to treat other indications including constipation, inflammation, blood disorders, and worm infestations. Various species of Hydnocarpus are also used in traditional medicine in China, Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar for several skin disorders. To assess the therapeutic potential of species from the Hydnocarpus genus and to determine future avenues for research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis
  15. Rahim AA, Nofrizal S, Saad B
    Food Chem, 2014 Mar 15;147:262-8.
    PMID: 24206716 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.131
    A rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method using a monolithic column for the determination of eight catechin monomers and caffeine was developed. Using a mobile phase of water:acetonitrile:methanol (83:6:11) at a flow rate of 1.4 mL min(-1), the catechins and caffeine were isocratically separated in about 7 min. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.11-0.29 and 0.33-0.87 mg L(-1), respectively. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained (94.2-105.2 ± 1.8%) for all samples when spiked at three concentrations (5, 40 and 70 mg L(-1)). In combination with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), the method was applied to the determination of the catechins and caffeine in eleven tea samples (6 green, 3 black and 2 oolong teas). Relatively high levels of caffeine were found in black tea, but higher levels of the catechins, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found in green teas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis
  16. Ali A, Ong MK, Forney CF
    Food Chem, 2014 Jan 1;142:19-26.
    PMID: 24001808 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.039
    The objective of this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of ozone-treated papaya fruit and untreated fruit. Freshly harvested papaya fruit were exposed continuously to ozone fumigation (0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5ppm) for 96h prior to ambient storage at 25±3°C and 70±5% relative humidity (RH) for up to 14days. The fruit exposed to 2.5ppm ozone had higher levels of total soluble solids (25.0%), ascorbic acid content (12.4%), β-carotene content (19.6%), lycopene content (52.1%), and antioxidant activity (30.9%), and also reduced weight loss (11.5%) at day 10 compared to the control. The sensory attributes of papaya treated with 2.5ppm ozone was superior in sweetness and overall acceptability. These results support the application of ozone as a non-thermal and safe food preservation technique for papaya which can benefit both the producers and consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  17. Chan CH, Yusoff R, Ngoh GC
    Food Chem, 2013 Sep 1;140(1-2):147-53.
    PMID: 23578626 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.02.057
    A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis
  18. Uddin MK, Juraimi AS, Ali ME, Ismail MR
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(8):10257-67.
    PMID: 22949859 DOI: 10.3390/ijms130810257
    The main objective of this research was to appraise the changes in mineral content and antioxidant attributes of Portulaca oleracea over different growth stages. The antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The iodine titration method was used to determine the ascorbic acid content (AAC). DPPH scavenging (IC(50)) capacity ranged from 1.30 ± 0.04 to 1.71 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant activity (AEAC) values were 229.5 ± 7.9 to 319.3 ± 8.7 mg AA/100 g, total phenol content (TPC) varied from 174.5 ± 8.5 to 348.5 ± 7.9 mg GAE/100 g. AAC 60.5 ± 2.1 to 86.5 ± 3.9 mg/100 g and FRAP 1.8 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g. There was good correlation between the results of TPC and AEAC, and between IC(50) and FRAP assays (r(2) > 0.9). The concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Fe and Zn increased with plant maturity. Calcium (Ca) was negatively correlated with sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), but positively correlated with magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Portulaca olerecea cultivars could be used as a source of minerals and antioxidants, especially for functional food and nutraceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  19. Siddique BM, Ahmad A, Alkarkhi AF, Ibrahim MH, K MO
    J Food Sci, 2011 May;76(4):C535-42.
    PMID: 22417332 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02146.x
    Candlenut oil was extracted using supercritical CO(2) (SC-CO(2)) with an optimization of parameters, by the response surface methodology. The ground candlenut samples were treated in 2 different ways, that is, dried in either a heat oven (sample moisture content of 2.91%) or dried in a vacuum oven (sample moisture content of 1.98%), before extraction. An untreated sample (moisture content of 4.87%) was used as a control. The maximum percentage of oil was extracted from the heat-oven-dried sample (77.27%), followed by the vacuum-oven-dried sample (74.32%), and the untreated sample (70.12%). At an SC-CO(2) pressure of 48.26 Mpa and 60 min of extraction time, the optimal temperatures for extraction were found to be 76.4 °C, 73.9 °C, and 70.6 °C for the untreated, heat-oven-dried, and vacuum-oven-dried samples, respectively. The heat-oven-dried sample contains the highest percentage of linoleic acid, followed by the untreated and vacuum-oven-dried samples. The antiradical activity of candlenut oil corresponded to an IC(50) value of 30.37 mg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
  20. Cheong MW, Chong ZS, Liu SQ, Zhou W, Curran P, Bin Yu
    Food Chem, 2012 Sep 15;134(2):686-95.
    PMID: 23107679 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.162
    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/analysis*
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