Methods: HUVECs were divided into six groups: control, treatment with 10 ng/ml TNF-α, and co-treatment of 10 ng/ml TNF-α with four different concentrations of AEPS (100, 150, 250, and 300 μg/ml) for 24 h. Subsequently, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein expression, U937 monocyte cells adhesion, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 expression in HUVECs were measured.
Results: Treatment of TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs with AEPS at different concentrations resulted in decreased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AEPS also inhibited TNF-α-stimulated U937 monocyte cells adhesion to HUVECs. In addition, AEPS reduced TNF-α-induced NF-κB p65 expression in a dose-dependent manner.
Conclusions: The results indicated that AEPS suppressed TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression NF-κB signaling.
METHODS: Release of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunoblot technique was executed to determine the activation of MAPKs molecules, NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. Determination of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 relative gene expression levels was by performing the real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated to standardize the T. crispa extract and chemical profiling of its secondary metabolites was performed by LC-MS/MS.
RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatographic data indicated that syringin and magnoflorine were found as the major components of the extract. T. crispa-treatment prompted activation of NF-κB by enhancing IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation, and degradation of IκBα. The extract upregulated COX-2 protein expression, release of pro-inflammatory mediators and MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK) phosphorylation as well as Akt dose-dependently. T. crispa extract also upregulated the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88. T. crispa-treatment also upregulated the pro-inflammatory markers mRNA expression.
CONCLUSION: The results suggested that T. crispa extract stimulated the MyD88-dependent signaling pathways by upregulating the various immune inflammatory related parameters.
Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of selected phytoestrogens on annexin A1 (ANXA1) expression, mode of cell death and cell cycle arrest in different human leukemic cell lines.
Methods: Cells viability were examined by MTT assay and ANXA1 quantification via Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometer and phagocytosis effect was evaluated using haematoxylin-eosin staining.
Results: Coumestrol significantly (p U937 cells and genistein significantly (p U937 cells, meanwhile estradiol and daidzein induced similar reduction in U937 and Jurkat cells. Coumestrol and daidzein induced apoptosis in K562 and Jurkat cells, while genistein and estradiol induced apoptosis in all tested cells. Coumestrol and estradiol induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in K562 and Jurkat cells with an addition of U937 cells for estradiol. Genistein induced cell cycle arrest at S phase for both K562 and Jurkat cells. However, daidzein induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in K562, and G2/M phase of Jurkat cells. Coumestrol, genistein and estradiol induced phagocytosis in all tested cells but daidzein induced significant (p
METHODS: The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in a culture supernatant was determined by ELISA. Determination of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and the activation of MAPKs molecules (JNK, ERK and p38 MAPK), NF-κB and Akt in LPS-induced U937 human macrophages were investigated by immunoblot technique. The relative gene expression levels of COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by using qRT-PCR. The major metabolites of P. amarus were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in the extract by using validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods.
RESULTS: P. amarus extract significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, PGE2) and COX-2 protein expression in LPS-induced U937 human macrophages. P. amarus-pretreatment also significantly downregulated the increased mRNA transcription of pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2) in respective LPS-induced U937 macrophages. It downregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65), IκBα, and IKKα/β and restored the degradation of IκBα, and attenuated the expression of Akt, JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPKs phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. P. amarus extract also downregulated the expression of upstream signaling molecules, TLR4 and MyD88, which play major role in activation of NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. The quantitative amounts of lignans, phyllanthin, hypophyllahtin and niranthin, and polyphenols, gallic acid, geraniin, corilagin, and ellagic acid in the extract were determined by HPLC analysis.
CONCLUSION: The study revealed that P. amarus targeted the NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways to exert its anti- inflammatory effects by downregulating the prospective inflammatory signaling mediators.
METHODS: Transfection of ANXA1 siRNA was conducted to downregulate ANXA1 expression in Jurkat, K562 and U937 cells. Apoptosis and cell cycle assays were conducted using flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to evaluate ANXA1, caspases and Bcl-2 proteins expression. Phagocytosis was determined using hematoxylin and eosin staining.
RESULTS: The expression of ANXA1 after the knockdown was significantly downregulated in all cell lines. Genistein significantly induced apoptosis associated with an upregulation of procaspase-3, -9, and - 1 in Jurkat cells. The Bcl-2 expression showed no significant difference in Jurkat, K562 and U937 cells. Treatment with phytoestrogens increased procaspase-1 expression in Jurkat and U937 cells while no changes were detected in K562 cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that after ANXA1 knockdown, coumestrol and genistein caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in selected type of cells. The percentage of phagocytosis and phagocytosis index increased after the treatment with phytoestrogens in all cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Phytoestrogens induced cell death in ANXA1-knockdown leukemia cells, mediated by Annexin A1 proteins. Graphical abstract.
PURPOSE: The study was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of the standardized 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet through its effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MyD88)-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 human macrophages.
METHODS: Standardization of the 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet was performed by using a validated reversed-phase HPLC method, while LC-MS/MS was used to profile the secondary metabolites. The release of pro-inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the Western blot technique was executed to elucidate the expression of mediators linked to MyD88-dependent respective signaling pathways. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was carried out to quantify the relative gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and pro-inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional level.
RESULTS: The quantitative and qualitative analyses of Z. zerumbet extract showed the presence of several compounds including the major chemical marker zerumbone. Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2 protein expression and downregulated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory markers. Z. zerumbet-treatment also blocked NF-κB activation by preventing the phosphorylation of IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Z. zerumbet extract concentration-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of respective MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38) as well as Akt. Correspondingly, Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, TLR4 and MyD88 prerequisite for the NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that Z. zerumbet has impressive role in suppressing inflammation and related immune disorders by inhibition of various pro-inflammatory markers through the imperative MyD88-dependent NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.