Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

  1. Haque MA, Jantan I, Harikrishnan H, Abdul Wahab SM
    Planta Med, 2018 Nov;84(17):1255-1264.
    PMID: 29906814 DOI: 10.1055/a-0637-9936
    Magnoflorine, a major bioactive metabolite isolated from Tinospora crispa, has been reported for its diverse biochemical and pharmacological properties. However, there is little report on its underlying mechanisms of action on immune responses, particularly on macrophage activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of magnoflorine, isolated from T. crispa on the pro-inflammatory mediators generation induced by LPS and the concomitant NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in U937 macrophages. Differentiated U937 macrophages were treated with magnoflorine and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators was evaluated through ELISA, while the relative mRNA expression of the respective mediators was quantified through qRT-PCR. Correspondingly, western blotting was executed to observe the modulatory effects of magnoflorine on the expression of various markers related to NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling activation in LPS-primed U937 macrophages. Magnoflorine significantly enhanced the upregulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and PGE2 production as well as COX-2 protein expression. Successively, magnoflorine prompted the mRNA transcription level of these pro-inflammatory mediators. Magnoflorine enhanced the NF-κB activation by prompting p65, IκBα, and IKKα/β phosphorylation as well as IκBα degradation. Besides, magnoflorine treatments concentration-dependently augmented the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPKs as well as Akt. The immunoaugmenting effects were further confirmed by investigating the effects of magnoflorine on specific inhibitors, where the treatment with specific inhibitors of NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt proficiently blocked the magnoflorine-triggered TNF-α release and COX-2 expression. Magnoflorine furthermore enhanced the MyD88 and TLR4 upregulation. The results suggest that magnoflorine has high potential on augmenting immune responses.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells/drug effects*; U937 Cells/physiology
  2. Abubakar S, Shafee N, Chee HY
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Dec;20(2):71-81.
    PMID: 10879266
    Identification of the aetiologic agent(s) associated with an outbreak of fatal childhood viral infection in Sarawak, Malaysia, in mid 1997 remains elusive. It is reported here that African green monkey kidney (Vero) and human monocytic (U937) cells treated with inocula derived from clinical specimens of some of these fatal cases showed the presence of cellular genomic DNA degradation when the extracted DNA was separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), oligonucleosomal DNA ladders characteristic of apoptotic cells when the infected cells' DNA was separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, and apoptotic cellular DNA fragmentation when cells were stained using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). These results suggest that inocula derived from the patients' clinical specimens contain factors which stimulate apoptotic cellular responses in vitro.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells/pathology; U937 Cells/virology
  3. Shu MH, MatRahim N, NorAmdan N, Pang SP, Hashim SH, Phoon WH, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016;6:22332.
    PMID: 26923424 DOI: 10.1038/srep22332
    Vaccination may be an alternative treatment for infection with multidrug-resistance (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. The study reported here evaluated the bactericidal antibody responses following immunization of mice using an inactivated whole-cell vaccine derived from antibiotic-exposed MDR A. baumannii (I-M28-47-114). Mice inoculated with I-M28-47 (non-antibiotic-exposed control) and I-M28-47-114 showed a high IgG antibody response by day 5 post-inoculation. Sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47-114 collected on day 30 resulted in 80.7 ± 12.0% complement-mediated bacteriolysis in vitro of the test MDR A. baumannii treated with imipenem, which was a higher level of bacteriolysis over sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47. Macrophage-like U937 cells eliminated 49.3 ± 11.6% of the test MDR A. baumannii treated with imipenem when opsonized with sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47-114, which was a higher level of elimination than observed for test MDR A. baumannii opsonized with sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47. These results suggest that vaccination with I-M28-47-114 stimulated antibody responses capable of mounting high bactericidal killing of MDR A. baumannii. Therefore, the inactivated antibiotic-exposed whole-cell vaccine (I-M28-47-114) has potential for development as a candidate vaccine for broad clearance and protection against MDR A. baumannii infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  4. Ismail SM, Sundar UM, Hui CK, Aminuddin A, Ugusman A
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2018 Jun;13(3):225-231.
    PMID: 31435328 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2018.01.003
    Objectives: Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is an herb with antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of an aqueous extract of P. sarmentosum (AEPS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).

    Methods: HUVECs were divided into six groups: control, treatment with 10 ng/ml TNF-α, and co-treatment of 10 ng/ml TNF-α with four different concentrations of AEPS (100, 150, 250, and 300 μg/ml) for 24 h. Subsequently, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein expression, U937 monocyte cells adhesion, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 expression in HUVECs were measured.

    Results: Treatment of TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs with AEPS at different concentrations resulted in decreased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AEPS also inhibited TNF-α-stimulated U937 monocyte cells adhesion to HUVECs. In addition, AEPS reduced TNF-α-induced NF-κB p65 expression in a dose-dependent manner.

    Conclusions: The results indicated that AEPS suppressed TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression NF-κB signaling.

    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  5. Najim N, Bathich Y, Zain MM, Hamzah AS, Shaameri Z
    Molecules, 2010 Dec 17;15(12):9340-53.
    PMID: 21169884 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15129340
    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cellular activity of novel spiroisoxazoline type compounds against normal and cancer cell lines from lung tissue (Hs888Lu), neuron-phenotypic cells (SH-SY5Y), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), human histiocytic lymphoma (U937), lung cancer (A549), and leukaemia (HL-60). Our bioassay program revealed that the spiroisoxazoline type compounds show cytotoxicity only in lymphoma cell lines, which is in contrast with the pyrrolidine precursor of these spiroisoxazoline compounds, where significant cytotoxicity is seen in all normal and cancer cell lines. These data suggest a tumour-specific mechanism of action. In addition these data also show that spiroisoxazoline compounds are non-toxic in the human neuronphenotypic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, and furthermore that they might protect cells from neurodegenerative disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  6. Umar MI, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Majid AM, Al-Suede FS, Hassan LE, et al.
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2014 Feb;69(2):134-44.
    PMID: 24519205 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2014(02)10
    The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate isolated from Kaempferia galanga.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells/drug effects
  7. Chieng S, Carreto L, Nathan S
    BMC Genomics, 2012;13:328.
    PMID: 22823543 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-328
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. How the bacterium interacts with host macrophage cells is still not well understood and is critical to appreciate the strategies used by this bacterium to survive and how intracellular survival leads to disease manifestation.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  8. Haque MA, Jantan I, Harikrishnan H, Ahmad W
    BMC Complement Med Ther, 2020 Aug 06;20(1):245.
    PMID: 32762741 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-020-03039-7
    BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory effects of Tinospora crispa have been investigated due to its traditional use to treat several inflammatory disorders associated to the immune system. The present study reports the underlying mechanisms involved in the stimulation of 80% ethanol extract of T. crispa stems on pro-inflammatory mediators release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed U937 human macrophages via MyD88-dependent pathways.

    METHODS: Release of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunoblot technique was executed to determine the activation of MAPKs molecules, NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. Determination of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 relative gene expression levels was by performing the real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated to standardize the T. crispa extract and chemical profiling of its secondary metabolites was performed by LC-MS/MS.

    RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatographic data indicated that syringin and magnoflorine were found as the major components of the extract. T. crispa-treatment prompted activation of NF-κB by enhancing IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation, and degradation of IκBα. The extract upregulated COX-2 protein expression, release of pro-inflammatory mediators and MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK) phosphorylation as well as Akt dose-dependently. T. crispa extract also upregulated the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88. T. crispa-treatment also upregulated the pro-inflammatory markers mRNA expression.

    CONCLUSION: The results suggested that T. crispa extract stimulated the MyD88-dependent signaling pathways by upregulating the various immune inflammatory related parameters.

    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  9. Sabran A, Kumolosasi E, Jantan I, Jamal JA, Azmi N, Jasamai M
    Saudi Pharm J, 2021 Jan;29(1):73-84.
    PMID: 33603542 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2020.12.011
    Background: Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic plant compounds which are structurally similar to the endogenous mammalian estrogen, 17β-estradiol. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is an endogenous protein which inhibits cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) and phospholipase A2, signal transduction, DNA replication, cell transformation, and mediation of apoptosis.

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of selected phytoestrogens on annexin A1 (ANXA1) expression, mode of cell death and cell cycle arrest in different human leukemic cell lines.

    Methods: Cells viability were examined by MTT assay and ANXA1 quantification via Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometer and phagocytosis effect was evaluated using haematoxylin-eosin staining.

    Results: Coumestrol significantly (p U937 cells and genistein significantly (p U937 cells, meanwhile estradiol and daidzein induced similar reduction in U937 and Jurkat cells. Coumestrol and daidzein induced apoptosis in K562 and Jurkat cells, while genistein and estradiol induced apoptosis in all tested cells. Coumestrol and estradiol induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in K562 and Jurkat cells with an addition of U937 cells for estradiol. Genistein induced cell cycle arrest at S phase for both K562 and Jurkat cells. However, daidzein induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in K562, and G2/M phase of Jurkat cells. Coumestrol, genistein and estradiol induced phagocytosis in all tested cells but daidzein induced significant (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  10. Kotaki R, Higuchi H, Ogiya D, Katahira Y, Kurosaki N, Yukihira N, et al.
    Int J Hematol, 2017 Dec;106(6):811-819.
    PMID: 28831750 DOI: 10.1007/s12185-017-2314-1
    miR-1 and miR-133 are clustered on the same chromosomal loci and are transcribed together as a single transcript that is positively regulated by ecotropic virus integration site-1 (EVI1). Previously, we described how miR-133 has anti-tumorigenic potential through repression of EVI1 expression. It has also been reported that miR-1 is oncogenic in the case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we show that expression of miR-1 and miR-133, which have distinct functions, is differentially regulated between AML cell lines. Interestingly, the expression of miR-1 and EVI1, which binds to the promoter of the miR-1/miR-133 cluster, is correlative. The expression levels of TDP-43, an RNA-binding protein that has been reported to increase the expression, but inhibits the activity, of miR-1, were not correlated with expression levels of miR-1 in AML cells. Taken together, our observations raise the possibility that the balance of polycistronic miRNAs is regulated post-transcriptionally in a hierarchical manner possibly involving EVI1, suggesting that the deregulation of this balance may play some role in AML cells with high EVI1 expression.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  11. Sabran A, Kumolosasi E, Jantan I
    Acta Pharm, 2019 Mar 01;69(1):75-86.
    PMID: 31259717 DOI: 10.2478/acph-2019-0005
    Recent studies suggest that annexin A1 (ANXA1) promotes apoptosis in cancerous cells. This study aims to investigate the effects of ANXA1 on apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in K562, Jurkat and U937 cells and peripheral blood mononu-clear cells (PBMC). Cells were treated with ANXA1 and cyclophosphamide prior to flow cytometry analysis for apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induction. At 2.5µM, ANXA1 induced significant apoptosis in K562 (p ≤ 0.001) and U937 (p ≤ 0.05) cells, with EC50 values of 3.6 and 3.8 µM, respectively. In Jurkat cells, induction was not significant (EC50, 17.0 µM). No significant apoptosis induction was observed in PBMC. ANXA1 caused cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase in K562 and U937 cells with p ≤ 0.001 for both, and (p ≤ 0.01) for Jurkat cells. ANXA1 induced apoptosis and cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase in K562 and U937 cells, causing only cell cycle arrest in Jurkat cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  12. Iqbal MA, Umar MI, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Asmawi MZ, Majid AM
    J Inorg Biochem, 2015 May;146:1-13.
    PMID: 25699476 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.02.001
    Chronic inflammation intensifies the risk for malignant neoplasm, indicating that curbing inflammation could be a valid strategy to prevent or cure cancer. Cancer and inflammation are inter-related diseases and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used in chemotherapy. Earlier, we have reported a series of novel ligands and respective binuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) with potential anticancer activity. In the present study, a newly synthesized salt (II) and respective Ag(I)-NHC complex (III) of comparable molecular framework were prepared for a further detailed study. Preliminarily, II and III were screened against HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, wherein III showed better results than II. Both the compounds showed negligible toxicity against normal CCD-18Co cells. In FAM-FLICA caspase assay, III remarkably induced caspase-3/7 in HCT-116 cells most probably by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) independent intrinsic pathway and significantly inhibited in vitro synthesis of cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-α in human macrophages (U937 cells). In a cell-free system, both the compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, with III being more selective towards COX-2. The results revealed that III has strong antiproliferative property selectively against colorectal tumor cells which could be attributed to its pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory abilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  13. Haque MA, Jantan I, Harikrishnan H
    Int Immunopharmacol, 2018 Feb;55:312-322.
    PMID: 29310107 DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.01.001
    Zerumbone (ZER), isolated mainly from the Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) rhizomes was found to be effective against numerous inflammatory and immune disorders, however, the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties have not been well studied. This study was carried out to examine the profound effects of ZER on inflammatory mediated MyD88-dependent NF-κB/MAPK/PI3K-Akt signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated U937 human macrophages. ZER significantly suppressed the up-regulation pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-1β, PGE2, and COX-2 protein in LPS-induced human macrophages. Moreover, ZER significantly downregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65), IκBα, and IKKα/β as well as restored the degradation of IκBα. ZER correspondingly showed remarkable attenuation of the expression of Akt, JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPKs phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner. ZER also diminished the expression of upstream signaling molecules TLR4 and MyD88, which are prerequisite for the NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt activation. Additionally, quantification of relative gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2 indicated that, at a higher dose (50μM), ZER significantly downregulated the elevated mRNA transcription levels of the stated pro-inflammatory markers in LPS-stimulated U937 macrophages. The strong suppressive effects of ZER on the activation of inflammatory markers in the macrophages via MyD88-dependent NF-κB/MAPK/PI3K-Akt signaling pathways suggest that ZER can be a preventive and potent therapeutic candidate for the management of various inflammatory-mediated immune disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  14. Harikrishnan H, Jantan I, Haque MA, Kumolosasi E
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Jul 25;18(1):224.
    PMID: 30045725 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2289-3
    BACKGROUND: Phyllanthus amarus has been used widely in various traditional medicines to treat swelling, sores, jaundice, inflammatory diseases, kidney disorders, diabetes and viral hepatitis, while its pharmacological and biochemical mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory properties have not been well investigated. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of 80% ethanolic extract of P. amarus on pro-inflammatory mediators release in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling activation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 human macrophages.

    METHODS: The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in a culture supernatant was determined by ELISA. Determination of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and the activation of MAPKs molecules (JNK, ERK and p38 MAPK), NF-κB and Akt in LPS-induced U937 human macrophages were investigated by immunoblot technique. The relative gene expression levels of COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by using qRT-PCR. The major metabolites of P. amarus were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in the extract by using validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods.

    RESULTS: P. amarus extract significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, PGE2) and COX-2 protein expression in LPS-induced U937 human macrophages. P. amarus-pretreatment also significantly downregulated the increased mRNA transcription of pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2) in respective LPS-induced U937 macrophages. It downregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65), IκBα, and IKKα/β and restored the degradation of IκBα, and attenuated the expression of Akt, JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPKs phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. P. amarus extract also downregulated the expression of upstream signaling molecules, TLR4 and MyD88, which play major role in activation of NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. The quantitative amounts of lignans, phyllanthin, hypophyllahtin and niranthin, and polyphenols, gallic acid, geraniin, corilagin, and ellagic acid in the extract were determined by HPLC analysis.

    CONCLUSION: The study revealed that P. amarus targeted the NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways to exert its anti- inflammatory effects by downregulating the prospective inflammatory signaling mediators.

    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  15. Hasan M, Kumolosasi E, Jasamai M, Jamal JA, Azmi N, Rajab NF
    Daru, 2020 Jun;28(1):97-108.
    PMID: 31912375 DOI: 10.1007/s40199-019-00320-0
    BACKGROUND: Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that are structurally similar to estrogen and that possess anti-cancer properties. Previous studies have reported that coumestrol, daidzein and genistein could induce cell death by reducing Annexin A1 protein in leukemic cell lines. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is involved in cell progression, metastasis, and apoptosis in several types of cancer cells. The present study sought to investigate if the effects of phytoestrogens on apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and phagocytosis in ANXA1-knockdown leukemic cells are mediated through ANXA1 or occurred independently.

    METHODS: Transfection of ANXA1 siRNA was conducted to downregulate ANXA1 expression in Jurkat, K562 and U937 cells. Apoptosis and cell cycle assays were conducted using flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to evaluate ANXA1, caspases and Bcl-2 proteins expression. Phagocytosis was determined using hematoxylin and eosin staining.

    RESULTS: The expression of ANXA1 after the knockdown was significantly downregulated in all cell lines. Genistein significantly induced apoptosis associated with an upregulation of procaspase-3, -9, and - 1 in Jurkat cells. The Bcl-2 expression showed no significant difference in Jurkat, K562 and U937 cells. Treatment with phytoestrogens increased procaspase-1 expression in Jurkat and U937 cells while no changes were detected in K562 cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that after ANXA1 knockdown, coumestrol and genistein caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in selected type of cells. The percentage of phagocytosis and phagocytosis index increased after the treatment with phytoestrogens in all cell lines.

    CONCLUSION: Phytoestrogens induced cell death in ANXA1-knockdown leukemia cells, mediated by Annexin A1 proteins. Graphical abstract.

    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  16. Tham CL, Hazeera Harith H, Wai Lam K, Joong Chong Y, Singh Cheema M, Roslan Sulaiman M, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2015 Feb 15;749:1-11.
    PMID: 25560198 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.12.015
    2,6-bis-(4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidine)cyclohexanone (BHMC) has been proven to selectively inhibit the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-induced U937 monocytes through specific interruption of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase enzymatic activity and improves the survival rate in a murine lethal sepsis model. The present study addressed the effects of BHMC upon lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells to determine the underlying mechanisms. The cytotoxicity effect of BHMC on HUVEC were determined by MTT assay. The effects of BHMC on endothelial dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide such as endothelial hyperpermeability, monocyte-endothelial adhesion, transendothelial migration, up-regulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines were evaluated. The effects of BHMC at transcriptional and post-translational levels were determined by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Western Blots. The mode of action of BHMC was dissected by looking into the activation of Nuclear Factor-kappa B and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases. BHMC concentration-dependently reduced endothelial hyperpermeability, leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and monocyte transendothelial migration through inhibition of the protein expression of adhesion molecules (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1) and secretion of chemokines (Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1) at the transcriptional level. BHMC restored endothelial dysfunction via selective inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase enzymatic activity which indirectly prevents the activation of Nuclear Factor-kappaB and Activator Protein-1 transcription factors. These findings further support earlier observations on the inhibition of BHMC on inflammatory events through specific disruption of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase enzymatic activity and provide new insights into the inhibitory effects of BHMC on lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial dysfunction.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  17. Katouah H, Chen A, Othman I, Gieseg SP
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2015 Oct;67:34-42.
    PMID: 26255116 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2015.08.001
    Oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is thought to be a significant contributor to the death of macrophage cells observed in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Using human-derived U937 cells we have examined the effect of cytotoxic oxLDL on oxidative stress and cellular catabolism. Within 3h of the addition of oxLDL, there was a rapid, concentration dependent rise in cellular reactive oxygen species followed by the loss of cellular GSH, and the enzyme activity of both glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and aconitase. The loss of these catabolic enzymes was accompanied by the loss of cellular ATP and lower lactate generation. Addition of the macrophage antioxidant 7,8-dihydroneopterin inhibited the ROS generation, glutathione loss and catabolic inactivation. NOX was shown to be activated by oxLDL addition while apocynin inhibited the loss of GSH and cell viability. The data suggests that oxLDL triggers an excess of ROS production through NOX activation, and catabolic failure through thiol oxidation resulting in cell death.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  18. Haque MA, Jantan I, Harikrishnan H, Ghazalee S
    Phytomedicine, 2019 Feb 15;54:195-205.
    PMID: 30668369 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.183
    BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet rhizome has been used as spices and in traditional medicine to heal various immune-inflammatory related ailments. Although the plant was reported to have potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties by several studies, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects have not been well justified.

    PURPOSE: The study was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of the standardized 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet through its effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MyD88)-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 human macrophages.

    METHODS: Standardization of the 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet was performed by using a validated reversed-phase HPLC method, while LC-MS/MS was used to profile the secondary metabolites. The release of pro-inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the Western blot technique was executed to elucidate the expression of mediators linked to MyD88-dependent respective signaling pathways. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was carried out to quantify the relative gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and pro-inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional level.

    RESULTS: The quantitative and qualitative analyses of Z. zerumbet extract showed the presence of several compounds including the major chemical marker zerumbone. Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2 protein expression and downregulated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory markers. Z. zerumbet-treatment also blocked NF-κB activation by preventing the phosphorylation of IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Z. zerumbet extract concentration-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of respective MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38) as well as Akt. Correspondingly, Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, TLR4 and MyD88 prerequisite for the NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.

    CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that Z. zerumbet has impressive role in suppressing inflammation and related immune disorders by inhibition of various pro-inflammatory markers through the imperative MyD88-dependent NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.

    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  19. Jafarlou M, Baradaran B, Shanehbandi D, Saedi TA, Jafarlou V, Ismail P, et al.
    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand), 2016 May 30;62(6):44-9.
    PMID: 27262801
    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the most frequent types of leukemia which mostly affects adult people. Resistance to therapeutic drugs is considered as a major clinical concern resulting in a weaker response to chemotherapy, disease relapse and decreased survival rate. Survivin, a member of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs), is associated with drug resistance and inhibition of apoptotic mechanisms in numerous hematological malignancies. In the present study, we examined the combined effect of etoposide and siRNA-mediated silencing of survivin on U-937 acute myeloid leukemia cells. The AML cells were transfected with survivin specific siRNA and gene knockdown was confirmed by quantitative real time PCR and western blotting. Subsequently, U-937 cells were assessed for response to etoposide treatment and apoptosis rate was measured with flowcytometery. The cytotoxic effects in siRNA-etoposide group were measured and compared to etoposide single therapy group. Survivin siRNA effectively knocked down the mRNA and protein levels of survivin, which led to lower cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Furthermore, combined treatment of etoposide and survivin siRNA synergistically increased the cell toxic effects of etoposide and its ability to induce apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
  20. Sim TY, Harith HH, Tham CL, Md Hashim NF, Shaari K, Sulaiman MR, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Jun 05;23(6).
    PMID: 29874809 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061355
    Alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction contributes to lung edema and can lead to acute lung injury (ALI). The features include increased epithelial permeability, upregulation of inflammatory mediators and downregulation of junctional complex molecules; these changes are often induced by inflammation. tHGA is an acetophenone analogue with therapeutic potential in asthma. Its therapeutic potential in ALI is presently unknown. Herein, the effects of tHGA on epithelial barrier dysfunction were determined in TNF-α-induced human alveolar epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory properties of tHGA were assessed by monocyte adhesion assay and analysis of MCP-1 and ICAM-1 expression. The epithelial barrier function was assessed by paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assays, and analysis of junctional complex molecules expression. To elucidate the mechanism of action, the effects of tHGA on the NF-κB and MAPK pathways were determined. Gene and protein expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting or ELISA, respectively. tHGA suppressed leukocyte adhesion to TNF-α-induced epithelium and reduced MCP-1 and ICAM-1 gene expression and secretion. tHGA also increased TEER readings, reduced epithelial permeability and enhanced expression of junctional complex molecules (zona occludens-1, occludin and E-cadherin) in TNF-α-induced cells. Correspondingly, the NF-κB, ERK and p38 MAPK pathways were also inhibited by tHGA. These findings suggest that tHGA is able to preserve alveolar epithelial barrier function in response to acute inflammation, via its anti-inflammatory activity and stabilization of epithelial barrier integrity, mediated by NF-κB, ERK and p38 MAPK signaling.
    Matched MeSH terms: U937 Cells
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