Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 615 in total

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  1. Hong SA, Peltzer K
    Subst Use Misuse, 2019;54(2):288-296.
    PMID: 30463459 DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2018.1517797
    BACKGROUND: Though alcohol and tobacco are the most commonly used substances among adolescents, little is known about the patterning of early adolescent substance use in Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states.

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined past month patterns of substances use and its gender difference among adolescents.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional samples among adolescents aged 13-16 years who completed the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) from eight ASEAN countries were included in the analysis (n = 40,212).

    RESULTS: Prevalence of past month any tobacco use was relatively high in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines (11-15%), but prevalence of dual cigarette and other forms of tobacco use was about 2-5% in the five countries. Past month alcohol consumption prevalence was also high in Thailand, Viet Nam, and the Philippines (16-24%), compared to the rest countries (1.4-8.2%). Moreover, prevalence of the concurrent alcohol and tobacco use was higher in Thailand and the Philippines (7 and 10%, respectively), particularly in boys (13 and 15%, respectively). Conclusions/importance: Almost 30-40% of the boys and 10-20% of girls in Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam are engaged in at least one of the two risk behaviors, and the concurrent alcohol and tobacco use was also relatively high among boys in those countries (5-15%). This study may provide some valuable insights on alcohol and tobacco policy in the region and requires to begin prevention and treatment programs in ASEAN member states.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia/epidemiology
  2. Hill N
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(2):e0206023.
    PMID: 30785876 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206023
    Tropidolaemus wagleri is a species of Asian pitviper with a geographic range including Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Bruniei, parts of Indonesia, and the Philippines. Tropidolaemus is a member of the Crotalinae subfamily, within Viperidae. The genus Tropidolaemus includes five species, and was once included within the genus Trimeresurus. While some osteologic characteristics have been noted a comprehensive description of cranial elements has not been produced for T. wagleri. An in-depth description of the cranial skeleton of Tropidolaemus wagleri lays the foundation for future projects to compare and contrast other taxa within Crotalinae and Viperidae. The chosen reference specimen was compared to the presumed younger specimens to note any variation in ontogeny. The study here provides a comprehensive description of isolated cranial elements as well as a description of ontogenetic change within the specimens observed. This study contributes to the knowledge of osteological characters in T. wagleri and provides a foundation for a long term project to identify isolated elements in the fossil record.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  3. Perehudoff SK, Alexandrov NV, Hogerzeil HV
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(6):e0215577.
    PMID: 31251737 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215577
    Persistent barriers to universal access to medicines are limited social protection in the event of illness, inadequate financing for essential medicines, frequent stock-outs in the public sector, and high prices in the private sector. We argue that greater coherence between human rights law, national medicines policies, and universal health coverage schemes can address these barriers. We present a cross-national content analysis of national medicines policies from 71 countries published between 1990-2016. The World Health Organization's (WHO) 2001 guidelines for developing and implementing a national medicines policy and all 71 national medicines policies were assessed on 12 principles, linking a health systems approach to essential medicines with international human rights law for medicines affordability and financing for vulnerable groups. National medicines policies most frequently contain measures for medicines selection and efficient spending/cost-effectiveness. Four principles (legal right to health; government financing; efficient spending; and financial protection of vulnerable populations) are significantly stronger in national medicines policies published after 2004 than before. Six principles have remained weak or absent: pooling user contributions, international cooperation, and four principles for good governance. Overall, South Africa (1996), Indonesia and South Sudan (2006), Philippines (2011-2016), Malaysia (2012), Somalia (2013), Afghanistan (2014), and Uganda (2015) include the most relevant texts and can be used as models for other settings. We conclude that WHO's 2001 guidelines have guided the content and language of many subsequent national medicines policies. WHO and national policy makers can use these principles and the practical examples identified in our study to further align national medicines policies with human rights law and with Target 3.8 for universal access to essential medicines in the Sustainable Development Goals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  4. Bernardo ABI, Salanga MGC, Tjipto S, Hutapea B, Khan A, Yeung SS
    Front Psychol, 2019;10:1335.
    PMID: 31231289 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01335
    Polyculturalism is the lay belief that cultures are dynamically interconnected and mutually influencing each other historically and in contemporary times. Belief in polyculturalism is associated with various positive intergroup outcomes in intercultural social contexts, but it has never been studied in relation to intergroup attitudes in postcolonial societies. Two studies with participants from four postcolonial Asian societies (total N = 1,126) explore whether polyculturalism will also be associated with positive attitudes toward the continuing presence of former colonizers. The historical colonial experience may be socially represented positively or negatively in different societies, and in this context, the studies inquire into whether current attitudes toward former colonizers are positively associated with the belief in polyculturalism. In two studies (after controlling for belief in multiculturalism, genetic and social constructivist lay theories of race, and national identity) polyculturalism was positively associated with favorable attitudes toward continuing presence of former colonizers in Hong Kong, Macau, and Jakarta, but not in Johor Bahru, Malaysia and Wonosobo, Indonesia. The positive association with polyculturalism was found only in the three societies with a high degree of intercultural contact, where the core beliefs of polyculturalism may be more meaningful. The results are discussed in terms of how intergroup relations between former colonizers and colonized peoples are forms of between-society intercultural contact that are also influenced by intergroup lay theories.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  5. Helbert, Turjaman M, Nara K
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(9):e0221998.
    PMID: 31498844 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221998
    In Southeast Asia, primary tropical rainforests are usually dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) trees belonging to Dipterocarpaceae, although arbuscular mycorrhizal trees often outcompete them after disturbances such as forest fires and clear-cutting, thus preventing dipterocarp regeneration. In some secondary tropical forests, however, potentially ECM trees belonging to Tristaniopsis (Myrtaceae) become dominant and may help ECM dipterocarp forests to recover. However, we have no information about their mycorrhizal status in these settings. In this study, we analyzed ECM fungal communities in tropical secondary forests dominated by Tristaniopsis and investigated which ECM fungal species are shared with other tropical or temperate areas. In total, 100 samples were collected from four secondary forests dominated by Tristaniopsis on Bangka Island. ECM tips in the soil samples were subjected to molecular analyses to identify both ECM and host species. Based on a >97% ITS sequence similarity threshold, we identified 56 ECM fungal species dominated by Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae, and Clavulinaceae. Some of the ECM fungal species were shared between dominant Tristaniopsis and coexisting Eucalyptus or Quercus trees, including 5 common to ECM fungi recorded in a primary mixed dipterocarp forest at Lambir Hill, Malaysia. In contrast, no ECM fungal species were shared with other geographical regions, even with Tristaniopsis in New Caledonia. These results imply that secondary tropical forests dominated by Tristaniopsis harbor diverse ECM fungi, including those that inhabit primary dipterocarp forests in the same geographical region. They may function as refugia for ECM fungi, given that dipterocarp forests are disappearing quickly due to human activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  6. Sloan S, Campbell MJ, Alamgir M, Lechner AM, Engert J, Laurance WF
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(9):e0221947.
    PMID: 31532810 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221947
    The Heart of Borneo initiative has promoted the integration of protected areas and sustainably-managed forests across Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei. Recently, however, member states of the Heart of Borneo have begun pursuing ambitious unilateral infrastructure-development schemes to accelerate economic growth, jeopardizing the underlying goal of trans-boundary integrated conservation. Focusing on Sabah, Malaysia, we highlight conflicts between its Pan-Borneo Highway scheme and the regional integration of protected areas, unprotected intact forests, and conservation-priority forests. Road developments in southern Sabah in particular would drastically reduce protected-area integration across the northern Heart of Borneo region. Such developments would separate two major clusters of protected areas that account for one-quarter of all protected areas within the Heart of Borneo complex. Sabah has proposed forest corridors and highway underpasses as means of retaining ecological connectivity in this context. Connectivity modelling identified numerous overlooked areas for connectivity rehabilitation among intact forest patches following planned road development. While such 'linear-conservation planning' might theoretically retain up to 85% of intact-forest connectivity and integrate half of the conservation-priority forests across Sabah, in reality it is very unlikely to achieve meaningful ecological integration. Moreover, such measure would be exceedingly costly if properly implemented-apparently beyond the operating budget of relevant Malaysian authorities. Unless critical road segments are cancelled, planned infrastructure will fragment important conservation landscapes with little recourse for mitigation. This likelihood reinforces earlier calls for the legal recognition of the Heart of Borneo region for conservation planning as well as for enhanced tri-lateral coordination of both conservation and development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  7. Pengpid S, Peltzer K
    Psychol Res Behav Manag, 2019;12:585-592.
    PMID: 31534377 DOI: 10.2147/PRBM.S209611
    Background: The investigation aimed to estimate the association between carbonated soft drink consumption frequency and externalizing and internalizing behaviour among university students in five ASEAN counties.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey included 3353 university students from Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam, median age 20 years (interquartile range 3 years).

    Results: In all five ASEAN countries, the study found a prevalence no soft drink consumption in the past 30 days of 20.3%, less than one time a day 44.7%, once a day 25.4% and two or more times a day 9.6%. In the adjusted logistic regression analysis, higher frequency of soft drink consumption (one and/or two or more times a day) was associated with externalizing behaviour (in physical fight, injury, current tobacco use, problem drinking, drug use, pathological internet use and gambling behaviour), and higher frequency of soft drink consumption (two or more times a day) was associated with depression in females, but no association was found for the general student population in relation to internalizing behaviour (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempt and sleeping problem).

    Conclusions: Findings suggest that carbonated soft drink consumption is associated with a number of externalizing but not internalizing health risk behaviours.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  8. Nikmatin S, Hermawan B, Irmansyah I, Indro MN, Kueh ABH, Syafiuddin A
    Materials (Basel), 2018 Dec 22;12(1).
    PMID: 30583516 DOI: 10.3390/ma12010034
    The performance of helmet prototypes fabricated from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene composites filled with oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers was evaluated. The fibers were produced using a milling procedure, while the composites were fabricated using a single-screw extrusion. The physical characteristics of the produced fibers, which are water content, size, and density, were investigated. In addition, the mechanical properties of the produced helmets, including shock absorption, yield stress, frequency, and head injury criterion (HIC), were examined. The impact strength of the produced helmets increases with the rise of filler content. In addition, the helmets were also able to withstand a considerable pressure such that the transmitted pressure was far under the maximum value acceptable by the human skull. The present work also found that HICs exhibited by the investigated helmet prototypes fulfill all the practical guidelines as permitted by the Indonesian government. In terms of novelty, such innovation can be considered the first invention in Indonesia since the endorsement of the use of motorcycle helmets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  9. Tualeka AR, Jalaludin J, Salesman F, Wahyu A, Tukiran T, Setiawan S, et al.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci, 2018 Dec 20;6(12):2381-2385.
    PMID: 30607197 DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2018.488
    BACKGROUND: Research on risk assessment at industrial sites has experienced growth during the end of this year. But in Indonesia, there is still limited research on risk assessment, especially regarding the importance of measuring non-carcinogenic risk assessment in the workplace. Benzene exposure is believed to reduce levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in workers.

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between risk quotient (RQ) of non-carcinogenic risk assessment of benzene and demographic factors on IgA levels.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The subjects of the study were shoe craftsmen who were at risk of benzene exposure. The study design was cross-sectional with a total population of 20 workers. Measurement of IgA levels by Immunoturbidimetric Assay with a normal standard of 2-3 mg/ml. Calculation of non-carcinogenic (RQ) risk characteristics with a comparison between risk agent non-carcinogenic intake with RfD or RfC benzene.

    RESULTS: The majority of the study subjects aged over 45 years and had a working period of ≥ 25 years. There were 2 location points that had a threshold value exceeding the benzene standard (> 0.05 ppm), and 40% of the subjects had decreased IgA levels. Age and working periods had a significant relationship to IgA levels (p = 0.027; p = 0.047), while benzene and RQ levels did not have a significant relationship with IgA levels (p = 0.179; p = 0.436).

    CONCLUSION: Increasing age and working period can reduce IgA levels in the body. Further research is needed on risk assessment, especially on the safe limits of benzene concentration in the workplace to find out how long benzene exposure forms a non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risk in workers' bodies exposed to benzene.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  10. Amelia-Yap ZH, Chen CD, Sofian-Azirun M, Lau KW, Suana IW, Harmonis, et al.
    J. Econ. Entomol., 2018 12 14;111(6):2854-2860.
    PMID: 30265353 DOI: 10.1093/jee/toy296
    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of several arthropod-borne viral infectious diseases globally. Relentless vector control efforts are performed to curtail disease transmissions, insecticides remain as the first line of defense in Indonesia. With a dearth of publication on the efficacy of mosquito coil in Indonesia, this is the first report related to mosquito coil despite its common use in households. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were sampled from nine regencies in Indonesia and tested using the glass-chamber method against three commercially available local pyrethroid-based mosquito coils containing d-allethrin, transfluthrin, and metofluthrin. The 50% knockdown time of female Ae. aegypti tested with d-allethrin, transfluthrin, and metofluthrin containing coils ranged from 0.65 to 14.32; 0.8 to 16.4; and 0.78 to 20.57 min, respectively. Mortality rates in accordance with WHO resistance indicators showed that strains from Denpasar, Mataram, Kuningan, Padang, Samarinda, and Sumba Timur were resistant (<80% mortality rate), whereas strains from Manggarai Barat, Dompu, and Pontianak were susceptible (>98% mortality rate) to the active ingredients assayed. Moreover, the knockdown rates between d-allethrin and transfluthrin, d-allethrin and metofluthrin, as well as transfluthrin and metofluthrin displayed significant associations, portraying the presence of cross-resistance within pyrethroid insecticides. The minimal insecticidal effect of mosquito coils against some Indonesian Ae. aegypti also pointed out the development of pyrethroid resistance, prompting a revamping of the vector control system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  11. van Noordwijk MA, Utami Atmoko SS, Knott CD, Kuze N, Morrogh-Bernard HC, Oram F, et al.
    J. Hum. Evol., 2018 12;125:38-49.
    PMID: 30502896 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.09.004
    Orangutans (Pongo spp.) are reported to have extremely slow life histories, including the longest average interbirth intervals of all mammals. Such slow life history can be viable only when unavoidable mortality is kept low. Thus, orangutans' survivorship under natural conditions is expected to be extremely high. Previous estimates of orangutan life history were based on captive individuals living under very different circumstances or on small samples from wild populations. Here, we combine birth data from seven field sites, each with demographic data collection for at least 10 years (range 12-43 years) on wild orangutans to better document their life history. Using strict criteria for data inclusion, we calculated infant survival, interbirth intervals and female age at first reproduction, across species, subspecies and islands. We found an average closed interbirth interval of 7.6 years, as well as consistently very high pre-weaning survival for males and females. Female survival of 94% until age at first birth (at around age 15 years) was higher than reported for any other mammal species under natural conditions. Similarly, annual survival among parous females is very high, but longevity remains to be estimated. Current data suggest no major life history differences between Sumatran and Bornean orangutans. The high offspring survival is remarkable, noting that modern human populations seem to have reached the same level of survival only in the 20th century. The orangutans' slow life history illustrates what can be achieved if a hominoid bauplan is exposed to low unavoidable mortality. Their high survival is likely due to their arboreal and non-gregarious lifestyle, and has allowed them to maintain viable populations, despite living in low-productivity habitats. However, their slow life history also implies that orangutans are highly vulnerable to a catastrophic population crash in the face of drastic habitat change.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  12. Harapan H, Mudatsir M, Yufika A, Nawawi Y, Wahyuniati N, Anwar S, et al.
    Viruses, 2018 11 18;10(11).
    PMID: 30453663 DOI: 10.3390/v10110648
    One of the crucial steps during trials for Zika and other vaccines is to recruit participants and to understand how participants' attitudes and sociodemographic characteristics affect willingness to participate (WTP). This study was conducted to assess WTP, its explanatory variables, and the impact of financial compensation on WTP in Indonesia. A health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in eleven regencies in the Aceh and West Sumatra provinces of Indonesia. Participants were recruited via a convenience sampling method and were interviewed. The associations between explanatory variables and WTP were assessed using a two-step logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,102 parents were approached, and of these 956 (86.8%) completed the interview and were included in analysis. Of those, 144 (15.1%) were willing to participate in a Zika vaccine trial without a financial compensation. In the multivariate analysis, WTP was tied to an age of more than 50 years old, compared to 20⁻29 years (odds ratio (OR): 5.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37⁻10.53), to being female (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.11⁻4.37), and to having heard about Zika (OR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.59⁻3.65). Participants' WTP increased gradually with higher financial compensation. The rate of WTP increased to 62.3% at the highest offer (US$ 350.4), and those who were still unwilling to participate (37.7%) had a poorer attitude towards childhood vaccination. This study highlights that pre-existing knowledge about Zika and attitudes towards childhood vaccination are important in determining community members being willing to participate in a vaccine trial. Financial incentives are still an important factor to enhance participant recruitment during a vaccine trial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  13. Meijaard E, Sherman J, Ancrenaz M, Wich SA, Santika T, Voigt M
    Curr. Biol., 2018 11 05;28(21):R1241-R1242.
    PMID: 30399343 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.09.052
    A recent report, published by the Government of Indonesia with support from the Food and Agricultural Organization and Norway's International Climate and Forest Initiative, states that orangutan populations (Pongo spp.) have increased by more than 10% in Indonesia from 2015 to 2017, exceeding the government target of an annual 2% population increase [1]. This assessment is in strong contrast with recent publications that showed that the Bornean orangutan (P. pygmaeus) lost more than 100,000 individuals in the past 16 years [2] and declined by at least 25% over the past 10 years [3]. Furthermore, recent work has also demonstrated that both Sumatran orangutans (P. abelii) and the recently described Tapanuli orangutan (P. tapanuliensis) lost more than 60% of their key habitats between 1985 and 2007, and ongoing land use changes are expected to result in an 11-27% decline in their populations by 2020 [4,5]. Most scientific data indicate that the survival of these species continues to be seriously threatened by deforestation and killing [4,6,7] and thus all three are Critically Endangered under the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  14. Supriatno, Nurlelasari, Herlina T, Harneti D, Maharani R, Hidayat AT, et al.
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2018 Nov;32(21):2610-2616.
    PMID: 29368952 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1428600
    A new limonoid, pentandricine (1), along with three known limonoids, ceramicine B (2), 6-de(acetyloxy)-23-oxochisocheton (3), 6-de(acetyloxy)-23-oxo-7-O-deacetylchisocheton (4), have been isolated from the stembark of Chisocheton pentandrus. The chemical structures of the new compound were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. All of the compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compounds 1-4 showed weak and no cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells with IC50 values of 369.84, 150.86, 208.93 and 120.09 μM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  15. Sandjaja S, Poh BK, Rojroongwasinkul N, Le Nguyen Bao K, Soekatri M, Wong JE, et al.
    Public Health Nutr, 2018 11;21(16):2972-2981.
    PMID: 29852879 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018001349
    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to (i) calculate body-weight- and BMI-for-age percentile values for children aged 0·5-12 years participating in the South-East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS); (ii) investigate whether the pooled (i.e. including all countries) SEANUTS weight- and BMI-for-age percentile values can be used for all SEANUTS countries instead of country-specific ones; and (iii) examine whether the pooled SEANUTS percentile values differ from the WHO growth references.

    DESIGN: Body weight and length/height were measured. The LMS method was used for calculating smoothened body-weight- and BMI-for-age percentile values. The standardized site effect (SSE) values were used for identifying large differences (i.e. $\left| {{\rm SSE}} \right|$ >0·5) between the pooled SEANUTS sample and the remaining pooled SEANUTS samples after excluding one single country each time, as well as with WHO growth references.

    SETTING: Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia.

    SUBJECTS: Data from 14 202 eligible children.

    RESULTS: The SSE derived from the comparisons of the percentile values between the pooled and the remaining pooled SEANUTS samples were indicative of small/acceptable (i.e. $\left| {{\rm SSE}} \right|$ ≤0·5) differences. In contrast, the comparisons of the pooled SEANUTS sample with WHO revealed large differences in certain percentiles.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study support the use of percentile values derived from the pooled SEANUTS sample for evaluating the weight status of children in each SEANUTS country. Nevertheless, large differences were observed in certain percentiles values when SEANUTS and WHO reference values were compared.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  16. Bates SS, Hubbard KA, Lundholm N, Montresor M, Leaw CP
    Harmful Algae, 2018 11;79:3-43.
    PMID: 30420013 DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2018.06.001
    Some diatoms of the genera Pseudo-nitzschia and Nitzschia produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), a compound that caused amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans just over 30 years ago (December 1987) in eastern Canada. This review covers new information since two previous reviews in 2012. Nitzschia bizertensis was subsequently discovered to be toxigenic in Tunisian waters. The known distribution of N. navis-varingica has expanded from Vietnam to Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Australia. Furthermore, 15 new species (and one new variety) of Pseudo-nitzschia have been discovered, bringing the total to 52. Seven new species were found to produce DA, bringing the total of toxigenic species to 26. We list all Pseudo-nitzschia species, their ability to produce DA, and show their global distribution. A consequence of the extended distribution and increased number of toxigenic species worldwide is that DA is now found more pervasively in the food web, contaminating new marine organisms (especially marine mammals), affecting their physiology and disrupting ecosystems. Recent findings highlight how zooplankton grazers can induce DA production in Pseudo-nitzschia and how bacteria interact with Pseudo-nitzschia. Since 2012, new discoveries have been reported on physiological controls of Pseudo-nitzschia growth and DA production, its sexual reproduction, and infection by an oomycete parasitoid. Many advances are the result of applying molecular approaches to discovering new species, and to understanding the population genetic structure of Pseudo-nitzschia and mechanisms used to cope with iron limitation. The availability of genomes from three Pseudo-nitzschia species, coupled with a comparative transcriptomic approach, has allowed advances in our understanding of the sexual reproduction of Pseudo-nitzschia, its signaling pathways, its interactions with bacteria, and genes involved in iron and vitamin B12 and B7 metabolism. Although there have been no new confirmed cases of ASP since 1987 because of monitoring efforts, new blooms have occurred. A massive toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom affected the entire west coast of North America during 2015-2016, and was linked to a 'warm blob' of ocean water. Other smaller toxic blooms occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and east coast of North America. Knowledge gaps remain, including how and why DA and its isomers are produced, the world distribution of potentially toxigenic Nitzschia species, the prevalence of DA isomers, and molecular markers to discriminate between toxigenic and non-toxigenic species and to discover sexually reproducing populations in the field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  17. Cunningham AB, Ingram W, Brinckmann JA, Nesbitt M
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2018 Oct 28;225:128-135.
    PMID: 29944892 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.06.032
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This is the first study of global trade in fruits of the widely used traditional medicine, Helicteres isora L. It is used in Ayurvedic, Siddha, Unani medical systems and/or local folk traditional medicines in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. The roots are used in Traditional Chinese Medicines in China and the fruits in jamu products in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. In addition, H. isora fruits are also used in "traditional" medical systems far beyond the natural distribution of this species, for example in Zulu herbal medicine (South Africa) and Kurdish herbal medicines (Iraq).

    AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study had three aims: (i) to assess the global trade in H. isora fruits; (ii) to study the H. isora trade from West Timor to Java in terms of actors and prices along the value chain and (iii) to get a better understanding of the potential of this species to improve household income in eastern Indonesia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study uses historical records, a contemporary analysis of global trade data (2014-2016) and field assessments of value chains and the biological factors influencing H. isora fruit production.

    RESULTS: Globally, the major exporter of H. isora fruits is India, which exports H. isora fruits to 19 countries, far beyond the natural geographical distribution of this species. Over a 36-month period (January 2014-December 2016), India exported 392 t of H. isora fruits, with a Free-On-Board (FOB) value of Indian rupiah (INR) 18,337,000 (US$ 274,055). This represents an average annual export quantity of about 130,526 kg/year. Over this three year period, most of these exports (85.5%) were to Indonesia (346.58 t), followed by Thailand (6.85%). Indian H. isora exports are also used in many other medical systems, including Kurdish and Zulu "traditional" medicines in Iraq and South Africa. Formation of an Indian diaspora in Bahrain, Mauritius, South Africa, Tanzania and Trinidad and Tobago over the past 130 years is one of the drivers of H. isora fruit trade outside the natural geographic distribution of the species. In Indonesia, demand for H. isora fruits is supplemented by an intra-island trade in Java and an inter-island trade from East Nusa Tenggara. West Timor, for example, exports around 31-37 t of air-dried H. isora fruits per year to Java. At the farm gate, local harvesters in West Timor get 4000 IDR (c. 0.3 US$) per kg, with businesses in Java paying 25,000 IDR (c.US$2) per kg for H. isora fruits. This is similar to the price paid for H. isora fruits imported from India to Java.

    CONCLUSIONS: India is the major exporter of whole dried H. isora fruits, including to countries where this species has never been in traditional use. In Indonesia, H. isora fruit extracts are used in the cosmetic industry as well as in jamu herbal medicines, including "Tolak Angin", the country's most popular commercial "jamu" preparation. Indonesia also is the major importer of H. isora fruits from India. In eastern Indonesia, improved income to local villagers from the H. isora fruit trade could come from improved H. isora fruit quality due to better drying techniques. This would also reduce health risks along the supply chain from to mycotoxins that have been recorded on poorly dried H. isora fruits. There also is an opportunity for cultivation of H. isora in small-holder teak plantations in Indonesia, with harvest of H. isora fruits as well as the medicinal bark.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  18. Chong HY, Allotey PA, Chaiyakunapruk N
    BMC Med Genomics, 2018 Oct 26;11(1):94.
    PMID: 30367635 DOI: 10.1186/s12920-018-0420-4
    BACKGROUND: The emergence of personalized medicine (PM) has raised some tensions in healthcare systems. PM is expensive and health budgets are constrained - efficient healthcare delivery is therefore critical. Notwithstanding the cost, many countries have started to adopt this novel technology, including resource-limited Southeast Asia (SEA) countries. This study aimed to describe the status of PM adoption in SEA, highlight the challenges and to propose strategies for future development.

    METHODS: The study included scoping review and key stakeholder interviews in four focus countries - Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The current landscape of PM adoption was evaluated based on an assessment framework of six key themes - healthcare system, governance, access, awareness, implementation, and data. Six PM programs were evaluated for their financing and implementation mechanisms.

    RESULTS: The findings revealed SEA has progressed in adopting PM especially Singapore and Thailand. A regional pharmacogenomics research network has been established. However, PM policies and programs vary significantly. As most PM programs are champion-driven and the available funding is limited, the current PM distribution has the potential to widen existing health disparities. Low PM awareness in the society and the absence of political support with financial investment are fundamental barriers. There is a clear need to broaden opportunities for critical discourse about PM especially for policymakers. Multi-stakeholder, multi-country strategies need to be prioritized in order to leverage resources and expertise.

    CONCLUSIONS: Adopting PM remains in its infancy in SEA. To achieve an effective PM adoption, it is imperative to balance equity issues across diverse populations while improving efficiency in healthcare.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  19. Heery EC, Hoeksema BW, Browne NK, Reimer JD, Ang PO, Huang D, et al.
    Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2018 Oct;135:654-681.
    PMID: 30301085 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.07.041
    Given predicted increases in urbanization in tropical and subtropical regions, understanding the processes shaping urban coral reefs may be essential for anticipating future conservation challenges. We used a case study approach to identify unifying patterns of urban coral reefs and clarify the effects of urbanization on hard coral assemblages. Data were compiled from 11 cities throughout East and Southeast Asia, with particular focus on Singapore, Jakarta, Hong Kong, and Naha (Okinawa). Our review highlights several key characteristics of urban coral reefs, including "reef compression" (a decline in bathymetric range with increasing turbidity and decreasing water clarity over time and relative to shore), dominance by domed coral growth forms and low reef complexity, variable city-specific inshore-offshore gradients, early declines in coral cover with recent fluctuating periods of acute impacts and rapid recovery, and colonization of urban infrastructure by hard corals. We present hypotheses for urban reef community dynamics and discuss potential of ecological engineering for corals in urban areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  20. Park YC, Yang SY, Chong MY, Kanba S, Sartorius N, Shinfuku N, et al.
    Psychiatry Investig, 2018 Oct;15(10):1007-1008.
    PMID: 30373360 DOI: 10.30773/pi.2018.09.06
    The REAP-AP study recruited 3,746 patients with schizophrenia, in March and April 2016, from 71 centers in 15 Asian countries/territories namely Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. Our findings reveal a trend according to which high dose antipsychotic prescription is more prevalent in Eastern Asia (especially, Japan and Korea) than in other regions of Asia. This historical factor may be associated with our finding of an Eastern Asian preponderance of high dose antipsychotic prescription.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
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