Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Amir Yusri MA, Sekar M, Wong LS, Gan SH, Ravi S, Subramaniyan V, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2023;17:1079-1096.
    PMID: 37064431 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S389977
    Celastrol is a naturally occurring chemical isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., root extracts widely known for their neuroprotective properties. In this review, we focus on the efficacy of celastrol in mitigating memory impairment (MI) in both in vivo and in vitro models. Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science databases were utilised to locate pertinent literatures that explore the effects of celastrol in the brain, including its pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, behavioral effects and some of the putative mechanisms of action on memory in many MI models. To date, preclinical studies strongly suggest that celastrol is highly effective in enhancing the cognitive performance of MI animal models, particularly in the memory domain, including spatial, recognition, retention and reference memories, via reduction in oxidative stress and attenuation of neuro-inflammation, among others. This review also emphasised the challenges and potential associated enhancement of medication delivery for MI treatment. Additionally, the potential structural alterations and derivatives of celastrol in enhancing its physicochemical and drug-likeness qualities are examined. The current review demonstrated that celastrol can improve cognitive performance and mitigate MI in several preclinical investigations, highlighting its potential as a natural lead molecule for the design and development of a novel neuroprotective medication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology
  2. Razali NNM, Ng CT, Fong LY
    Planta Med, 2019 Nov;85(16):1203-1215.
    PMID: 31539918 DOI: 10.1055/a-1008-6138
    Centella asiatica, a triterpene-rich medicinal herb, is traditionally used to treat various types of diseases including neurological, dermatological, and metabolic diseases. A few articles have previously reviewed a broad range of pharmacological activities of C. asiatica, but none of these reviews focuses on the use of C. asiatica in cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to summarize recent findings on protective effects of C. asiatica and its active constituents (asiatic acid, asiaticoside, madecassic acid, and madecassoside) in cardiovascular diseases. In addition, their beneficial effects on conditions associated with cardiovascular diseases were also reviewed. Articles were retrieved from electronic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar using keywords "Centella asiatica," "asiatic acid," "asiaticoside," "madecassic acid," and "madecassoside." The articles published between 2004 and 2018 that are related to the aforementioned topics were selected. A few clinical studies published beyond this period were also included. The results showed that C. asiatica and its active compounds possess potential therapeutic effects in cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular disease-related conditions, as evidenced by numerous in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. C. asiatica and its triterpenes have been reported to exhibit cardioprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In conclusion, more clinical and pharmacokinetic studies are needed to support the use of C. asiatica and its triterpenes as therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. Besides, elucidation of the molecular pathways modulated by C. asiatica and its active constituents will help to understand the mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective action of C. asiatica.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry
  3. Hashim, P
    Centella asiatica L. is traditionally used as a medicinal herbs and alternative medicine in treating numerous kinds of diseases. The use of Centella in food and beverages has increased over the years. Its potential antioxidant and neuroprotective activity has been widely claimed in many reports and basically is very much related to its properties and mechanism of action of the plant’s bioactive constituents namely the asiaticoside, asiatic acid, madecassoside and madecassic acid. As such, this review will cover the biological activity of the plant’s active constituents in relation to its food and beverage applications. The plant cultivation and biotechnological approaches to improve the production of desired bioactive constituents by cultured cells will also be reviewed. In addition, the range of chemical compositions found in Centella and safety aspects are also included.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes
  4. Saiful Yazan L, Armania N
    Pharm Biol, 2014 Jul;52(7):890-7.
    PMID: 24766363 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2013.872672
    Dillenia (Dilleniaceae) is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in tropical and subtropical trees of Southern Asia, Australasia, and the Indian Ocean Islands. Until now, only eight Dillenia species have been reported to be used traditionally in different countries for various medical purposes. Out of eight species, D. pentagyna (Roxb), D. indica (Linn.) and D. suffruticosa (Griffith Ex. Hook. F. & Thomsom Martelli) have been reported to be used to treat cancerous growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  5. Chung PY, Navaratnam P, Chung LY
    PMID: 21658242 DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-10-25
    There has been considerable effort to discover plant-derived antibacterials against methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which have developed resistance to most existing antibiotics, including the last line of defence, vancomycin. Pentacyclic triterpenoid, a biologically diverse plant-derived natural product, has been reported to show anti-staphylococcal activities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between three pentacyclic triterpenoid and standard antibiotics (methicillin and vancomycin) against reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry
  6. Malik A, Jamil U, Butt TT, Waquar S, Gan SH, Shafique H, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2019;13:1501-1513.
    PMID: 31123393 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S176698
    Background: In silico characterization can help to explain the interaction between molecules and predict three-dimensional structures. Various studies have confirmed the glucose-lowering effects of plant extracts, ie, lupeol and iso-orientin, which enable them to be used as antidiabetic agents. Purpose: Aims of the present study were to evaluate the hypoglycemic activities of lupeol and iso-orientin in a rat model. The study proposed the effects of alloxan on blood glucose level, body weight, and oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Thirty (n=30) Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups and were subjected to different combinations of the compounds. Levels of different stress markers, ie, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nitric oxide, glutathione, glutathione peroxide, glutathione reductase, and blood glucose levels were estimated with their respective methods. Whereas, for their in silico analysis, identified target proteins, GPR40, glucose-6-phosphatase, UCP2, glycogen phosphorylase, aldose reductase, and glucose transporter-4 were docked with lupeol and iso-orientin. Three-dimensional structures were predicted by ERRAT, Rampage, Verify3D, threading and homology approaches. Results: Blood glucose levels were significantly increased in rats receiving intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (208±6.94 mg/dL) as compared to controls (90±7.38 mg/dL). Infected rats were administered plant extracts; combined treatment of both extracts (lupeol+iso-orientin) significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose (129.06±6.29 mg/dL) and improved the antioxidant status. Fifteen structures of each selected protein were evaluated using various techniques. Consequently, satisfactory quality factors [GPR40 (96.41%), glucose-6-phosphatase (96.56%), UCP2 (72.56%), glycogen phosphorylase (87.24%), aldose reductase (82.46%), and glucose transporter-4 (94.29%)] were selected. Molecular docking revealed interacting residues, effective drug properties and their binding affinities (ie, -8.9 to -12.6 Kcal/mol). Conclusion: Results of the study affirmed the antidiabetic activities of lupeol and iso-orientin. Administration of these extracts (either individually or in combination) significantly reduced blood glucose levels and oxidative stress. Hence, it may be considered beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/therapeutic use*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry
  7. Jusril NA, Muhamad Juhari ANN, Abu Bakar SI, Md Saad WM, Adenan MI
    Molecules, 2020 Jul 24;25(15).
    PMID: 32721993 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25153353
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease and the most cause of dementia in elderly adults. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important beneficial target for AD to control cholinergic signaling deficit. Centella asiatica (CA) has proven to be rich with active ingredients for memory enhancement. In the present study, the chemical profiling of three accession extracts of CA namely SECA-K017, SECA-K018, and, SECA-K019 were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four biomarker triterpene compounds were detected in all CA accessions. Quantitative analysis reveals that madecassoside was the highest triterpene in all the CA accessions. The biomarker compounds and the ethanolic extracts of three accessions were investigated for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity using Ellman's spectrophotometer method. The inhibitory activity of the triterpenes and accession extracts was compared with the standard AChE inhibitor eserine. The results from the in vitro study showed that the triterpene compounds exhibited an AChE inhibitory activity with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values between 15.05 ± 0.05 and 59.13 ± 0.18 µg/mL. Asiatic acid was found to possess strong AChE inhibitory activity followed by madecassic acid. Among the CA accession extracts, SECA-K017 and SECA-K018 demonstrated a moderate AChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 481.5 ± 0.13 and 763.5 ± 0.16 µg/mL, respectively from the in silico docking studies, it is observed that asiatic acid and madecassic acid showed very good interactions with the active sites and fulfilled docking parameters against AChE. The present study suggested that asiatic acid and madecassic acid in the CA accessions could be responsible for the AChE inhibitory action and could be used as markers to guide further studies on CA as potential natural products for the treatment of AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  8. Abdullah NH, Thomas NF, Sivasothy Y, Lee VS, Liew SY, Noorbatcha IA, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2016 Feb 14;17(2):143.
    PMID: 26907251 DOI: 10.3390/ijms17020143
    The mammalian hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid by the cleavage of the β-1,4-glycosidic bond furnishing a tetrasaccharide molecule as the main product which is a highly angiogenic and potent inducer of inflammatory cytokines. Ursolic acid 1, isolated from Prismatomeris tetrandra, was identified as having the potential to develop inhibitors of hyaluronidase. A series of ursolic acid analogues were either synthesized via structure modification of ursolic acid 1 or commercially obtained. The evaluation of the inhibitory activity of these compounds on the hyaluronidase enzyme was conducted. Several structural, topological and quantum chemical descriptors for these compounds were calculated using semi empirical quantum chemical methods. A quantitative structure activity relationship study (QSAR) was performed to correlate these descriptors with the hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. The statistical characteristics provided by the best multi linear model (BML) (R² = 0.9717, R²cv = 0.9506) indicated satisfactory stability and predictive ability of the developed model. The in silico molecular docking study which was used to determine the binding interactions revealed that the ursolic acid analog 22 had a strong affinity towards human hyaluronidase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemical synthesis*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry
  9. Agatonovic-Kustrin S, Wong S, Dolzhenko AV, Gegechkori V, Ku H, Tucci J, et al.
    J Chromatogr A, 2023 Sep 13;1706:464241.
    PMID: 37541060 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2023.464241
    This study compares different solvent systems with the use of spontaneous fermentation on the phytochemical composition of leaf extracts from a locally grown white variety of common fig (Ficus carica Linn.). The aim was to detect and identify bioactive compounds that are responsible for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-amylase and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme inhibition, and compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Bioactive zones in chromatograms were detected by combining High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with enzymatic and biological assays. A new experimental protocol for measuring the relative half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) was designed to evaluate the potency of the extracts compared to the potency of known inhibitors. Although the IC50 of the fig leaf extract for α-amylase and AChE inhibition were significantly higher when compared to IC50 for acarbose and donepezil, the COX-1 inhibition by the extract (IC50 = 627 µg) was comparable to that of salicylic acid (IC50 = 557 µg), and antimicrobial activity of the extract (IC50 = 375-511 µg) was similar to ampicillin (IC50 = 495 µg). Four chromatographic zones exhibited bioactivity. Compounds from detected bioactive bands were provisionally identified by comparing the band positions to coeluted standards, and by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra from eluted zones. Flash chromatography was used to separate selected extract into fractions and isolate fractions that are rich in bioactive compounds for further characterisation with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The main constituents identified were umbelliferon (zone 1), furocoumarins psoralen and bergapten (zone 2), different fatty acids (zone 3 and 4), and pentacyclic triterpenoids (calotropenyl acetate or lupeol) and stigmasterol (zone 4).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes
  10. Chung PY, Chung LY, Navaratnam P
    Res. Microbiol., 2013 May;164(4):319-26.
    PMID: 23385141 DOI: 10.1016/j.resmic.2013.01.005
    Staphylococcus aureus has become a serious concern in hospitals and community due to rapid adaptation to existing antimicrobial agents. Betulinaldehyde [3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-al (BE)] belongs to pentacyclic triterpenoids that are based on a 30-carbon skeleton comprising four six-membered rings and one five-membered ring. In a preliminary study, BE exhibited antimicrobial activity against reference strains of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. However, the response mechanism of S. aureus to this compound is not known. In this study, the global gene expression patterns of both the reference strains in response to sub-inhibitory concentrations of BE were analyzed using DNA microarray to identify gene targets, particularly essential targets in novel pathways, i.e. not targeted by currently used antibiotics, or novel targets in existing pathways. The transcriptome analysis revealed repression of genes in the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and ribosome pathways in both the reference strains. Other pathways such as cell division, two-component systems, ABC transporters, fatty acid biosynthesis and peptidoglycan biosynthesis were affected only in the reference strain of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The findings suggest that BE regulates multiple desirable targets which could be further explored in the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of S. aureus infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  11. Al Muqarrabun LM, Ahmat N, Aris SR, Shamsulrijal N, Baharum SN, Ahmad R, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2014;28(9):597-605.
    PMID: 24568340 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.886211
    A new sesquiterpenoid, malayscaphiol (1), and three known compounds, lupeol (2), lupenone (3) and stigmasterol (4), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Scaphium macropodum. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using several spectroscopic methods, including UV-vis, FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometer. Major isolated compounds were assayed for cytotoxicity and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The chemotaxonomy significance of this plant was also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry
  12. Nasir MN, Habsah M, Zamzuri I, Rammes G, Hasnan J, Abdullah J
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Mar 24;134(2):203-9.
    PMID: 21167268 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.010
    Centella asiatica has a reputation to restore declining cognitive function in traditional medicine. To date, only a few compounds that show enhancing learning and memory properties are available. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of for acute administration of asiatic acid (A-A) isolated from Centella asiatica administration on memory and learning in male Spraque-Dawley rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  13. Zulkipli NN, Zakaria R, Long I, Abdullah SF, Muhammad EF, Wahab HA, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Sep 02;25(17).
    PMID: 32887218 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25173991
    Natural products remain a popular alternative treatment for many ailments in various countries. This study aimed to screen for potential mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors from Malaysian natural substance, using the Natural Product Discovery database, and to determine the IC50 of the selected mTOR inhibitors against UMB1949 cell line. The crystallographic structure of the molecular target (mTOR) was obtained from Protein Data Bank, with Protein Data Bank (PDB) ID: 4DRI. Everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, was used as a standard compound for the comparative analysis. Computational docking approach was performed, using AutoDock Vina (screening) and AutoDock 4.2.6 (analysis). Based on our analysis, asiaticoside and its derivative, asiatic acid, both from Centella asiatica, revealed optimum-binding affinities with mTOR that were comparable to our standard compound. The effect of asiaticoside and asiatic acid on mTOR inhibition was validated with UMB1949 cell line, and their IC50 values were 300 and 60 µM, respectively, compared to everolimus (29.5 µM). Interestingly, this is the first study of asiaticoside and asiatic acid against tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) disease model by targeting mTOR. These results, coupled with our in silico findings, should prompt further studies, to clarify the mode of action, safety, and efficacy of these compounds as mTOR inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry
  14. Halder A, Jethwa M, Mukherjee P, Ghosh S, Das S, Helal Uddin ABM, et al.
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2020 Nov 17;48(1):1362-1371.
    PMID: 33284038 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2020.1850465
    Cancer management presents multifarious problems. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with inaccurate prognosis and limited chemotherapeutic options. Betulinic acid (BA) prevents angiogenesis and causes apoptosis of TNBC cells. NIH recommends BA for rapid access in cancer chemotherapy because of its cell-specific toxicity. BA however faces major challenges in therapeutic practices due to its limited solubility and cellular entree. We report lactoferrin (Lf) attached BA nanoparticles (Lf-BAnp) for rapid delivery in triple negative breast (MDA-MB-231) and laryngeal (HEp-2) cancer cell types. Lf association was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and FT-IR analysis. Average hydrodynamic size of Lf-BAnp was 147.7 ± 6.20 nm with ζ potential of -28.51 ± 3.52 mV. BA entrapment efficiency was 75.38 ± 2.70% and the release mechanism followed non-fickian pattern. Impact of Lf-BAnp on cell cycle and cytotoxicity of triple negative breast cancer and its metastatic site laryngeal cancer cell lines were analyzed. Lf-BAnp demonstrated strong anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects, along with increased sub-G1 population and reduced number of cells in G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle, confirming reduced cell proliferation and significant cell death. Speedy intracellular entry of Lf-BAnp occurred within 30 min. Lf-BAnp design was explored for the first time as safer chemotherapeutic arsenals against complex TNBC conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry*
  15. Shamsee ZR, Al-Saffar AZ, Al-Shanon AF, Al-Obaidi JR
    Mol Biol Rep, 2019 Feb;46(1):381-390.
    PMID: 30426385 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-018-4482-3
    Lantana camara is an important medicinal plant that contains many active compounds, including pentacyclic triterpenoids, with numerous biological activities. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-oxidant, anti-tumour, and cell cycle arrest properties of chemical compounds extracted from L. camara leaves. Four compounds were identified after subjecting the plant methanolic extract to LC-MS/MS analysis: lantadene A, lantadene B, icterogenin, and lantadene C. Potential antioxidant activity was examined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and compared with vitamin C as a control. Lantadene A and B were confirmed to possess the highest scavenging activity, while icterogenin and lantadene C exhibited a lesser antioxidant effect. All extracted compounds exerted a dose-dependent reduction in MCF-7 cell viability; however, lantadene B showed the highest anti-cancer activity, with an IC50 of 112.2 μg mL-1, and was therefore used in subsequent experiments. The results also confirmed the significant release of caspase 9 in a dose-dependent pattern following treatment of MCF-7 cells with a range of lantadene B concentrations. Lantadene B was found to induce MCF-7 cell cycle arrest in G1, blocking the G1/S transition with a maximum significant (p ≤ 0.01) cell count of 80.35% at 25 µg mL-1. No significant changes were observed in S phase, but a decrease in the MCF-7 population was exhibited in G2/M phase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
  16. Chung PY, Chung LY, Navaratnam P
    Fitoterapia, 2014 Apr;94:48-54.
    PMID: 24508863 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2014.01.026
    The evolution of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus showed that there is no long-lasting remedy against this pathogen. The limited number of antibacterial classes and the common occurrence of cross-resistance within and between classes reinforce the urgent need to discover new compounds targeting novel cellular functions not yet targeted by currently used drugs. One of the experimental approaches used to discover novel antibacterials and their in vitro targets is natural product screening. Three known pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated for the first time from the bark of Callicarpa farinosa Roxb. (Verbenaceae) and identified as α-amyrin [3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-3-ol], betulinic acid [3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupaene-28-oic acid], and betulinaldehyde [3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-al]. These compounds exhibited antimicrobial activities against reference and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 2 to 512 μg/mL. From the genome-wide transcriptomic analysis to elucidate the antimicrobial effects of these compounds, multiple novel cellular targets in cell division, two-component system, ABC transporters, fatty acid biosynthesis, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes and β-lactam resistance pathways are affected, resulting in destabilization of the bacterial cell membrane, halt in protein synthesis, and inhibition of cell growth that eventually lead to cell death. The novel targets in these essential pathways could be further explored in the development of therapeutic compounds for the treatment of S. aureus infections and help mitigate resistance development due to target alterations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry
  17. Nasir MN, Abdullah J, Habsah M, Ghani RI, Rammes G
    Phytomedicine, 2012 Feb 15;19(3-4):311-6.
    PMID: 22112723 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2011.10.004
    The asiatic acid, a triterpenoids isolated from Centella asiatica was used to delineate its inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) properties, excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) and locomotor activity. This study is consistent with asiatic acid having an effect on AChE, a selective GABA(B) receptor agonist and no sedative effect on locomotor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/administration & dosage; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/chemistry
  18. Hanapi NA, Mohamad Arshad AS, Abdullah JM, Tengku Muhammad TS, Yusof SR
    J Pharm Sci, 2021 02;110(2):698-706.
    PMID: 32949562 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2020.09.015
    Neurotherapeutic potentials of Centella asiatica and its reputation to boost memory, prevent cognitive deficits and improve brain functions are widely acknowledged. The plant's bioactive compounds, i.e. asiaticoside, madecassoside and asiatic acid were reported to have central nervous system (CNS) actions, particularly in protecting the brain against neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, it is important for these compounds to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to be clinically effective therapeutics. This study aimed to explore the capability of asiaticoside, madecassoside and asiatic acid to cross the BBB using in vitro BBB model from primary porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs). Our findings showed that asiaticoside, madecassoside and asiatic acid are highly BBB permeable with apparent permeability (Papp) of 70.61 ± 6.60, 53.31 ± 12.55 and 50.94 ± 10.91 × 10-6 cm/s respectively. No evidence of cytotoxicity and tight junction disruption of the PBECs were observed in the presence of these compounds. Asiatic acid showed cytoprotective effect towards the PBECs against oxidative stress. This study reported for the first time that Centella asiatica compounds demonstrated high capability to cross the BBB, comparable to central nervous system drugs, and therefore warrant further development as therapeutics for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes
  19. Pan Y, Abd-Rashid BA, Ismail Z, Ismail R, Mak JW, Pook PC, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Jul 20;130(2):275-83.
    PMID: 20457244 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.002
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Centella asiatica (CA) has been widely cultivated as a vegetable or spice in China, Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Africa, and Oceanic countries and traditionally used for wound healing and maintaining normal blood pressure.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was carried out to examine the potential modulatory effects of three commercially available active components (asiaticoside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid) and four extracts (aqueous, ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane) of CA on three major cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based enzyme assays, namely tolbutamide 4-methyhydroxylase, dextromethorphan O-demethylase and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase assays were developed to probe activities of CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, respectively. Probe substrates were incubated with or without each active component and extract for each isoform, followed by examination of the kinetics parameters, IC(50) and K(i), to characterize modulatory effects.

    RESULTS: CYP2C9 was more susceptible to inhibitory effects by CA extracts compared to CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Moderate degree of inhibition was observed in ethanol (K(i)=39.1 microg/ml) and dichloromethane (K(i)=26.6 microg/ml) extracts implying potential risk of interaction when CYP2C9 substrates are consumed with CA products. The two extracts however showed negligible inhibition towards CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 (IC(50)'s of 123.3 microg/ml and above). Similarly CA aqueous and hexane extracts did not significantly inhibit all three isoforms investigated (IC(50)'s of 117.9 microg/ml and above). Among the active constituents investigated, asiatic acid and madecassic acid appeared to selectively inhibit CYP2C9 and CYP2D6 more than CYP3A4. Of particular interest is the potent inhibitory effect of asiatic acid on CYP2C9 (K(i)=9.1 microg/ml). This signifies potential risk of interaction when substrates for this isoform are taken together with CA products with high asiatic acid content. Inhibitions of asiatic acid with the other isoforms and that of madecassic acid with all isoforms were only moderate (K(i)'s ranged from 17.2 to 84.4 microg/ml). On the other hand, the IC(50) values for asiaticoside were high (1070.2 microg/ml or above) for all three isoforms, indicating negligible or low potential of this compound to modulate CYP enzymatic activity.

    CONCLUSION: Centella asiatica extracts and active constituents inhibited CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activities with varying potency with CYP2C9 being the most susceptible isoform to inhibition. Significant inhibition was observed for asiatic acid and CA ethanol and dichloromethane extracts, implying involvement of semipolar constituents from CA in the effect. This study suggested that CA could cause drug-herb interactions through CYP2C9 inhibition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification; Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology
  20. Fong LY, Ng CT, Yong YK, Hakim MN, Ahmad Z
    Vascul. Pharmacol., 2019 06;117:15-26.
    PMID: 30114509 DOI: 10.1016/j.vph.2018.08.005
    Endothelial hyperpermeability represents an initiating step in early atherosclerosis and it often occurs as a result of endothelial barrier dysfunction. Asiatic acid, a major triterpene isolated from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, has previously been demonstrated to protect against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the barrier protective effect of asiatic acid in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). The localization of F-actin, diphosphorylated myosin light chain (diphospho-MLC), adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) was studied using immunocytochemistry techniques and confocal microscopy. Their total protein expressions were examined using western blot analysis. The endothelial permeability was assessed using In Vitro Vascular Permeability Assay kits. In addition, intracellular redistribution of the junctional proteins was evaluated using subcellular fractionation kits. We show that asiatic acid stabilized F-actin and diphospho-MLC at the cell periphery and prevented their rearrangement stimulated by TNF-α. However, asiatic acid failed to attenuate cytochalasin D-induced increased permeability. Besides, asiatic acid abrogated TNF-α-induced structural reorganization of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and β-catenin by preserving their reticulum structures at cell-cell contact areas. In addition, asiatic acid also inhibited TNF-α-induced redistribution of occludin and zona occludens (ZO)-1 in different subcellular fractions. In conclusion, the barrier-stabilizing effect of asiatic acid might be associated with preservation of AJs and prevention of TJ redistribution caused by TNF-α. This study provides evidence to support the potential use of asiatic acid in the prevention of early atherosclerosis, which is initiated by endothelial barrier dysfunction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology*
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