High melting point polymeric carrier without plasticizer is unacceptable for solid dispersion (SD) by melting method. Combined polymer-plasticizer carrier significantly affects drug solubility and tableting property of SD.
The existing mold concept of fabricating magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) tends to encounter several flux issues due to magnetic flux losses inside the chamber. Therefore, this paper presents a new approach for enhancing particle alignment through MRE fabrication as a means to provide better rheological properties. A closed-loop mold, which is essentially a fully guided magnetic field inside the chamber, was designed in order to strengthen the magnetic flux during the curing process with the help of silicone oil (SO) plasticizers. The oil serves the purpose of softening the matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology of the fabricated MRE samples. The field-dependent dynamic properties of the MREs were measured several ways using a rheometer, namely, strain sweep, frequency sweep, and magnetic field sweep. The analysis implied that the effectiveness of the MRE was associated with the use of the SO, and the closed-loop mold helped enhance the absolute modulus up to 0.8 MPa. The relative magnetorheological (MR) effects exhibited high values up to 646%. The high modulus properties offered by the MRE with SO are believed to be potentially useful in industry applications, particularly as vibration absorbers, which require a high range of stiffness.
Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout.
Linearity assessment as required in method validation has always been subject to different interpretations and definitions by various guidelines and protocols. However, there are very limited applicable implementation procedures that can be followed by a laboratory chemist in assessing linearity. Thus, this work proposes a simple method for linearity assessment in method validation by a regression analysis that covers experimental design, estimation of the parameters, outlier treatment, and evaluation of the assumptions according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry guidelines. The suitability of this procedure was demonstrated by its application to an in-house validation for the determination of plasticizers in plastic food packaging by GC.
This study examines the effects of varying the concentrations of sorbitol (S) and glycerol (G) on the physical, morphological, thermal, and mechanical properties of Dioscorea hispida, starch-based films. In this context, the films of Dioscorea hispida starch were developed using solution casting technique with glycerol (G), sorbitol (S), and a mixture of sorbitol-glycerol (SG) as plasticizers at the ratios of 0, 30, 45, and 60 wt%. The films' moisture contents were increased when increasing the plasticizer contents. The tensile strengths were decreased, but elongations at break were increased; 7.38%-11.54% for G-plasticized films, 10.17%-15.76% for S-plasticized films, and 14.41%- 16.10% for SG-plasticized films with increasing plasticizer concentrations of the film samples. Varying plasticizer concentrations exhibited a minor effect on the S-plasticized film's thermal properties. Significant decrement in the glass transition temperatures of Dioscorea hispida starch films was observed when the plasticizer contents were raised from 30% to 60%. Significantly, the present work has shown that plasticized Dioscorea hispida starch can be considered a promising biopolymer for the applications of biodegradable films.
Plasticized poly(lactic acid) PLA with epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO) were prepared using a melt blending method to improve the ductility of PLA. The plasticization of the PLA with EVO lowers the Tg as well as cold-crystallization temperature. The tensile properties demonstrated that the addition of EVO to PLA led to an increase of elongation at break, but a decrease of tensile modulus. Plasticized PLA showed improvement in the elongation at break by 2058% and 4060% with the addition of 5 wt % epoxidized palm oil (EPO) and mixture of epoxidized palm oil and soybean oil (EPSO), respectively. An increase in the tensile strength was also observed in the plasticized PLA with 1 wt % EPO and EPSO. The use of EVO increases the mobility of the polymeric chains, thereby improving the flexibility and plastic deformation of PLA. The SEM micrograph of the plasticized PLA showed good compatible morphologies without voids resulting from good interfacial adhesion between PLA and EVO. Based on the results of this study, EVO may be used as an environmentally friendly plasticizer that can improve the overall properties of PLA.
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and chitosan polymer blend doped with ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) salt and plasticized with ethylene carbonate (EC) have been performed with emphasis on the shift of the carboxamide, amine and hydroxyl bands. 1% acetic acid solution was used as the solvent. It is observed from the chitosan film spectrum that evidence of polymer-solvent interaction can be observed from the shifting of the carboxamide band at 1660 cm(-1) and the amine band at 1591 cm(-1) to 1650 and 1557 cm(-1) respectively and the shift of the hydroxyl band from 3377 to 3354 cm(-1). The hydroxyl band in the spectrum of PVA powder is observed at 3354 cm(-1) and is observed at 3343 cm(-1) in the spectrum of the PVA film. On addition of NH(4)NO(3) up to 30 wt.%, the carboxamide, amine and hydroxyl bands shifted from 1650, 1557 and 3354 cm(-1) to 1642, 1541 and 3348 cm(-1) indicating that the chitosan has complexed with the salt. In the PVA-NH(4)NO(3) spectrum, the hydroxyl band has shifted from 3343 to 3272 cm(-1) on addition of salt from 10 to 30 wt.%. EC acts as a plasticizing agent since there is no shift in the bands as observed in the spectrum of PVA-chitosan-EC films. The mechanism of ion migration is proposed for the plasticized and unplasticized PVA-chitosan-NH(4)NO(3) systems. In the spectrum of PVA-chitosan-NH(4)NO(3)-EC complex, the doublet CO stretching in EC is observed in the vicinity 1800 and 1700. This indicates that there is some interaction between the salt and EC.
The physicochemical properties of κ-carrageenan films extracted from Eucheuma cottonii (E. cottonii) incorporated with different concentrations and types of plasticizers were studied. Glycerol, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol-300 (PEG-300) in the range of 10-60% were used as plasticizers. The results showed that the thickness and moisture content (MC) of films increased significantly (p≤0.05) with the increase in plasticizer concentration. Sorbitol-plasticized films had the lowest values. Sorbitol-plasticized films have better mechanical properties and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility and water uptake ratio (WUR) compared with glycerol and PEG-plasticized films (p≤0.05). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the intermolecular reactions between κ-carrageenan and the plasticizers in the films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that sorbitol-plasticized films have a compact structure, even at the highest concentration. The melting temperature (Tm) of films decreased (p≤0.05) with an increase in the plasticizer concentration. Here, the glycerol-plasticized films had the lowest values. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed broad and narrow peaks of the un-plasticized κ-carrageenan film at 2θ=20.0° and 2θ=8.4°, respectively. The intensity of the broad peak increased and the narrow peak disappeared as the concentration of plasticizers increased. In conclusion, films from E. cottonii successfully produced with sorbitol as the plasticizer exhibited good physical properties as packaging films.
Phthalates have been blended in various compositions as plasticizers worldwide for a variety of purposes. Consequently, humans are exposed to a wide spectrum of phthalates that needs to be researched and understood correctly. The goal of this review is to focus on phthalate's internal exposure pathways and possible role of human digestion on liver toxicity. In addition, special focus was made on stem cell therapy in reverting liver toxicity. The known entry of higher molecular weight phthalates is through ingestion while inhalation and dermal pathways are for lower molecular weight phthalates. In human body, certain phthalates are digested through phase 1 (hydrolysis, oxidation) and phase 2 (conjugation) metabolic processes. The phthalates that are made bioavailable through digestion enter the blood stream and reach the liver for further detoxification, and these are excreted via urine and/or feces. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a compound well studied involving human metabolism. Liver plays a pivotal role in humans for detoxification of pollutants. Thus, continuous exposure to phthalates in humans may lead to inhibition of liver detoxifying enzymes and may result in liver dysfunction. The potential of stem cell therapy addressed herewith will revert liver dysfunction and lead to restoration of liver function properly.
Rice starch is known to have an excellent film-forming behaviour in the packaging industry but inadequate attention was given to this biopolymer to be developed into thin films for drug delivery. Accordingly, rice starch thin films containing a model drug, paracetamol and plasticisers (glycerol or sorbitol) were developed using film casting technique. This study focuses on investigating the impact of plasticiser and drug loading on drug release pattern of rice starch films which has not been explored to date. The obtained rice films were characterised for their physicochemical properties including swelling and dissolution study. The highest drug dissolution rate was achieved in the rice films with a low drug loading due to drug amorphicity in nature. When drug loading increases, the swelling behaviour of rice films plays a dominant role in releasing drug in the crystalline form. The role of plasticiser was indicated by the plasticiser-starch interaction where a strong interaction allows drug solubilisation more readily in the dissolution medium. It is envisaged that rice films could be tailored to achieve desired drug release pattern with different plasticiser.
The concern about our dependency on non-renewable resources and overwhelming environmental issues such as pollution caused by non-degradable packaging materials has prompted researchers to come up with alternatives to solve this problem. Thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA) has been gaining interest due to its versatility and easy processability, thus this study was carried out to find out the properties of PLA reinforced with pineapple fibers. However, surface of the natural fibers need to be treated for better properties enhancement in the polymer matrices. Considering this, fibers were treated with 10% (w/v) concentration of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and then continued for mixing with PLA at a fixed ratio of plasticizer by using internal mixer, and then the composites were prepared into sheet via hot press. Characterization for the mechanical and morphological was conducted by using tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. After the analysis, it is found that the surface treated pineapple fiber composite showed better elongation at break compared to untreated fiber composite. The enhance properties of PLA nanocomposites has potential to be used in various packaging materials.
A renewable resource, epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO), was used as a green plasticizer and added to poly(lactic acid) (PLA). EJO was compounded into PLA at different contents. The addition of 3 wt % EJO to the PLA demonstrates significant improvement in flexibility, which leads to a percentage increase of about 7000% in elongation at break. This tensile result was confirmed by surface morphology analysis with clear proof of plastic deformation in EJO-plasticized PLA. EJO imparts a good heat stabilization effect. Thermal stability of PLA was enhanced upon addition of EJO, which is due to their good interaction and plasticizer dispersion within the PLA matrix. This EJO-plasticized PLA has wide applications in various industries, such as packaging of food and non-food products.
The separation and capture of CO2 have become an urgent and important agenda because of the CO2-induced global warming and the requirement of industrial products. Membrane-based technologies have proven to be a promising alternative for CO2 separations. To make the gas-separation membrane process more competitive, productive membrane with high gas permeability and high selectivity is crucial. Herein, we developed new cellulose triacetate (CTA) and cellulose diacetate (CDA) blended membranes for CO2 separations. The CTA and CDA blends were chosen because they have similar chemical structures, good separation performance, and its economical and green nature. The best position in Robeson's upper bound curve at 5 bar was obtained with the membrane containing 80 wt.% CTA and 20 wt.% CDA, which shows the CO2 permeability of 17.32 barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 18.55. The membrane exhibits 98% enhancement in CO2/CH4 selectivity compared to neat membrane with only a slight reduction in CO2 permeability. The optimal membrane displays a plasticization pressure of 10.48 bar. The newly developed blended membranes show great potential for CO2 separations in the natural gas industry.
Several methods of incorporating sago pith waste (SPW) into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) had been conducted: (i) dry blending (PVA/SPW/G), (ii) blending of SPW and pre-plasticized PVA (pPVA/SPW/G) and (iii) blending of pre-plasticized of both PVA and SPW (pPVA/pSPW). The effect of the compounding method on the mechanical and water absorption properties were investigated. The addition of SPW into PVA greatly reduced the tensile strength and elongation at break. The tensile strength and elongation at break of PVA/SPW composites with identical geometry during compounding stage (powder/powder and pellet/pellet), which were PVA/SPW/G and pPVA/pSPW yielded the highest value. The percentage of water absorbed by PVA/SPW/G (without pre-plasticization) was the highest, followed by pPVA/pSPW and pPVA/SPW/G.
In this study, the solution casting method was employed to prepare plasticized polymer electrolytes of chitosan (CS):LiCO2CH3:Glycerol with electrochemical stability (1.8 V). The electrolyte studied in this current work could be established as new materials in the fabrication of EDLC with high specific capacitance and energy density. The system with high dielectric constant was also associated with high DC conductivity (5.19 × 10-4 S/cm). The increase of the amorphous phase upon the addition of glycerol was observed from XRD results. The main charge carrier in the polymer electrolyte was ion as tel (0.044) < tion (0.956). Cyclic voltammetry presented an almost rectangular plot with the absence of a Faradaic peak. Specific capacitance was found to be dependent on the scan rate used. The efficiency of the EDLC was observed to remain constant at 98.8% to 99.5% up to 700 cycles, portraying an excellent cyclability. High values of specific capacitance, energy density, and power density were achieved, such as 132.8 F/g, 18.4 Wh/kg, and 2591 W/kg, respectively. The low equivalent series resistance (ESR) indicated that the EDLC possessed good electrolyte/electrode contact. It was discovered that the power density of the EDLC was affected by ESR.
This paper describes the preparation of and experimentation undertaken by heterogeneous chitosan membrane as ion selective electrode for glutamate ion. The linearity response was obtained in the range of 1.0x10(-5) to 1.0x10(-1)M with a detection limit of 1.0x10(-6)M. The performance of the electrode was found in the pH range of 4.0-8.0 at temperature 25+/-3 degrees C. The response time was at 5-35s and was useful for a period of more than 4 months. The selectivity values towards some anions indicates good selectivity over a number of interfering anions. No significant improvement of membrane performance over additional of plasticizers such as 2-NPOE, BEHA and DOPP. The electrodes gave sufficient Nernstian responses with the exception of membrane with 2-NPOE.
A flexible solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a FDA approved non-toxic and biodegradable material in the effort to lower environmental impact was prepared. Ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) and ethylene carbonate (EC) were incorporated as the source of charge carriers and plasticizing agent, respectively. When 50wt.% of ethylene carbonate (EC) was added to PCL-NH4SCN system, the conductivity increased by two orders from of 3.94×10(-7)Scm(-1) to 3.82×10(-5)Scm(-1). Molecular vibrational analysis via infrared spectroscopy had been carried out to study the interaction between EC, PCL and NH4SCN. The relative percentage of free ions, ion pairs and ion aggregates was calculated quantitatively by deconvoluting the SCN(-) stretching mode (2030-2090cm(-1)). This study provides fundamental insight on how EC influences the free ion dissociation rate and ion mobility. The findings are also in good agreement to conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results. High dielectric constant value (89.8) of EC had made it an effective ion dissociation agent to dissociate both ion pairs and ion aggregates, thus contributing to higher number density of free ions. The incorporation of EC had made the polymer chains more flexible in expanding amorphous domain. This will facilitate the coupling synergy between ionic motion and polymer segmental motion. Possible new pathway through EC-NH4(+) complex sites for ions to migrate with shorter distance has been anticipated. This implies an easier ion migration route from one complex site to another.
In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications.
A biodegradable composite (PLA/KBF blends) was prepared using melt blending technique in a brabender mixer and characterized with FTIR and TGA analyzer. Five percent of triacetin and glycerol contents were used as plasticizers to plasticise PLA matrix. KBF was treated with 4% NaOH solution, while 30 wt% of fibre loading was used constantly for all the composite samples. From the FTIR analysis, the additions of triacetin and glycerol to PLA composites did not produce any significant difference, and there were no chemical changes in both the plasticized PLA with the treated and untreated KBF, respectively. Observation done on the TGA analysis revealed that both plasticizers did improve the thermal stability of the composites, and this might be due to the modification on the fibre surfaces, which further led to the delay in the degradation of the PLA matrix and to significant stabilization effect.
Starch is a biodegradable polymer produced in abundance from many renewable resources. This study examined the influence of citric acid (0-40% w/wt%) ) and water (0-40% w/wt%) as secondary additive and glycerol as plasticizer on the mechanical properties of bio-plastic starch (BPS) from Malaysian sago. The CA content varies from 0 to 40 w/wt% while water was also varied from 0 to 40 w/wt%. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that acid citric improve the properties of BPS and water give negative effects to the carbon hydrogenbond. It is obvious that the addition of the CA at 30 wt/wt% improve the mechanical property of BPS to more than 40% compare to the addition of water.