METHODS: A full factorial design (23) was applied to study the effects of mango-pineapple ratio (x1), immersion time in sugar solution (x2), and concentration of sugar solution (x3) in the production of mango-pineapple jelly spheres using frozen reverse spherification. The responses studied were the physicochemical properties (color, total soluble solids, and texture) and sensory evaluation of mango-pineapple jelly spheres.
RESULTS: Mango-pineapple ratio had a positive effect on a* and b* while having a negative effect L* value on the jelly sphere. Total soluble solids of jelly spheres were influenced by both immersion time in sugar solution and concentration of sugar solution. Immersion time in sugar solution had a positive effect on the peak force of the compression cycle and deformation at peak load while having a negative effect on the total soluble solid of jelly spheres. On the other hand, the concentration of sugar solution had a positive effect on the sensory evaluation in terms of flavor, texture, and overall acceptability. The desirability function approach was used to optimize the factors, and an overall desirability of 0.89 for all responses was achieved with 1.28:1 mango-pineapple ratio, 30 mins immersion time in sugar solution, and 22°Brix sugar solution. A proximate analysis of the optimized mango-pineapple jelly spheres had an energy content of 73.18 kcal/100 g and showed nutrient values of 81.11% moisture, 0.10% ash, 0.46% protein, 0% fat, 0.97% total dietary fiber, and 17.35% digestible carbohydrate.
CONCLUSIONS: The development of the optimal mango-pineapple jelly sphere allows food producers to produce a dessert that is low in calories, with a good appearance and consumer acceptability.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five participants underwent MRE as an initial investigation or follow-up for inflammatory bowel disease. A systematic sampling method was used to divide the participants into three different groups: group 1 received 6.7% mannitol concentration, group 2 received 3.3% mannitol concentration and group 3 received pineapple juice as an oral contrast agent during their MRE examination. The degree of bowel distension on MRE images was assessed by a radiologist by measuring the bowel diameter from inner wall to inner wall at specified levels, while qualitative analysis was evaluated based on the presence of artefacts. All patients were asked to score their acceptance of the oral contrast and were asked about side effects such as diarrhoea, abdominal discomfort and vomiting.
RESULTS: All patients were able to completely ingest 1.5L of oral contrast. The mean diameter of bowel distension was 2.1cm in patients who received 6.7% mannitol concentration, 2.0cm in patients who received 3.3% mannitol concentration and 1.6 cm in patients who received pineapple juice. Twothirds of patients who received 6.7% mannitol and 3.3% mannitol solutions had good-quality MRE images, but 68% of patients who received pineapple juice had poor-quality MRE images. Twenty-four patients (96%) who received pineapple juice rated it as slightly acceptable and acceptable but only 12 patients (48%) who received 6.7% mannitol solution rated it as slightly acceptable and acceptable. Eighty-eight percent of patients who received 6.7% mannitol solution experienced at least one form of side effect as compared to 44% of patients who received 3.3% mannitol solution and 18% of patients who received pineapple juice.
CONCLUSION: Optimum small bowel distension and good image quality can be achieved using 3.3% mannitol concentration as an oral contrast agent. Increase in mannitol concentration does not result in significant improvement of small bowel distension or image quality but is instead related to poorer patient acceptance and increased side effects. Pineapple juice is more palatable than mannitol and produces satisfactory small bowel distension. However, the small bowel distension is less uniform when using pineapple juice with a considerable presence of artefacts. Mannitol, 3.3% concentration, is therefore recommended as an endoluminal contrast agent for bowel in MRE.