OBJECTIVE: Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of bedak sejuk made from Oryza sativa ssp. indica (Indica) and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica (Japonica) on UVB-induced B164A5 melanoma cells, and also identify the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk.
METHODS: The optimum dose of Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk to treat the cells was determined via the MTT assay. Then, the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk were determined using the FRAP assay.
RESULTS: From the MTT assay, it was found that Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk showed no cytotoxic effects towards the cells. Hence, no IC50 can be obtained and two of the higher doses, 50 and 100 g/L were chosen for treatment. In the FRAP assay, Indica bedak sejuk at 50 and 100 g/L showed FRAP values of 0.003 ± 0.001 μg AA (ascorbic acid)/g of bedak sejuk and 0.004 ± 0.0003 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk. Whereas Japonica bedak sejuk at 50 g/L had the same FRAP value as Indica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L. As for Japonica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L, it showed the highest antioxidant capacity with the FRAP value of 0.01 ± 0.0007 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) when compared to other tested concentrations.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Japonica bedak sejuk has a higher antioxidant capacity compared to Indica bedak sejuk despite both being not cytotoxic towards the cells. Regardless, further investigations need to be done before bedak sejuk could be developed as potential melanoma chemoprevention agents.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study aimed to assess the effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on the cytokinetic behavior of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their potential as therapeutic alternatives in cancer treatment. Cytotoxic activities of commercial and recombinant bromelain were determined using (sulforhodamine) SRB assay. Next, cell viability assays were conducted to determine effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on MCF-7 cell cytokinetic behavior. Finally, the established growth kinetic data were used to modify a model that predicts the effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on MCF-7 cells.
RESULTS: Commercial and recombinant bromelain exerted strong effects towards decreasing the cell viability of MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 5.13 μg/mL and 6.25 μg/mL, respectively, compared to taxol with an IC50 value of 0.063 μg/mL. The present results indicate that commercial and recombinant bromelain both have anti-proliferative activity, reduced the number of cell generations from 3.92 to 2.81 for commercial bromelain and to 2.86 for recombinant bromelain, while with taxol reduction was to 3.12. Microscopic observation of bromelain-treated MCF-7 cells demonstrated detachment. Inhibition activity was verified with growth rates decreased dynamically from 0.009 h-1 to 0.0059 h-1 for commercial bromelain and to 0.0063 h-1 for recombinant bromelain.
CONCLUSIONS: Commercial and recombinant bromelain both affect cytokinetics of MCF-7 cells by decreasing cell viability, demonstrating similar strength to taxol.
METHODS: Different methods including flow cytometry, comet assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to show the effects of juice exposure on the level of DNA damage and the reduction of cancerous cells. MTT assay is a colorimetric method applied to measure the toxic effects of juice on cells.
RESULTS: The Centella asiatica juice was not toxic to normal cells. It showed cytotoxic effects on tumor cells in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis in cells was started after being exposed for 72 hr of dose dependent. It was found that the higher percentage of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage was at the concentration above 0.1%. In addition, the juice exposure caused the reduction of c-myc gene expression and the enhancement of c-fos and c-erbB2 gene expressions in tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the Centella asiatica juice reduced liver tumor cells. Thus, it has the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer.