Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 252 in total

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  1. Kam TS, Sim KM, Koyano T, Toyoshima M, Hayashi M, Komiyama K
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 1998 Jul 07;8(13):1693-6.
    PMID: 9873417
    Four new bisindoles of the vobasine-iboga type, conodiparines A-D were obtained from Tabernaemontana corymbosa which showed appreciable activity in reversing resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  2. Maher T, Ahmad Raus R, Daddiouaissa D, Ahmad F, Adzhar NS, Latif ES, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 May 07;26(9).
    PMID: 34066963 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26092741
    Leukemia is a leukocyte cancer that is characterized by anarchic growth of immature immune cells in the bone marrow, blood and spleen. There are many forms of leukemia, and the best course of therapy and the chance of a patient's survival depend on the type of leukemic disease. Different forms of drugs have been used to treat leukemia. Due to the adverse effects associated with such therapies and drug resistance, the search for safer and more effective drugs remains one of the most challenging areas of research. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are important to improving outcomes. Almost half of the drugs utilized nowadays in treating cancer are from natural products and their derivatives. Medicinal plants have proven to be an effective natural source of anti-leukemic drugs. The cytotoxicity and the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of these plants to leukemic cells and their isolated compounds were investigated. Effort has been made throughout this comprehensive review to highlight the recent developments and milestones achieved in leukemia therapies using plant-derived compounds and the crude extracts from various medicinal plants. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of these plants are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  3. Looi ML, Wong AKH, Gnapragasan SA, Japri AZ, Rajedadram A, Pin KY
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2020 9 8;21(9):745-748.
    PMID: 32893531 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B2000278
    Piper betle (PB), also known as "betel" in Malay language, is a tropical Asian vine. PB leaves are commonly chewed by Asians along with betel quid. It contains phenols such as eugenol and hydroxychavicol along with chlorophyll, β-carotene, and vitamin C (Salehi et al., 2019). Extracts from PB leaves have various medicinal properties including anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects (Salehi et al., 2019). Previous research has shown that PB induces cell cycle arrest at late S or G2/M phase and causes apoptosis at higher doses (Wu et al., 2014; Guha Majumdar and Subramanian, 2019). A combination of PB leaf extract has also been shown to enhance the cytotoxicity of the anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), in cancer cells (Ng et al., 2014).
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  4. Ghazali AR, Muralitharan RV, Soon CK, Salyam T, Ahmad Maulana NN, Mohamed Thaha UAB, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2020 Nov 01;21(11):3381-3386.
    PMID: 33247699 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.11.3381
    BACKGROUND: Traditional cooling rice powder (bedak sejuk) is a fermented rice-based cosmetic that is applied topically on one's skin, as an overnight facial mask. According to user testimonies, bedak sejuk beautifies and whitens skin, whereby these benefits could be utilised as a potential melanoma chemopreventive agent.

    OBJECTIVE: Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of bedak sejuk made from Oryza sativa ssp. indica (Indica) and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica (Japonica) on UVB-induced B164A5 melanoma cells, and also identify the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk.

    METHODS: The optimum dose of Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk to treat the cells was determined via the MTT assay. Then, the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk were determined using the FRAP assay.

    RESULTS: From the MTT assay, it was found that Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk showed no cytotoxic effects towards the cells. Hence, no IC50 can be obtained and two of the higher doses, 50 and 100 g/L were chosen for treatment. In the FRAP assay, Indica bedak sejuk at 50 and 100 g/L showed FRAP values of 0.003 ± 0.001 μg AA (ascorbic acid)/g of bedak sejuk and 0.004 ± 0.0003 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk. Whereas Japonica bedak sejuk at 50 g/L had the same FRAP value as Indica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L. As for Japonica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L, it showed the highest antioxidant capacity with the FRAP value of 0.01 ± 0.0007 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) when compared to other tested concentrations.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Japonica bedak sejuk has a higher antioxidant capacity compared to Indica bedak sejuk despite both being not cytotoxic towards the cells. Regardless, further investigations need to be done before bedak sejuk could be developed as potential melanoma chemoprevention agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  5. Lai SL, Wong PF, Lim TK, Lin Q, Mustafa MR
    Proteomics, 2015 May;15(9):1608-21.
    PMID: 25594392 DOI: 10.1002/pmic.201400039
    Melanoma is a lethal form of skin cancer with rising global incidence. However, limited treatment options are available for advanced melanoma and this is further compounded by the development of resistance toward existing drugs. Panduratin A (PA), a cyclohexanyl chalcone found in Boesenbergia rotunda, was investigated for its cytotoxic potentials against human malignant melanoma A375 cells. Our initial findings revealed that mitochondrion is the primary acting site of PA on A375 cancer cells and the cytotoxic mechanisms of PA were further investigated using a temporal quantitative proteomics approach by iTRAQ 2D-LC-MS/MS. Comprehensive proteomics analysis identified 296 proteins that were significantly deregulated in PA-treated A375 cells and revealed the involvement of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, secretory and ER stress pathway, and apoptosis. We further confirmed that the PA-induced apoptosis was mediated by prolonged ER stress at least in part via the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP pathway. Pretreatment with cycloheximide, an ER stress inhibitor rescued PA-induced cell death, which was accompanied by the suppression of ER-stress-related HSPA5 and CHOP proteins. The present study provides comprehensive mechanistic insights into the cytotoxic mechanisms of PA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  6. Abubakar IB, Lim KH, Loh HS
    Nat Prod Res, 2015;29(22):2137-40.
    PMID: 25515603 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.991927
    Tocotrienols have been reported to possess anticancer effects other than anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. This study explored the potential synergism of antiproliferative effects induced by individual alkaloid extracts of Ficus fistulosa, Ficus hispida and Ficus schwarzii combined with δ- and γ-tocotrienols against human brain glioblastoma (U87MG), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells. Cell viability and morphological results demonstrated that extracts containing a mixture of alkaloids from the leaves and bark of F. schwarzii inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells, whereas the alkaloid extracts of F. fistulosa inhibited the proliferation of both U87MG and HT-29 cells and showed synergism in combined treatments with either δ- or γ-tocotrienol resulting in 2.2-34.7 fold of reduction in IC50 values of tocotrienols. The observed apoptotic cell characteristics in conjunction with the synergistic antiproliferative effects of Ficus species-derived alkaloids and tocotrienols assuredly warrant future investigations towards the development of a value-added chemotherapeutic regimen against cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  7. Majid MZ, Zaini ZM, Razak FA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:125353.
    PMID: 25147833 DOI: 10.1155/2014/125353
    Brucea javanica, Azadirachta indica, and Typhonium flagelliforme are medicinal plants commonly used to treat conditions associated with tumour formation. This study aimed to determine the antiproliferative activity of these plants extracts on KB and ORL-48 oral cancer cell lines and to suggest their mode of cell death. The concentration producing 50% cell inhibition (IC50) was determined and the activity was examined under an inverted microscope. Immunohistochemistry fluorescent staining method (TUNEL) was performed to indicate the mechanism of cell death and the fragmented DNA band pattern produced was obtained for verification. Compared to Azadirachta sp. and Typhonium sp., the antiproliferative activity of Brucea sp. extract was the most potent on both KB and ORL-48 cells with IC50 of 24.37 ± 1.75 and 6.67 ± 1.15 µg/mL, respectively. Signs of cell attrition were observed 24 hr after treatment. Green fluorescent spots indicating cell death by apoptosis were observed in images of both cells following treatment with all the three extracts. DNA fragments harvested from Brucea-treated cells produced bands in a ladder pattern suggesting the apoptotic effect of the extract. It is thus concluded that Brucea sp. extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on ORL-48 cells and their action mechanism is via apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  8. Fouz N, Amid A, Hashim YZ
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014 Jan;14(11):6709-14.
    PMID: 24377593
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women. The available chemotherapy drugs have been associated with many side effects. Bromelain has novel medicinal qualities including anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, fibrinolytic and anti-cancer functions. Commercially available bromelain is obtained through tedious methods; therefore, recombinant bromelain may provide a cheaper and simpler choice with similar quality.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study aimed to assess the effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on the cytokinetic behavior of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their potential as therapeutic alternatives in cancer treatment. Cytotoxic activities of commercial and recombinant bromelain were determined using (sulforhodamine) SRB assay. Next, cell viability assays were conducted to determine effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on MCF-7 cell cytokinetic behavior. Finally, the established growth kinetic data were used to modify a model that predicts the effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on MCF-7 cells.

    RESULTS: Commercial and recombinant bromelain exerted strong effects towards decreasing the cell viability of MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 5.13 μg/mL and 6.25 μg/mL, respectively, compared to taxol with an IC50 value of 0.063 μg/mL. The present results indicate that commercial and recombinant bromelain both have anti-proliferative activity, reduced the number of cell generations from 3.92 to 2.81 for commercial bromelain and to 2.86 for recombinant bromelain, while with taxol reduction was to 3.12. Microscopic observation of bromelain-treated MCF-7 cells demonstrated detachment. Inhibition activity was verified with growth rates decreased dynamically from 0.009 h-1 to 0.0059 h-1 for commercial bromelain and to 0.0063 h-1 for recombinant bromelain.

    CONCLUSIONS: Commercial and recombinant bromelain both affect cytokinetics of MCF-7 cells by decreasing cell viability, demonstrating similar strength to taxol.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  9. Hussin F, Eshkoor SA, Rahmat A, Othman F, Akim A
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014 Jan 20;14:32.
    PMID: 24444147 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-32
    BACKGROUND: This paper is to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica on HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line). Centella asiatica is native to the Southeast Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. This study aims to determine the chemopreventive effects of the Centella asiatica juice on human HepG2 cell line.

    METHODS: Different methods including flow cytometry, comet assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to show the effects of juice exposure on the level of DNA damage and the reduction of cancerous cells. MTT assay is a colorimetric method applied to measure the toxic effects of juice on cells.

    RESULTS: The Centella asiatica juice was not toxic to normal cells. It showed cytotoxic effects on tumor cells in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis in cells was started after being exposed for 72 hr of dose dependent. It was found that the higher percentage of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage was at the concentration above 0.1%. In addition, the juice exposure caused the reduction of c-myc gene expression and the enhancement of c-fos and c-erbB2 gene expressions in tumor cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the Centella asiatica juice reduced liver tumor cells. Thus, it has the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  10. Salim LZ, Mohan S, Othman R, Abdelwahab SI, Kamalidehghan B, Sheikh BY, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Sep 12;18(9):11219-40.
    PMID: 24036512 DOI: 10.3390/molecules180911219
    There has been a growing interest in naturally occurring compounds from traditional medicine with anti-cancer potential. Nigella sativa (black seed) is one of the most widely studied plants. This annual herb grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and India. Thymoquinone (TQ) is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa. The anti-cancer effect of TQ, via the induction of apoptosis resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, was assessed in an acute lymphocyte leukemic cell line (CEMss) with an IC50 of 1.5 µg/mL. A significant increase in chromatin condensation in the cell nucleus was observed using fluorescence analysis. The apoptosis was then confirmed by Annexin V and an increased number of cellular DNA breaks in treated cells were observed as a DNA ladder. Treatment of CEMss cells with TQ encouraged apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals by a down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. Moreover, the significant generation of cellular ROS, HSP70 and activation of caspases 3 and 8 were also observed in the treated cells. The mitochondrial apoptosis was clearly associated with the S phase cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, the results from the current study indicated that TQ could be a promising agent for the treatment of leukemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  11. Vairappan CS, Nagappan T, Palaniveloo K
    Nat Prod Commun, 2012 Feb;7(2):239-42.
    PMID: 22474969
    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the rhizomes of Etlingera pyramidosphaera (K. Schum.) R. M. Sm, E. megalocheilos (Griff.) A.D. Poulsen, comb. nov., E. coccinea (Blume) S. Sakai & Nagam, E. elatior (Jack) R. M. Sm, and E. brevilabrum (Valeton) R. M. Sm were analyzed by GCMS. The highest oil yield was obtained from E. pyramidosphaera (0.45%), followed by E. elatior (0.38%), E. coccinea (0.30%), E. brevilabrum (0.28%) and E. megalocheilos (0.25%). The major constituents of the essential oils were oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, oxygenated diterpenes and diterpenes. The essential oils from E. pyramidosphaera and E. brevilabrum exhibited the best cytotoxicity against MCF 7 (LC50: 7.5 +/- 0.5 mg mL(-1)) and HL 60 (LC50: 5.0 mg mL(-1)), respectively. Strong inhibition was also observed for the essential oils of E. coccinea and E. megalocheilos against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 8.0 +/- 0.5 mg mL(-1), and 5.0 +/- 0.5 mg mL(-1)) and Streptococcus pyrogenes (MIC: 6.0 +/- 0.5 mg mL(-1) and 8.0 +/- 0.5 mg mL(-1)).
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  12. Ismail M, Bagalkotkar G, Iqbal S, Adamu HA
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):5745-56.
    PMID: 22628046 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17055745
    Different parts of four edible medicinal plants (Casearia capitellata, Baccaurea motleyana, Phyllanthus pulcher and Strobilanthus crispus), indigenous to Malaysia, were extracted in different solvents, sequentially. The obtained 28 extracts were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer properties, using the MTS assay, on four human cancer cell lines: colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145) and lung (H460) cancers. The best anticancer activity was observed for the ethyl acetate (EA) extract of Casearia capitellata leaves on MCF-7 cell lines with IC₅₀ 2.0 μg/mL and its methanolic (MeOH) extract showed an outstanding activity against lung cancer cell lines. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Phyllanthus pulcher aerial parts showed the highest anticancer activity against DU-145 cell lines, while significant activity was exhibited by DCM extract of Phyllanthus pulcher roots on colon cancer cell lines with IC50 value of 8.1 μg/mL. Total phenolic content (TPC) ranged over 1-40 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. For all the samples, highest yields of phenolics were obtained for MeOH extracts. Among all the extracts analyzed, the MeOH extracts of Strobilanthus crispus leaves exhibited the highest TPC than other samples (p < 0.05). This study shows that the nature of phenol determines its anticaner activity and not the number of phenols present.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  13. Yap WS, Gan CY, Low YY, Choo YM, Etoh T, Hayashi M, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2011 May 27;74(5):1309-12.
    PMID: 21428274 DOI: 10.1021/np200008g
    Three new indole alkaloids (1-3), named grandilodines A-C, and five known ones were obtained from the Malayan Kopsia grandifolia. The structures were established using NMR and MS analyses and, in the case of 1 and 2, were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses. Alkaloids 1, 3, and lapidilectine B (8) were found to reverse multidrug resistance in vincristine-resistant KB cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  14. Gan CY, Low YY, Robinson WT, Komiyama K, Kam TS
    Phytochemistry, 2010 Aug;71(11-12):1365-70.
    PMID: 20542302 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.05.015
    Leucofoline and leuconoline, representing the first members of the aspidospermatan-aspidospermatan and eburnane-sarpagine subclasses of the bisindole alkaloids, respectively, were isolated from the Malayan Leuconotis griffithii. The structures of these bisindole alkaloids were established using NMR and MS analysis, and in the case of leuconoline, confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Both alkaloids showed weak cytotoxicity towards human KB cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  15. Gan CY, Etoh T, Hayashi M, Komiyama K, Kam TS
    J Nat Prod, 2010 Jun 25;73(6):1107-11.
    PMID: 20515042 DOI: 10.1021/np1001187
    Four new bisindole alkaloids of the Strychnos-Strychnos type, leucoridines A-D (1-4), were isolated from the stem-bark extract of Leuconotis griffithii. Alkaloids 1-4 showed moderate cytotoxicity against drug-sensitive and vincristine-resistant human KB cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  16. Tang YQ, Jaganath IB, Sekaran SD
    PLoS One, 2010;5(9):e12644.
    PMID: 20838625 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012644
    Phyllanthus is a traditional medicinal plant that has been used in the treatment of many diseases including hepatitis and diabetes. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the potential cytotoxic effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of four Phyllanthus species (P.amarus, P.niruri, P.urinaria and P.watsonii) against skin melanoma and prostate cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  17. Ismail IS, Nagakura Y, Hirasawa Y, Hosoya T, Lazim MI, Lajis NH, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2009 Oct;72(10):1879-83.
    PMID: 19757855 DOI: 10.1021/np9003849
    Four new chromone alkaloids, chrotacumines A-D (1-4), consisting of a 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone, an N-Me piperidine ring, and an ester side chain were isolated from Dysoxylum acutangulum, and their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation including 2D NMR, CD spectra, and X-ray analysis. The known compound rohitukine (5) showed moderate cytotoxicity against human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia and HCT-116 colon cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  18. Shaari K, Ling KC, Rashid ZM, Jean TP, Abas F, Raof SM, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2009;7(1):1-8.
    PMID: 19370166 DOI: 10.3390/md7010001
    In a preliminary screen, Aaptos aaptos showed significant cytotoxic activity towards a panel of cell lines and was thus subjected to bioassay-guided isolation of the bioactive constituents. In addition to the known aaptamine, two new derivatives of the alkaloid were isolated from the bioactive chloroform fraction of the crude methanolic extract. Detailed analysis by NMR and mass spectroscopy enabled their identification to be 3-(phenethylamino)demethyl(oxy)aaptamine and 3-(isopentylamino)demethyl(oxy) aaptamine. The cytotoxic activities of the three alkaloids were further evaluated against CEM-SS cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  19. Nugroho AE, Hirasawa Y, Kawahara N, Goda Y, Awang K, Hadi AH, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2009 Aug;72(8):1502-6.
    PMID: 19388660 DOI: 10.1021/np900115q
    A new bisindole alkaloid, bisnicalaterine A (1), consisting of two vobasine-type skeletons, and 3-epivobasinol (2) and 3-O-methylepivobasinol (3), with vobasine-type skeletons, were isolated from the leaves of Hunteria zeylanica, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical correlation. Bisnicalaterine A showed moderate cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  20. Ee GC, Daud S, Izzaddin SA, Rahmani M
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2008 May-Jun;10(5-6):475-9.
    PMID: 18464091 DOI: 10.1080/10286020801948490
    Our current interest in searching for natural anti-cancer lead compounds from plants has led us to the discovery that the stem and roots of Garcinia mangostana can be a source of such compounds. The stem furnished 2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone (1), which is a new xanthone. Meanwhile, the root bark of the plant furnished six xanthones, namely alpha-mangostin (2), beta-mangostin (3), gamma-mangostin (4), garcinone D (5), mangostanol (6), and gartanin (7). The hexane and chloroform extracts of the root bark of G. mangostana as well as the hexane extract of the stem bark were found to be active against the CEM-SS cell line. gamma-Mangostin (4) showed good activity with a very low IC(50) value of 4.7 microg/ml, while alpha-mangostin (2), mangostanol (6), and garcinone D (5) showed significant activities with IC(50) values of 5.5, 9.6, and 3.2 microg/ml, respectively. This is the first report on the cytotoxicity of the extracts of the stem and root bark of G. mangostana and of alpha-mangostin, mangostanol, and garcinone D against the CEM-SS cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
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